The Origins of the Study of Learning.
Philosophy of Epistemology.
The Definition of Learning.
The Learning/Performance Distinction.
Learning: A Recapitulation.
The Relationship between the Terms Learning and Memory.
Basic and Applied Research.
Common Sense and Common Knowledge.
Conceptual Approaches to the Study of Learning.
The Behavioral Approach.
The Cognitive Approach.
The Neuropsychological Approach.
2. Habituation and Other Forms of Simple Stimulus Learning.
The Orienting Response.
Methods of Studying Habituation.
Parametric Features of Habituation.
Explanations of Habituation.
Other Effects of Stimulus Exposure.
Preference for Familiar Stimuli.
Recapitulation: The Effects of Repeated Stimulus Presentation.
Habituation to Warning Signals.
Exposure Therapy for Fears.
3. Classical Conditioning.
The Definition of Classical Conditioning.
Methods of Studying Classical Conditioning.
Some Representative Procedures.
What Stimuli Can Serve as CSs?
What Stimuli Can Serve as USs?
Basic Phenomena of Conditioning.
The Role of Contiguity.
Other Factors Affecting Conditioning.
What Is Learned in Classical Conditioning?
So, What Is Learned in Pavlovian Conditioning?
The Role of Awareness in Conditioning.
Extensions of Conditioning.
Conditioning with Drug USs and the Development of Tolerance.
Modification of Immune System Response.
Applications of Conditioning.
The Conditioning Theory of Phobias.
4. Instrumental Conditioning: Reward.
Definition and History.
Thorndike and Trial-and-Error Learning.
Skinner and Operant Learning.
Methods of Study.
Reinforcement Variables Affecting Acquisition.
Amount and Quality of Reinforcement.
Schedules of Reinforcement.
Delay of Reinforcement.
Theories of Reinforcement.
Reinforcers as Stimuli.
Reinforcers as Behaviors.
Reinforcers as Strengtheners.
Reinforcers as Information.
So, What Is Reinforcement?
Is Reinforcement Necessary for Learning?
Conscious Awareness in Human Instrumental Learning.
Criticisms of the Use of Reinforcement.
Limitations of Response Learning.
Discriminative Stimulus Control.
Generalization and Discrimination.
Summary of Response Learning and Stimulus Learning.
What Is Learned in Instrumental Conditioning?
What Is Learned? Stimulus–Response–Reinforcer.
Cognition in Animals.
5. Instrumental Conditioning: Nonreward, Punishment, and Avoidance.
Defining the Contingencies: Nonreward, Punishment, and Avoidance.
The Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect.
When Does Punishment Work?
Unwanted Side Effects of Punishment.
Punishment or Nonreward?
Theories of Avoidance Learning.
Approach or Avoidance as Coping Responses.
Extensions of the Learned-Helplessness Concept.
Challenges to Learned-Helplessness Theory.
The Significance of Learned Helplessness.
Applications of Aversive-Learning Contingencies.
Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
6. Verbal Learning.
The Ebbinghaus Legacy.
Serial Learning: An Overview.
Analysis of Paired-Associate Learning.
Factors Affecting Paired-Associate Learning: A Summary.
Organization in Animal Memory.
Available versus Accessible Memories.
Recall versus Recognition versus Relearning.
Recognition: Remembering vs. Knowing.
Relationships among the Verbal-Learning Tasks.
The Keyword Mnemonic.
7. Human Memory: Conceptual Approaches.
Components of Memory Approach.
Dual-Store Theory: Short-Term and Long-Term Memories.
Divisions of Long-Term Memory: Episodic versus Semantic.
Divisions of Long-Term Memory: Procedural Learning and Priming.
The Organization of Long-Term Memory.
Stages of Memory.
Depth of Processing.
Modeling Person Identification.
The Delta Rule.
Connectionism and the Other Approaches.
The Study of Abnormal Memory: Amnesia.
Everyday Forgetting and the Models of Memory.
8. Short-Term Retention.
Short-Term Memory Tasks.
The Brown-Peterson Distractor Task.
Characteristics of Verbal Short-Term Retention.
Forgetting: Short-Term Memory Is Sensitive to Disruption.
Transfer to Long-Term Memory.
Summary of the Features of Short-Term Memory.
Other Modalities of Short-Term Memory.
Aging and Working Memory.
Dementia and Working Memory.
Is There Really a Separate STM?
Neuropsychological Dissociations of Two-Memory Systems.
Counterpoint: A Single-Store Approach?
One Memory, but Multiple Traces.
One Store or Several?
What Is Short-Term Memory For?
Comprehending and Using Language.
The Role of STM in Theories of Long-Term Memory.
Separating Encoding from Retrieval.
Some Basic Variables in Encoding.
What Exactly Is Elaborative Processing?
Imagery and Memory for Pictures.
Isolation Effects and Vividness.
Limitations of Elaborative Processing.
Incidental versus Intentional Learning.
Emotions and Encoding.
Academic Learning and Encoding.
10. Storage and Retrieval.
Long-Term Memory for Naturalistically Learned Material.
The Permanent-Memory Hypothesis.
The Nature of Storage.
Retrieval from Episodic Memory.
What Makes a Good Retrieval Cue?
Emotional Arousal and Retrieval.
Remembering to Remember.
Metamemory and Partial Retrieval.
Feeling of Knowing.
The Effect of Postevent Information.
Retrieval versus Reconstruction.
Strategies for Searching Memory.
Improving Accuracy of Recall in Surveys.
11. Spatial, Motor-Skill, and Implicit Learning.
Rats, Mazes, and Psychology.
Route versus Survey Maps.
Schemas in Spatial Memory.
The Development of Spatial Memory in Children.
Knowledge of Results.
Some Implicit-Learning Tasks.
Dissociating Categories of Implicit Learning.
From Declarative to Procedural.
Long-Term Retention of Skills.
Developing Memory Skill.
12. Individual Differences in Learning and Memory.
The Nature of Nurture: The Genetics of Learning Ability.
Age Differences in Learning and Memory.
Memory Development in Children.
Aging and Memory.
Exceptional Memory: The Mnemonists.
Gender and Cognitive Abilities.
Personality and Learning.
Introversion and Extraversion.
Social and Cultural Differences.