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An Anatomy of Addiction: Sigmund Freud, William Halsted, and the Miracle Drug Cocaineby Howard Markel
Synopses & Reviews
From acclaimed medical historian Howard Markel, author of When Germs Travel, the astonishing account of the years-long cocaine use of Sigmund Freud, young, ambitious neurologist, and William Halsted, the equally young, pathfinding surgeon. Markel writes of the physical and emotional damage caused by the then-heralded wonder drug, and how each man ultimately changed the world in spite of it—or because of it. One became the father of psychoanalysis; the other, of modern surgery.
Both men were practicing medicine at the same time in the 1880s: Freud at the Vienna General Hospital, Halsted at New York’s Bellevue Hospital. Markel writes that Freud began to experiment with cocaine as a way of studying its therapeutic uses—as an antidote for the overprescribed morphine, which had made addicts of so many, and as a treatment for depression.
Halsted, an acclaimed surgeon even then, was curious about cocaine’s effectiveness as an anesthetic and injected the drug into his arm to prove his theory. Neither Freud nor Halsted, nor their colleagues, had any idea of the drug’s potential to dominate and endanger their lives. Addiction as a bona fide medical diagnosis didn’t even exist in the elite medical circles they inhabited.
In An Anatomy of Addiction, Markel writes about the life and work of each man, showing how each came to know about cocaine; how Freud found that the drug cured his indigestion, dulled his aches, and relieved his depression. The author writes that Freud, after a few months of taking the magical drug, published a treatise on it, Über Coca, in which he described his “most gorgeous excitement.” The paper marked a major shift in Freud’s work: he turned from studying the anatomy of the brain to exploring the human psyche.
Halsted, one of the most revered of American surgeons, became the head of surgery at the newly built Johns Hopkins Hospital and then professor of surgery, the hospital’s most exalted position, committing himself repeatedly to Butler Hospital, an insane asylum, to withdraw from his out-of control cocaine use.
Halsted invented modern surgery as we know it today: devising new ways to safely invade the body in search of cures and pioneering modern surgical techniques that controlled bleeding and promoted healing. He insisted on thorough hand washing, on scrub-downs and whites for doctors and nurses, on sterility in the operating room—even inventing the surgical glove, which he designed and had the Goodyear Rubber Company make for him—accomplishing all of this as he struggled to conquer his unyielding desire for cocaine.
An Anatomy of Addiction tells the tragic and heroic story of each man, accidentally struck down in his prime by an insidious malady: tragic because of the time, relationships, and health cocaine forced each to squander; heroic in the intense battle each man waged to overcome his affliction as he conquered his own world with his visionary healing gifts. Here is the full story, long overlooked, told in its rich historical context.
"In the 1880s, Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, and William Halsted, the founder of modern surgery, independently and personally discovered the powerful anesthetic, and terribly addictive, effects of cocaine. Markel (Quarantine!), a medical historian at the University of Michigan, eloquently tells the parallel stories of these two pathbreaking physicians and how their stories intersect in remarkable and sometimes tragic ways. The ready availability of cocaine starting in the 1860s drove Freud to experiment with the drug as an antidote to morphine addiction. Using cocaine to treat his own migraines and anxiety, he became addicted. At about the same time, when surgery remained dangerous because of easy infection and the lack of effective anesthetics, William Halsted in New York discovered the anesthetic effects of cocaine, and it appeared that the latter problem was solved; however, experimenting with cocaine himself, Halsted steadily sunk into such a terrible addiction that his brilliant career as a surgeon ended. Reviewing debates over the impact of addiction on the two physicians and why they fell prey to cocaine, Markel concludes simply and fairly that even these 'intellectual giants were all too human.' Markel's extraordinary achievement combines first-rate history of medicine and outstanding cultural history. Illus. (July)" Publishers Weekly (Starred Review) Copyright PWxyz, LLC. All rights reserved.
Book News Annotation:
Markel (history of medicine, U. of Michigan) examines how addiction to cocaine impacted the lives and work of two prominent 19th century medical figures, Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, and William Halstead, a pioneering surgeon at New York's Bellevue Hospital. He describes the damaging impact that cocaine use had on both lives, arguing that Freud managed to overcome his addiction while Halstead remained dependent for the rest of his career, and draws connections between their use of cocaine and their medical innovations. Annotation ©2011 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
From acclaimed medical historian Howard Markel, author of When Germs Travel, the astonishing account, told for the first time, of the decades- long cocaine use of Sigmund Freud and William Halsted. Markel writes of the physical and emotional damage caused by the constant use of the then- heralded wonder drug, and of how each man ultimately changed the world in spite of it—or because of it. One became the father of psychoanalysis; the other, of modern surgery.
Using themselves as subjects in their research—Freud experimented with cocaine as a means of treating depression, fatigue, and morphine addiction; Halsted, as a new and safe form of anesthesia—each became caught up in the drug’s grip, nearly destroying his life, and unwittingly becoming the first participants in the birth of modern addiction. The author traces, as well, the drug’s effects on the thoughts and pathfinding work of each man. Historians and biographers have ignored or glossed over the day-by-day archival and medical records of the chronic cocaine abuse of each doctor, as well as the psychological and physical darkness it brought them and their struggles to rid their lives of it. Howard Markel’s An Anatomy of Addiction tells the full story, long overlooked, in its rich historical context.
About the Author
Howard Markel, M.D., Ph.D., is the George E. Wantz Distinguished Professor of the History of Medicine and director of the Center for the History of Medicine at the University of Michigan. His books include Quarantine! and When Germs Travel. His articles have appeared in The New York Times, The Journal of the American Medical Association, and The New England Journal of Medicine, and he is a frequent contributor to National Public Radio. Markel is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and lives in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
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