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Other titles in the IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering series:
IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering #60: Integration of Distributed Generation in the Power Systemby Math H. J. Bollen
Synopses & Reviews
A forward-thinking power-system viewpoint on the increased integration of distributed generation into the grid
Alternative, renewable sources of energy are often referred to as "distributed generation" (DG). The electric power system plays an essential role in transporting and allowing the use of this energy, and much controversy surrounds the question of the true hosting capacity of the grid when it comes to DG. This book introduces systematic and transparent methods for quantifying the effect of DG on the power system, either at a specific grid location or in the grid as a whole. It shows how to calculate—and increase—the hosting capacity for different types of networks and various types of DG, with emphasis on wind power, solar power, and combined heat and power.
This book is the first to explain the background of the "hosting capacity approach"—using the existing power system as a starting point and considering how DG changes the performance of the system when no additional measures are taken—and to provide numerous examples. The heart of the book outlines the problems surrounding the integration of DG in detail: increased risk of overload and increased losses; increased risk of overvoltages; increased levels of power-quality disturbances; incorrect operation of the protection; and the impact on power-system stability and operation. Specific solutions are discussed, ranging from building more lines and using power-electronics control to smart grids and microgrids. Theoretical models and research results are also presented.
This is also the first book to go into detail on both the "shallow" and "deep" impact of DG; it describes the impact of small generation on the distribution system and on the operation of the transmission system. Emphasizing that the introduction of DG should not result in unacceptable performance of the power grid, the authors discuss several improvements that could be made in the network, on either the production or consumption side, to enable this.
Integration of Distributed Generation in the Power System is an important resource for engineers and researchers working on power systems and the connection/integration of DG to the power system; equipment manufacturers; wind-power developers; government regulators; and undergraduate and postgraduate students in the power engineering and energy fields.
The integration of new sources of energy like wind power, solar-power, small-scale generation, or combined heat and power in the power grid is something that impacts a lot of stakeholders: network companies (both distribution and transmission), the owners and operators of the DG units, other end-users of the power grid (including normal consumers like you and me) and not in the least policy makers and regulators.
There is a lot of misunderstanding about the impact of DG on the power grid, with one side (including mainly some but certainly not all, network companies) claiming that the lights will go out soon, whereas the other side (including some DG operators and large parks of the general public) claiming that there is nothing to worry about and that it's all a conspiracy of the large production companies that want to protect their own interests and keep the electricity price high.
The authors are of the strong opinion that this is NOT the way one should approach such an important subject as the integration of new, more environmentally friendly, sources of energy in the power grid. With this book the authors aim to bring some clarity to the debate allowing all stakeholders together to move to a solution. This book will introduce systematic and transparent methods for quantifying the impact of DG on the power grid.
About the Author
MATH H.J. BOLLEN, PhD, is Senior Specialist with STRI AB, Gothenburg, Sweden; Professor in Electric Power Engineering at Luleå University of Technology, Skellefteå, Sweden; and a technical expert with the Energy Markets Inspectorate in Eskilstuna, Sweden. He is a Fellow of the IEEE.
FAINAN HASSAN, PhD, is with the Alstom Grid (previously Areva T&D), Research & Technology Centre, Stafford, United Kingdom. A member of the IEEE, she has also worked as a seniorengineer for STRI AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Table of Contents
2. Sources of Energy.
2.1 Wind power.
2.2 Solar power.
2.3 Combined heat and power.
2.5 Tidal Power.
2.6 Wave Power.
2.7 Geothermal Power.
2.8 Thermal Power Plants.
2.9 Interface with the grid.
3. Power system performance.
3.1 Impact of Distributed Generation on the Power System.
3.2 Aims of the power system.
3.3 Hosting Capacity Approach.
3.4 Power Quality.
3.5 Voltage Quality and Design of Distributed Generation.
3.6 Hosting capacity approach for events.
3.7 Increasing the Hosting Capacity.
4. Overloading and losses.
4.1 Impact of Distributed Generation.
4.2 Overloading: Radial Distribution Networks.
4.3 Overloading: Redundancy and Meshed Operation.
4.5 Increasing the Hosting Capacity.
5. Voltage magnitude variations.
5.1 Impact of Distributed Generation.
5.2 Voltage Margin and Hosting Capacity.
5.3 Design of Distribution Feeders.
5.4 A Numerical Approach to Voltage Variations.
5.5 Tap-changers with line-drop-compensation.
5.6 Probabilistic Methods for Design of Distribution Feeders.
5.7 Statistical Approach to Hosting Capacity.
5.8 Increasing the Hosting Capacity.
6. Power quality disturbances.
6.1 Impact of Distributed Generation.
6.2 Fast Voltage Fluctuations.
6.3 Voltage Unbalance.
6.4 Low-Frequency Harmonics.
6.5 High-Frequency Distortion.
6.6 Voltage Dips.
6.7 Increasing the Hosting Capacity.
7.1 Impact of Distributed Generation.
7.2 Overcurrent Protection.
7.3 Calculating the Faults Current.
7.4 Calculating the Hosting Capacity.
7.5 Busbar protection.
7.6 Excessive Fault Current.
7.7 Generator Protection.
7.8 Increasing the Hosting Capacity.
8. Transmission System Operation.
8.1 Impact of Distributed Generation.
8.2 Fundamentals of Transmission System Operation.
8.3 Frequency Control, Balancing, and Reserves.
8.4 Prediction of Production and Consumption.
8.5 Restoration after a Black-out.
8.6 Voltage Stability.
8.7 Kinetic Energy and Inertia Constant.
8.8 Frequency Stability.
8.9 Angular Stability.
8.10 Fault Ride-Through.
8.12 HVDC and FACTS.
8.13 Increasing the Hosting Capacity.
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