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The Montessori Method (Economy Editions)by Maria Montessori
Synopses & Reviews
This is, quite simply, one of the landmark books in the history of education. Written by influential Italian educator Maria Montessori (1870-1952), it describes a new system for educating young children based on materials and methods she originally developed to teach retarded students. The techniques proved highly effective with normal children as well. Her system, based on a radical conception of liberty for the pupil and a highly formal training of separate sensory, motor, and mental capacities, led to rapid and substantial mastery of reading, writing, and arithmetic. In The Montessori Method (1912), her first book, Dr. Montessori outlines her techniques in discussions of such topics as scientific pedagogy; discipline; diet; gymnastics; manual labor; education of the senses; methods for teaching reading, writing, and arithmetic; and many other topics. The Dover edition is the least expensive edition available, making this seminal classic widely accessible to teachers, principals, parents — anyone interested in the education of young children.
"Dr. Montessori was par excellence the great interpreter of the child; and though she herself has passed on from the scene of her labours her work will still go on."—Westminster Cathedral Chronicle
One of the landmark books in the history of education--and one of the least expensive editions now available—this volume describes a new system for educating youngsters. Based on a radical concept of liberty for the pupil and highly formal training of separate sensory, motor, and mental capacities, the system enabled youngsters to master reading, writing, and arithmetic rapidly and substantially. Included are discussions of scientific pedagogy; discipline; the importance of proper diet, gymnastics, and manual labor; and many other topics. Unabridged reprint of the classic 1912 edition.
One of the landmark books in the history of education, this volume describes a new system for educating youngsters. Based on a radical concept of liberty for the pupil and highly formal training of separate sensory, motor, and mental capacities, the system enabled youngsters to master reading, writing, and arithmetic rapidly and substantially.
Table of Contents
A CRITICAL CONSIDERATION OF THE NEW PEDAGOGY IN ITS RELATION TO MODERN SCIENCE
Influence of Modern Science upon Pedagogy
Italy's part in the development of Scientific Pedagogy
Difference between scientific technique and the scientific spirit
Direction of the preparation should be toward the spirit rather than toward the mechanism
The master to study man in the awakening of his intellectual life
Attitude of the teacher in the light of another example
The school must permit the free natural manifestations of the child if in the school Scientific Pedagogy is to be born
Stationary desk and chairs proof that the principle of slavery still informs the school
"Conquest of liberty, what the school needs"
What may happen to the spirit
"Prizes and punishments, the bench of the soul"
"All human victories, all human progress, stand upon the inner force"
HISTORY OF METHODS
Necessity of establishing the method peculiar to Scientific Pedagogy
"Origin of educational system in the use in the "Children's Houses"
Practical application ofhte methods of Itard and Séguin in the Orthophrenic School at Rome
Origin of the methods for the education of deficients
Application of the methods in Germany and France
Séguin's first didactic material was spiritual
Methods for deficients applied to the education of normal children
"Social and pedagogic importance of the "Children's Houses"
"INAUGURAL ADDRESS DELIVERED ON THE OCCASION OF THE OPENING OF ONE OF THE "CHILDREN'S HOUSES"
"The Quarter of San Lorenzo before and since the establishment of the "Childrens' Houses"
Evil of subletting the most cruel form of usury
The problem of life more profound than that of the intellectual elevation of the poor
"Isolation of the masses of the poor, unknown to past venturies"
Work of the Roman Association of Good Building and the moral importance of their reforms
"The "Children's House" earned by the parents through their care of the building"
"Pedagogical organization of the "Children's House"
"The "Children's House" the first step toward the socialisation of the house"
The communised house in its relation to the home and to the spiritual evolution of women
"Rules and regulations of th e"Children's Houses"
"PEDAGOGICAL METHODS USED IN THE "CHILDREN'S HOUSES"
Child psychology can be established only through the method of external observation
Environment and schoolroom furnishings
Discipline through liberty
Abolition of prizes and external forms of punishment
Biological concept of liberty in pedagogy
HOW THE LESSON SHOULD BE GIVEN
Characteristics of the individual lessons
Method of observation the fundamental guide
Difference between the scientific and unscientific methods illustrated
"First task of educators to stimulate life, leaving it then free to develop"
EXERCISES OF PRACTICAL LIFE
"Suggested schedule for the "Children's Houses"
The child must be prepared for the forms of social life and his attention attracted to these forms
"Cleanliness, order, poise, conversation"
REFECTION-THE CHILD'S DIET
Diet must be adapted to the child's physical nature
Foods and their preparation
Distribution of meals
Generally accepted idea of gymnastics is inadequate
The special gymnastics necessary for little children
Other pieces of gymnastic apparatus
"Respiratory gymnastics, and labial, dental, lingual gymnastics"
NATURE IN EDUCATION-AGRICULTURAL LABOUR: CULTURE OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
The savage of the Aveyron
Itard's educative drama repeated it the education of little children
Gardening and horitculture basis of a method for education of children
The child initiated into observation of the phenomena of life and into foresight by way of auto-education
"Children are initiated into the virtue of patience and into confident expectation, and are inspired with a feeling for nature"
The child follows the natural way of development of the human race
"MANUAL LABOUR-THE POTTER'S ART, AND BUILDING"
Difference between manual labour and manual gymnastics
The School of Educative Art
"Archæological, historica, and artistic importance of the vase"
Manufacture of diminutive bricks and construction of diminutive walls and houses
EDUCATION OF THE SENSES
Aim of education to develop the energies
Difference in the reaction between deficient and normal children in the presentation of didatic material made up of graded stimuli
Education of the senses has as its aim the refinement of the differential perception of stimuli by means of repeated exercises
Three Periods of Séguin
"EDUCATION OF THE SENSES AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE DIDACTIC MATERIAL: GENERAL SENSIBILITY: THE TACTILE, THERMIC, BARIC AND STEREOGNOSTIC SENSES"
"Education of the tactile, thermic and baric senses"
Education of the stereognostic sense
Education of the senses of taste and smell
Education of the sense of vision
Exercises with the three series of cards
Education of the chromatic sense
Exercise for the discrimination of sounds
Tests for acuteness of hearing
A lesson in silence
Originof aphabets in present use
DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD AND DIDACTIC MATERIAL USED
Exercise tending to develop the muscular mechanism necessary in holding and using the instrument in writing
Didactic material for writing
"Exercise tending to establish the visual-muscular image of the alphabetical signs, and to establish the muscular memory of the movements necessary to writing"
Exercises for the composition of words
"Reading, the interpretation of an idea from written signs"
Games for the reading of phrases
"Point education has reached in the "Children's Houses"
LANGUAGE IN CHILDHOOD
Physiological importance of graphic language
Two periods in the development of language
Analysis of speech necessary
Defects of language due to education
TEACHING OF NUMERATION: INTRODUCTION TO ARITHMETIC
Numbers as represented by graphic signs
Exercises for the memory of numbers
Addition and subtraction from one to twenty: multiplication and division
Lessons on decimals: arithmetical calculations beyond ten
SEQUENCE OF EXERCISES
Sequence and grades in the presentation of material and in the exercises
GENERAL REVIEW OF DISCIPLINE
Discipline better than in ordinary schools
First dawning of discipline comes through work
Orderly action is the true rest for muscles intended by nature for action
"The exercise that develops life consists in the repetition, not in the mere grasp of the idea"
"Aim of repetition that the child shall refine his senses through the exercise of attention, of comparison, of judgment"
Obedience is naturally sacrifice
Obedience develops will-power and the capacity to perform the act it becomes necessary to obey
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPRESSIONS
"The Teacher has become the director of spontaneous work in the "Children's Houses"
The problems of religious education should be solved by positive pedagogy
"Spiritual influence of the "Children's Houses"
What Our Readers Are Saying
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