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Telecommunication Systems Engineeringby William C. Lindsey
Synopses & ReviewsPublisher Comments:This classic graduate and researchlevel text by two leading experts in the field of telecommunications is essential reading for anyone working today in space and satellite digital communications and those seeking a wider background in statistical communication theory and its applications. Ideal for practicing engineers as well as graduate students in communications systems courses, the book clearly presents and develops a theory that can be used in design and planning of telecommunication systems operating with either small or large performance margins. The book includes in its coverage a theory for use in the design of oneway and twoway phasecoherent and communication systems; an analysis and comparison of carrier and suppressed carrier synchronization techniques; treatment of the bandpass limiter theory; unification of phasecoherent detection with perfect and noisy synchronization reference signals. Convolutional codes, symbol synchronization, and noncoherent detection of Mary signals are among the other subjects addressed in this comprehensive study. Dr. Lindsey and Dr. Simon include at the end of each chapter a comprehensive set of problems that demonstrate the application of the theory developed. Synopsis:This classic graduate and researchlevel text by two leading experts in the field of telecommunications offers theoretical and practical coverage of telecommunication systems design and planning applications. With problems. 268 illustrations. Index. Table of ContentsCONTENTS TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK CONCEPTS 11 Introduction 12 Telecommunication System Functions in a Tracking and Data Acquisition Network 5 The Signal Acquisition and Tracking Function 5 The Telemetry or Data Acquisition Function 7 The Command Function 7 The Synchronization Function 8 13 Telecommunication System Design for Space Applications 8 14 Shannon's Theorem and Communication System Efficiency 14 15 Spectral Occupancy and Bandwidth Considerations 16 Power Spectral Density of a Random Data Sequence Generated by a Markov Source 17 NRZ Baseband Signaling 19 RZ Baseband Signaling 19 BiPhase Baseband Signaling 20 Delay Modulation or Miller Coding 20 16 Further Studies 22 2 CARRIERTRACKING LOOPS EMPLOYING THE PHASELOCK PRINCIPLE 26 21 Introduction 26 22 PhaseLocked Loop Operation 27 Linear PLL Theory 26 Nonlinear PLL Theory 30 Loop Model and Phase Error P.D.F. Reduced Modulo 21t 31 The Phase Error Diffusion Coefficient 40 vii viii CONTENTS Mean Time to First Slip or First Loss of Phase Synchronization 46 23 The SecondOrder PhaseLocked Loop Preceded by a BandPass Limiter 49 Linear PLL Theory and the Effects of BandPass Limiting 49 Nonlinear PLL Theory and the Effects of BandPass Limiting 54 24 Suppressed CarrierTracking Loops 56 The Squaring Loop Method 57 The Costas or IQ Loop 62 DecisionFeedback Loop 64 25 CarrierTracking Loops for Polyphase Signals 69 The Nth Power Loop 71 The NPhase Costas (IQ) Loop 74 NPhase DecisionFeedback Loops 75 Appendix A. Evaluation of the Autocorrelation Function of vz(t, 2rp) 80 3 PHASE AND DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS IN TWOWAY PHASECOHERENT TRACKING SYSTEMS 85 31 Introduction 85 32 TwoWay Phase Measurements 87 Basic System Model 87 TwoWay Tracking Phase Error 88 Linear PLL Theory 88 Nonlinear PLL Theory 90 TwoWay Tracking Phase Error with CarrierTracking Loops Preceded by BPLs 93 Linear PLL Theory 93 Nonlinear PLL Theory 97 33 TwoWay Doppler Measurements 97 TwoWay Doppler Error 97 Linear PLL Theory 97 Nonlinear PLL Theory 99 TwoWay Doppler Error with Carrier Tracking Loops Preceded by BPLs 100 Linear PLL Theory 100 Nonlinear PLL Theory 102 34 Downlink CarrierSuppression Effects Due to Additive Noise on the Uplink 104 Carrier Suppression 104 Linear PLL Theory 104 Nonlinear PLL Theory 105 CONTENTS ix Carrier Suppression with BPLs Preceding the CarrierTracking Loop 106 Linear PLL Theory 106 Nonlinear PLL Theory 107 35 Diversity Combining to Improve Phase and Doppler Measurements 107 The SignalCombining Technique 109 Improvements Realized in Phase and Doppler Measurements with the Use of Diversity Techniques 110 36 Generalization of TwoWay Phase and Doppler Measurements to an NStep Network 111 4 RANGE MEASUREMENTS BY PHASECOHERENT TECHNIQUES 125 41 Introduction 125 42 Range Estimation 128 43 Ranging Techniques 131 The FixedTone Ranging Technique 131 The SweptTone Ranging Technique 140 Pseudonoise Ranging Techniques 143 Correlation Properties of Periodic Binary Sequences 144 The Generation of Pseudonoise (PN) Sequences 145 Correlation Properties of PN Sequences 148 The Use of PN Sequences in Forming Ranging Codes 150 Rapid Acquisition Sequences (BINOR Codes) 152 Pulse Signal Ranging 157 44 PN Range Tracking Receivers 159 The DelayLocked Loop 159 The DoubleLoop Range Tracking Receiver 165 5 PHASECOHERENT DETECTION WITH PERFECT REFERENCE SIGNALS 171 51 Introduction 177 52 The Binary and Nary Decision Problem 181 The Binary Decision Problem 181 The Nary Decision Problem 183 53 Signal Set Representation and Joint P.D.F. of Correlator Outputs 185 Orthogonal Signal Sets 186 Biorthogonal Signal Sets 186 CONTENTS Transorthogonal or Regular Simplex Signal Sets 186 Polyphase Signal Sets 187 Lorthogonal Signal Sets 187 54 Generation of Binary Signal Sets, r = 2 188 Orthogonal Codes 190 Biorthogonal Codes 192 Transorthogonal Codes 192 55 Performance Characterization of PhaseCoherent Receivers 192 The Set of Equiprobable, Equal Energy, Orthogonal Signals 195 The Set of Equiprobable, Equal Energy, Biorthogonal Signals 198 The Set of Equiprobable, Equal Energy, Transorthogonal Signals 212 Limiting Error Probability Performance of Block Codes as N 00 226 The Set of Equiprobable, Equal Energy, Polyphase Signals (MPSK) 228 The Set of Equiprobable, Equal Energy, Lorthogonal Signals 235 56 Coherent and Differentially Coherent Detection of Differentially Encoded MPSK Signals 240 Error Probability for Coherent Detection of Differentially Encoded MPSK 242 Error Probability for Differentially Coherent Detection of Differentially Encoded MPSK 246 57 Bit Error Probability for Differentially Encoded Data and Coherent Detection of Orthogonal and Biorthogonal Signals 253 58 Convolutional Codes 253 Encoding Procedure (TerminatedTree Structure) 254 The Trellis and State Diagram Representations 259 MaximumLikelihood Decoding of Convolutional Codes (The Viterbi Algorithm) 261 Other Methods of Decoding Convolutional Codes 263 Sequential Decoding 264 Feedback Decoding 266 Error Probability Performance of Convolutional Codes 266 59 SelfSynchronizable Codes 272 Appendix A. Abstract Vector Space Concepts 277 Appendix B. Derivation of the Word Error Probability for Polyphase Signals 279 Appendix C. The Distance Structure of Convolutional Codes and Other Criteria for the Selection of Good Codes 280 Appendix D. Error Probability Bounds for MaximumLikelihood Decoding of an Arbitrary Convolutional Code 285 CONTENTS 6 PHASECOHERENT DETECTION WITH NOISY REFERENCE SIGNALS 302 61 Introduction 302 62 System Model 303 63 Differenced CrossCorrelator Output Statistics (N = 2) 305 64 Performance of the Data Detector, N = 2 (Carrier Tracking with a PLL) 311 Phase Error Constant During the Symbol Interval 312 Phase Error Varies Rapidly Over the Symbol Interval 317 Phase Error Varies Moderately Over the Symbol Interval 319 65 Performance of the Data Detector, N = 2 (Suppressed Carrier Tracking with a Squaring Loop or Costas Loop) 320 66 Data Detection Performance of BlockCoded Systems 324 67 The Noisy Reference Problem for Detection of Polyphase Signals 327 68 Coherent Detection of Differentially Encoded MPSK with Suppressed Carrier Tracking 330 69 Word Error Probability Performance of a Suboptimum Lorthogonal Receiver with Noisy Reference Signals 333 Appendix A. A Series Solution for Average Error Probability, P E 333 7 DESIGN OF ONEWAY AND TWOWAY PHASECOHERENT COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 337 71 Introduction 337 72 Optimal Design of SingleChannel Systems 338 Basic System Model 338 Probability Density Functions for the System Phase Errors 341 Demodulator Output Statistics and System Performance 342 Design Characteristics 344 Suboptimum Design 354 System Performance as a Function of the CarrierTracking Loop SignalToNoise Ratio 356 An Application of the SingleChannel Theory to a Turn around Transponder Ranging System 357 73 Design of TwoChannel Systems 360 Basic System Model 360 CarrierTracking Loop Performance 362 Power Allocation and Selection of Modulation Factors for TwoChannel Systems (Data/Sync) 364 Determination of System Data Rate for a Given Bit Error Probability 366 Power Allocation and Selection of Modulation Factors for TwoChannel Systems (Data I/Data 2) 368 An Improved ModulationDemodulation Technique for Certain Systems with Two Data Channels 370 xii CONTENTS 74 Design of Multichannel Systems 372 Basic System Model 372 Distribution of Transmitter Power Among the Various Modulation Terms 375 Choice of Parameters in the Design of Multichannel SatellitetoEarth Links (L Large, M = 1) 378 The Case of Binary Signals 378 The Design of BlockCoded Systems 380 Choice of Parameters in the Design of a Deep SpacetoEarth, BlockCoded Communication System (L = 0, M = 1) 385 8 DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF PHASECOHERENT SYSTEMS PRECEDED BY BANDPASS LIMITERS 391 81 Introduction 391 82 The Noisy Reference Problem in Coherent Systems Preceded by a BandPass Limiter 391 83 Optimum Design of SingleChannel Systems Employing a BandPass Limiter 406 System Design Philosophies 407 System Model 408 Computation of Error Probability Performance 410 The Selection of an Optimum Modulation Factor 411 Optimization of Performance as a Function of Design Point 413 9 SYMBOL SYNCHRONIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON DATA DETECTION 418 91 Introduction 418 92 Symbol Synchronization from the DataBearing Signal 420 The Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) Estimator of Symbol Sync 420 Several Symbol Synchronizer Configurations Motivated by the MAP Estimation Approach 428 Open Loop Realizations 428 Closed Loop Realizations 430 The Effect of Signal Waveshape on the Design of Symbol Synchronizers 435 Minimization of the Area under the Tail of the Synchronization Error P.D.F. 436 Minimization of the kth Absolute Central Moment of the Synchronization Error P.D.F. 437 Maximization of the Synchronization Error P.D.F. at the Origin for a Unit Power SquareWave Input Signal 439 The Digital Data Transition Tracking Loop (DTTL) 442 CONTENTS xiii The EarlyLate Gate Symbol Synchronizer and a Comparison of Several Synchronizer Configurations 458 Absolute Value Type of EarlyLate Gate Symbol Synchronizer (A VTS) 458 Difference of Squares Loop (DSL) 463 A Performance Comparison of Several Symbol Synchronizers 464 93 Symbol Synchronization over a Separate Channel 465 94 Error Probability Performance 466 Conditional Error Probability for a Fixed Symbol Sync Error 467 System Performance Due to Combined Noisy Reference and Symbol Sync Losses 473 Dependent Symbol and Subcarrier Synchronization References 474 Independent Symbol and Subcarrier Synchronization References 476 95 Conclusions 476 10 NONCOHERENT COMMUNICATION OVER THE GAUSSIAN CHANNEL 483 101 Introduction 483 102 Transmitter Characterization 484 103 Optimum Noncoherent Detection 486 Optimum Receiver Structures 487 Error Probability Performance of the Optimum Receiver 489 104 Suboptimum Noncoherent Detection 499 Techniques for Approximating the Evaluation of the Spectral Observations 499 Error Probability Performance in the Presence of Time Domain Truncation 500 105 Noncoherent Detection in the Presence of ShortTerm Oscillator Instability 504 106 Time Synchronization of the Optimum Receiver 506 107 Error Probability Performance of the Optimum Receiver in the Presence of Timing Uncertainty 508 108 Frequency Synchronization of the Optimum Receiver 511 109 Error Probability Performance of the Optimum Receiver in the Presence of Frequency Uncertainty 513 1010 Error Probability Performance of the Optimum Receiver in the Presence of Combined Time and Frequency Errors 513 1011 Frequency Synchronization and Error Probability Performance of a Suboptimum Receiver 514 Appendix A. Derivation of the MaximumLikelihood Estimator t 515 xiv CONTENTS 11 TRACKING LOOPS WITH IMPROVED PERFORMANCE 524 111 Introduction 524 112 The MAP Estimator of Phase for a SingleChannel System 525 113 DataAided CarrierTracking Loops 530 The Stochastic Integrodifferential Equation of Operation 531 Nonlinear Analysis for SecondOrder DALs with Identical Loop Filters 532 The Selection of the Upper and Lower Loop Gains 533 Tracking Performance for the Case of Perfect Ambiguity Resolution 535 Mean Time to First Slip or First Loss of Phase Synchronization 535 DAL and PLL Performance Comparisons (PSK Signals) 536 114 Hybrid CarrierTracking Loops 546 The Stochastic Integrodifferential Equation of Operation 547 Nonlinear Analysis for SecondOrder HTLs with Identical Loop Filters 548 The Selection of the Upper and Lower Loop Gains 549 HTL and PLL Performance Comparisons 553 115 Applications to Multichannel Systems 557 Appendix A. Derivation of the MAP Estimate of (J 561 INDEX 566 What Our Readers Are SayingBe the first to add a comment for a chance to win!Product Details
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