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In Search of Chinese Democracy: Civil Opposition in Nationalist China, 1929-1949 (Cambridge Modern China Series)by Edmund S. K. Fung
Synopses & Reviews
Edmund Fung examines an important phase of development in China's long quest for democracy. The momentum for democracy, he contends, grew strongest between 1929 and 1949 through civil opposition to the one-party rule of the Guomindang. The Nationalist era contained the germs of a reformist, liberal order, the legacy of which can be seen in the pro-democracy movement of the post-Mao period. This book fills an important gap in the historical literature on Chinese intellectuals between May Fourth radicalism and the Chinese Communists' accession to power.
Examining factors that shaped Chinese liberal thought, Fung argues that the reasons democracy was thwarted during the 1930s and 1940s were more political than cultural. The Nationalist era contained the germs of a reformist, liberal order, he asserts, and the legacy of this era is evident in the post-Mao pro-democracy movement.
Fung argues that the reasons democracy did not take root in China were more political than cultural.
Table of Contents
Introduction; Part I. The Dictatorial Regime: 1. The nature of the Najing regime; 2. Sun Yat-sen's conception of political tutelage; 3. Sun Yat-sen's democratic thought; 4. The legacy of Sun Yat-sen's thought; 5. The dictatorship of Chiang Kai-shek; 6. Chiang Kai-shek and constitution-making; 7. Conclusion; Part II. Setting the Opposition Agenda: 8. The issue of human rights, 1929-31; 9. Hu Shi's opening salvo; 10. Luo Longji's conception of human rights; 11. Central concerns of the human rights group; 12. Democracy and expertocracy; 13. Conclusion; Part III. The National Emergency 1932-36; 14. Political and intellectual responses; 15. The National Emergency conference; 16. A critique of Wang Jingwei's views on political tutelage; 17. Sun Fo's reformist views; 18. The advocacy of neo-dictatorship; 19. Conclusion; Part IV. In Defense of 1933-36; 20. Hu Shi's 'Kindergarten politics'; 21. Zhang Xirou's defense of liberal values; 22. Other pro-democracy views; 23. Democratization within the framework of political tutelage; 24. Are democracy and dictatorship mutually exclusive; 25. Revisionist democracy; 26. Conclusion; Part V. Wartime Politics: 27. The people's political council, 1938-45; 28. The MPGs on the eve of the Sino-Japanese War; 29. Formation of the people's political council; 30. The early phase of the PPC; 31. The early phase of the PPC; 32. Renewed push for constitutionalism; 33. Evaluation of the PPC; Part VI. Wartime Democratic Thought: 34. The GMD's wartime democratic rhetoric; 35. The CCP's new democracy; 36. The democratic thoughts of the MPG's and the Independents; 37. Understanding democracy; 38. Conclusion; Part VII. The Third Force Movement: 39. The Chinese Democratic League, 1941-45; 40. Formation of the Democratic league; 41. Organization and leadership; 42. Views on democracy and the political platform; 43. Relations with the CCP and the GMD; 44. Mediation and opposition to Civil War; 45. Conclusion; Part VIII. 'Peace, Democracy, and Unification', 1946; 46. The political consultative conference; 47. The PCCs ultimate failure; 48. The notion of coalition government; 49. Mediation of the third force; 50. Reflections on the third force peace efforts; Part IX. The Last Stand of Chinese Liberalism: 51. The post-war pro-democracy setting; 52. The third force revisited; 53. Where are the liberals headed?; 54. The liberal-equality debate; 55. The Socialism-democracy relationship; 56. The fate of civil opposition; 57. Conclusion; Part X. Conclusion.
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