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Language in Society #24: American English
Synopses & Reviews
This book provides a very readable and up-to-date description of language variation in American English, covering regional, ethnic, and gender-based differences. The authors include situations ranging from historically isolated, rural dialects to developing, urban ethnic varieties as they consider the descriptive, theoretical, and applied ramifications of dialects in American society.
The second edition of American Englishincludes new chapters on social and ethnic dialects, including more comprehensive discussions of Latino, Native American, Cajun English, and other varieties, samples from a wider array of US regions, and a separate chapter on African American English. Updated chapters and exercises as well as features such as a phonetic symbols key, and a section on the notion of speech community, combine to make the new edition a valuable resource for students and specialists alike.
Provides a description of language variation in American English, covering regional, ethnic and gender-based variation. The authors describe dialect situations that range from historically isolated, rural dialects to developing urban ethnic varieties as they consider the descriptive, theoretical, and applied ramifications of dialects.
"Written by an established scholar who arguably knows as much about the subject as anyone alive and a brilliant, up-and-coming young linguist, the quality and encyclopedic scope of this book will make it a standard reference for years to come."
--Ralph Fasold, Georgetown University
This book provides an up-to-date description of language variation in American English, covering regional, ethnic, and gender-based differences. The author describes situations ranging from historically isolated, rural dialects to developing, urban ethnic varieties as they consider the descriptive, theoretical, and applied ramifications of dialects in American society. An appendix of major dialect structures in American English and a glossary of terms for non-specialists are included.
This book provides an up-to-date description of language variation in American English, covering regional, ethnic, and gender-based differences.
About the Author
Walt Wolframis William C. Friday Distinguished Professor at North Carolina State University, and author or co-author of 17 books and over 250 articles, including The Development of African American English(with Erik Thomas, Blackwell 2002) and American Voices (edited with Ben Ward, Blackwell 2006).
Natalie Schilling-Estesis Associate Professor of Linguistics at Georgetown University. She is co-author of Hoi Toide on the Outer Banks: The Story of the Ocracoke Brogue(with Walt Wolfram, 1997) and co-editor of The Handbook of Language Variation and Change(with J. K. Chambers and Peter Trudgill, Blackwell 2002).
Table of Contents
List of Figures.
List of Tables.
Series Editor’s Preface.
1 Dialects, Standards, and Vernaculars.
1.1 Defining Dialect.
1.2 Dialect: The Popular Viewpoint.
1.3 Dialect Myths and Reality.
1.4 Standards and Vernaculars.
1.5 Vernacular Dialects.
1.6 Labeling Vernacular Dialects.
1.7 Why Study Dialects?.
1.8 A Tradition of Study.
1.9 Further Reading.
2 Why Dialects?.
2.1 Sociohistorical Explanation.
2.1.3 Geographical factors.
2.1.4 Language contact.
2.1.5 Economic ecology.
2.1.6 Social stratification.
2.1.7 Social interaction, social practices, and speech communities.
2.1.8 Group and individual identity.
2.2 Linguistic Explanation.
2.2.1 Rule extension.
2.2.3 Transparency and grammaticalization.
2.2.4 Pronunciation phenomena.
2.2.5 Words and word meanings.
2.3 The Final Product.
2.4 Further Reading.
3 Levels of Dialect.
3.1 Lexical Differences.
3.3 Phonological Differences.
3.4 Grammatical Differences.
3.5 Language Use and Pragmatics.
3.6 Further Reading.
4 Dialects in the United States: Past, Present, and Future.
4.1 The First English(es) in America.
4.2 Earlier American English: The Colonial Period.
4.3 American English Extended.
4.4 The Westward Expansion of English.
4.5 The Present and Future State of American English.
4.6 Further Reading.
5 Regional Dialects.
5.1 Eliciting Regional Dialect Forms.
5.2 Mapping Regional Variants.
5.3 The Distribution of Dialect Forms.
5.4 Dialect Diffusion.
5.5 Perceptual Dialectology.
5.6 Region and Place.
5.7 Further Reading.
6 Social and Ethnic Dialects.
6.1 Defining Class.
6.2 Beyond Social Class.
6.3 The Patterning of Social Differences in Language.
6.4 Linguistic Constraints on Variability.
6.5 The Social Evaluation of Linguistic Features.
6.6 Social Class and Language Change.
6.8 Latino English.
6.8.1. Chicano English.
6.8.2 The range of Latino English.
6.9 Cajun English.
6.10 Lumbee English.
6.11 Further Reading.
7 African American English.
7.1 The Status of European American and African American Vernaculars.
7.2 The Origin and Early Development of AAE.
7.3 The Contemporary Development of AAE.
7.5 Further Reading.
8 Gender and Language Variation (Was Chapter 7 in first edn).
8.1 Gender-Based Patterns of Variation as Reported in Dialect Surveys.
8.2 Explaining General Patterns.
8.3 Localized Expressions of Gender Relations.
8.4 Communities of Practice: Linking the Local and the Global.
8.5 Language-Use-based Approaches: The “Female Deficit” Approach.
8.6 The “Cultural Difference” Approach.
8.7 The “Dominance” Approach.
8.8 Further Implications.
8.9 Talking About Men and Women.
8.9.1 Generic he and man.
8.9.2 Family names and addresses.
8.9.3 Relationships of association.
8.10 The Question of Language Reform.
8.11 Further Reading.
9 Dialects and Style (Was Chapter 8 in first edn).
9.1 Types of Style Shifting.
9.2 Attention to Speech.
9.2.1 The Patterning of Stylistic Variation across Social Groups.
9.2.2 Limitations of the Attention to Speech Approach.
9.3 Audience Design.
9.3.1 The Effects of Audience on Speech Style.
9.3.2 Limitations of the Audience Design Approach.
9.3.3 Newer Approaches to Audience Design.
9.4 Speaker Design Approaches.
9.5 Further Considerations.
9.6 Further Reading.
10 On the Applications of Dialect Study.
10.1 Applied Dialectology.
10.2 Dialects and Testing.
10.2.1 Language achievement.
10.2.2 Speech and language development tests.
10.2.3 Predicting dialect interference.
10.3 Testing Language.
10.3.1 Using language to access information.
10.3.2 The testing situation.
10.3.3 The language diagnostician.
10.4 Teaching Standard English.
10.4.1 What standard?.
10.4.2 Approaches to standard English.
10.4.3 Can Standard English be taught?.
10.5 Further Reading.
11 Dialect Awareness: Extending Applications.
11.1 Dialects and Reading.
11.1.1 Dialect readers.
11.2 Dialect Influence in Written Language.
11.3 Written Dialect.
11.4 Proactive Dialect Awareness Programs.
11.5 A Curriculum on Dialects.
11.6 Community-based Dialect Awareness Programs.
11.7 Scrutinizing Community Partnerships.
11.8 Further Reading.
Appendix: An Inventory of Socially Diagnostic Structures.
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