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Other titles in the Critical Issues in Crime and Society series:
The Globalization of Supermax Prisons (Critical Issues in Crime and Society)by Jeffrey Ian Ross
Synopses & Reviews
andldquo;Supermaxandrdquo; prisons, conceived by the United States in the early 1980s, are typically reserved for convicted political criminals such as terrorists and spies and for other inmates who are considered to pose a serious ongoing threat to the wider community, to the security of correctional institutions, or to the safety of other inmates. Prisoners are usually restricted to their cells for up to twenty-three hours a day and typically have minimal contact with other inmates and correctional staff. Not only does the Federal Bureau of Prisons operate one of these facilities, but almost every state has either a supermax wing or stand-alone supermax prison.
The Globalization of Supermax Prisons examines why nine advanced industrialized countries have adopted the supermax prototype, paying particular attention to the economic, social, and political processes that have affected each state. Featuring essays that look at the U.S.-run prisons of Abu Ghraib and Guantanemo, this collection seeks to determine if the American model is the basis for the establishment of these facilities and considers such issues as the support or opposition to the building of a supermax and why opposition efforts failed; the allegation of human rights abuses within these prisons; and the extent to which the decision to build a supermax was influenced by developments in the United States. Additionally, contributors address such domestic matters as the role of crime rates, media sensationalism, and terrorism in each countryandrsquo;s decision to build a supermax prison.
andldquo;Supermaxandrdquo; prisons are typically reserved for convicted political criminals such as terrorists and spies and for other inmates who are considered to pose a serious ongoing threat to the wider community, to the security of correctional institutions, or to the safety of the people within. The Globalization of Supermax Prisons examines why nine prominent advanced industrialized countries have adopted the supermax prototype, paying particular attention to the economic, social, and political processes that have affected each nation.
Surveillance in the Time of Insecurity fuses advanced theoretical accounts of state power and neoliberalism with original research from the social settings in which insecurity dynamics play out in the new century. It explores the counterterrorism-themed show 24, Rapture fiction, traffic control centers, security conferences, public housing, and gated communities, and examines how each manifests complex relationships of inequality, insecurity, and surveillance. Alleviating insecurity requires that we confront its mythic dimensions, the politics inherent in new configurations of security provision, and the structural obstacles to achieving equality in societies.
Hundreds of thousands of the inmates who populate the nation's jails and prison systems today are identified as mentally ill. Many experts point to the deinstitutionalization of mental hospitals in the 1960s, which led to more patients living on their own, as the reason for this high rate of incarceration. But this explanation does not justify why our society has chosen to treat these people with punitive measures.
In Crime, Punishment, and Mental Illness, Patricia E. Erickson and Steven K. Erickson explore how societal beliefs about free will and moral responsibility have shaped current policies and they identify the differences among the goals, ethos, and actions of the legal and health care systems. Drawing on high-profile cases, the authors provide a critical analysis of topics, including legal standards for competency, insanity versus mental illness, sex offenders, psychologically disturbed juveniles, the injury and death rates of mentally ill prisoners due to the inappropriate use of force, the high level of suicide, and the release of mentally ill individuals from jails and prisons who have received little or no treatment.
The American prison system has grown tenfold since the 1970s, but crime rates in the United States have not decreased. This doesn't surprise Michael J. Lynch, a critical criminologist, who argues that our oversized prison system is a product of our consumer culture, the public's inaccurate beliefs about controlling crime, and the government's criminalizing of the poor.
While deterrence and incapacitation theories suggest that imprisoning more criminals and punishing them leads to a reduction in crime, case studies, such as one focusing on the New York City jail system between 1993 and 2003, show that a reduction in crime is unrelated to the size of jail populations. Although we are locking away more people, Lynch explains that we are not targeting the worst offenders. Prison populations are comprised of the poor, and many are incarcerated for relatively minor robberies and violence. America's prison expansion focused on this group to the exclusion of corporate and white collar offenders who create hazardous workplace and environmental conditions that lead to deaths and injuries, and enormous economic crimes. If America truly wants to reduce crime, Lynch urges readers to rethink cultural values that equate bigger with better.
About the Author
JEFFREY IAN ROSS is a professor in the School of Criminal Justice and a fellow of the Center for International and Comparative Law at the University of Baltimore. He is the author, coauthor, editor, or coeditor of numerous books, including Beyond Bars: Rejoining Society after Prison, Convict Criminology, and Special Problems in Corrections.
Table of Contents
Foreword: Probing the Meta-Prison, by Loic Wacquant
1. The Globalization of Supermax Prisons: An Introduction, by Jeffrey Ian Ross
2. The Invention of the American Supermax Prison, by Jeffrey Ian Ross
3. How Canada Built Its Supermax Prison, by Jeffrey Ian Ross
4. Supermaxes South of the Border, by Patrick O'Day and Thomas O'Connor
5. The Growth of the Supermax Option in Britain, by Angela West Crews
6. Analyzing the Supermax Prisons in the Netherlands: The Dutch Supermax, by Sandra L. Resodihardjo
7. Supermaximum Prisons in South Africa, by Fran Buntman and Lukas Muntingh
8. From andquot;Secondary Punishmentandquot; to andquot;Supermaxandquot;: The Human Costs of High-Security Regimes in Australia, by David Brown and Bree Carlton
9. The Emergence of the Supermax in New Zealand, by Greg Newbold
10. The Rise of the Supermax in Brazil, by Jose de Jesus Filho
11. Guantanamo: America's Foreignand#160; Supermax in the Fight Against Terrorism, by Jeffrey Ian Ross and Dawn L. Rothe
12. A Globalized Militarized Prison Juggernaut: The Case of Abu Ghraib, by Dawn L. Rothe
13. Conclusion: Globalization, Innovation, or Neither?, by Jeffrey Ian Ross
Notes on Contributors
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History and Social Science » Crime » Criminology