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Carbon Science and Technology: From Energy to Materials (Iste)

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Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Carbon solids have been utilized by man since prehistoric times, first as a source of heat and then for other purposes; these are used as key markers for different civilizations. The essential role played by the use of coal mines during the industrial revolution as a main source of energy is a crucial point, which was then expanded through the development of carbochemistry.

This book begins by describing the use of solid carbons as traditional materials, for example in the steel industry and for ceramics, then moving on to their technological uses such as active carbons and carbon fibers, etc., before discussing nanocarbons, the jewel in the crown of contemporary technological science. The final chapter analyzes the current economic and social impact of carbon solids.

Table of Contents

Introduction xi

Chemical Glossary xvii

Chapter 1. From the Chemical Element to Solids 1

1.1. Carbon on Earth 1

1.2. A brief history of the chemistry of carbon 5

1.2.1. The first discoveries: fire, heat and metals 9

1.2.2. Exploitation of mined resources 11

1.2.3. Uses of dispersed carbons 13

1.3. Presentation of carbon solids 14

1.3.1. Comparison of natural and artificial evolution 16

1.3.2. Production and development of carbonaceous products 17

1.4. Conclusion and perspectives 18

1.5. Bibliography 19

Chapter 2. The Polymorphism of Carbon 23

2.1. The carbon atom and its chemical bonds 24

2.1.1. Chemical bonds and solid phases 24

2.1.2. Carbon isotopes 26

2.2. A thermodynamic approach 27

2.2.1. Some reminders about phenomenonological thermodynamics 27

2.2.2. Diagram of equilibrium states of carbon 28

2.3. New molecular phases 30

2.4. Non-crystalline carbons 32

2.4.1. Principal processes 33

2.4.2. Evolution and structural characterizations 35

2.4.3. Homogeneous massive carbons 40

2.4.4. Porous and dispersed carbons 42

2.5. From solids to materials 44

2.6. Bibliography 45

Chapter 3. Natural Carbons: Energy Source and Carbochemistry 47

3.1. Primary energy sources 48

3.1.1. The various forms of energy 48

3.1.2. Combustion of natural coals 53

3.1.3. Manufacturing cements 57

3.1.4. Gasification and liquefaction procedures 57

3.2. Carbochemistry 58

3.2.1. Intermediary products: coal tar and pitch 60

3.2.2. Solid primary materials: cokes and artificial graphites 63

3.3. Use of coal resources 64

3.3.1. Primary energy source 64

3.3.2. The future of carbochemistry and carbonaceous materials 67

3.4. Summation and essential points 68

3.5. Bibliography 68

Chapter 4. The Role of Carbon in Metallurgy 71

4.1. Principles and evolution of the steel industry 72

4.1.1. Industrial manufacturing for cast iron and steel 75

4.1.2. Carbons in the steel industry 77

4.2. The manufacturing of aluminum 78

4.2.1. Electrolysis tank 78

4.2.2. Carbons for the aluminum industry 79

4.3. Silicon production 80

4.3.1. Obtaining metallurgical silicon 80

4.3.2. Carbon electrodes 81

4.4. Metallic carbides 81

4.4.1. Synthesis of acetylene 82

4.4.2. Refractory carbides 82

4.5. Summary and essential points 83

4.6. Bibliography 84

Chapter 5. Black and White Ceramics 85

5.1. Graphites and isotropic carbons 86

5.1.1. Manufacturing artificial graphites 86

5.1.2. General physical properties 88

5.1.3. Glassy carbons 91

5.1.4. Major areas of application 92

5.2. Pyrocarbons and pyrographites 94

5.2.1. Pyrocarbons (Pyc) obtained via vapor-phase chemical deposit 95

5.2.2. Textural and physical characteristics 96

5.2.3. Pyrographites and analogs 99

5.3. Films of diamond 100

5.3.1. Thin layer processes 100

5.3.2. Properties and fields of application 102

5.4. Summary and essential points 103

5.5. Bibliography 104

Chapter 6. Dispersed and Porous Carbons 107

6.1. Carbon blacks 108

6.1.1. Formation mechanisms and industrial processes 108

6.1.2. Classification and characteristics 110

6.1.3. Other carbon particles 112

6.2. Shaping and fields of application 113

6.2.1. Reminder on heterogeneous media 113

6.2.2. Main domains of exploitation 116

6.3. Porous and adsorbent carbons 119

6.3.1. General definitions 119

6.3.2. Activated carbons 123

6.3.3. Purification and transport in the gaseous phase 125

6.3.4. Uses in the liquid phase 126

6.4. Summary and essential points 128

6.5. Bibliography 129

Chapter 7. Fibers and Composites 131

7.1. Carbon filaments 132

7.1.1. Historic overview of the main families 132

7.1.2. Textural characteristics and physical properties 136

7.2. Composite materials 139

7.2.1. Fiber-matrix interface 139

7.2.2. Main categories of composites and nanocomposites 143

7.2.3. Manufacture of carbon-carbon composites 145

7.2.4. Applications of carbon-carbon composites 148

7.3. Summary and essential points 151

7.4. Bibliography 152

Chapter 8. Molecular Carbons and Nanocarbons 155

8.1. Synthesis and production 156

8.1.1. Synthesis and characterization of fullerenes 156

8.1.2. Formation and identification of nanotubes 157

8.1.3. Manufacture and stabilization of graphene ribbons 160

8.2. Transport and nanoelectronic properties 162

8.2.1. Electronic transport in single-wall nanotubes and graphene ribbons 165

8.2.2. Molecular transistors and logic circuits 166

8.2.3. Associated quantum phenomena 168

8.3. Physical chemistry of interface and sensors 169

8.3.1. Chemical functionalization of surfaces 170

8.3.2. Sensors, biosensors and actuators 173

8.3.3. Comments on biological compatibility 175

8.4. Conclusion and prospective 176

8.5. Bibliography 176

Chapter 9. Carbon Techniques and Innovation 179

9.1. Evolution of carbon materials 180

9.1.1. Different generations of carbonaceous materials 180

9.1.2. Classification by purpose and areas of activity 182

9.1.3. Role in energy problems 183

9.2. Socio-economic aspects 186

9.2.1. Economic assessments 186

9.2.2. Economic transitions and cycles 188

9.3. Epilogue 191

9.4. Bibliography 192

Index 195

Product Details

ISBN:
9781118569290
Subtitle:
From Energy to Materials
Publisher:
Wiley-ISTE
Author:
Delhaes, Pierre
Subject:
Material Science
Subject:
Materials Science-General
Subject:
Optical and Non-Linear Optical Materials
Subject:
Carbon Science and Technology, The Polymorphism of Carbon, Natural Carbons, Carbochemistry, Carbons in Metallurgy, Black and White Ceramics, Dispersed Carbons, Porous Carbons, Carbon Fibers, Composites, Molecular Carbons, Nanocarbons
Copyright:
Edition Description:
WOL online Book (not BRO)
Series:
ISTE
Publication Date:
20130130
Binding:
Electronic book text in proprietary or open standard format
Language:
English

Related Subjects

Science and Mathematics » Materials Science » General

Carbon Science and Technology: From Energy to Materials (Iste)
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