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Multimodal Usability (Human-Computer Interaction)by Niels Ole Bernsen
Synopses & Reviews
Multimodal Usability demonstrates several major generalisations of human-computer interaction and extends the traditional focus on graphical user interfaces to all input/output modalities accessible to vision, hearing, and touch. Multimodal Usability can help make a multimodal interactive system usable no matter if you are building a work tool or a game, and whether your system models aspects of people, like a virtual (or robot) companion or friend, or not. Successful implementation can be achieved using the following usability development steps: (1) Augment system model specification with an AMITUDE model of use specified in terms of Application type, Modalities, Interaction type, Task, User, Device and Environment of use. (2) Apply usability methods to collect the usability data needed at any time. A toolbox of 24 key methods are presented in a common format. Methods are of five kinds: question-answering, meetings with discussion, observation, imagination, and interaction with the system. (3) For each method application, post-process, annotate, analyse, report, and act on the data to improve system model usability. Three multimodal system Cases are included to illustrate usability development from idea to user test of the implemented prototype. Multimodal Usability assumes no prior knowledge about usability and human-computer interaction.
This book details what system developers need to know and need to be able to do in order to develop usable new multimodal applications. It covers the theory of modalities and multimodality and presents nine key multimodal usability parameters.
This book is about how to develop and evaluate multimodal systems which are usable by, or fit, people. The main objective is to answer the practical question of what system developers need to know and be able to do in order to develop usable new multimodal applications. The need to know is addressed in the first part of the book, in which the role of development and evaluation for multimodal usability in the software engineering life-cycle is described, and 9 key multimodal usability parameters are presented as well as theory of modalities and multimodality. The need to be able to do is addressed in the second part of the book. The distinction between interleaved and iteratively performed (i) development for multimodal usability and (ii) evaluation for usability is discussed.
Table of Contents
1. Structure, Usability, Readership 1.1 Goals 1.2 How to work on Usability 1.3 Structure and Scope of this book 1.4 What is Usability 1.5 Usability Matters - But how much? 1.6 Reader's Guide 1.7 Key points 2. Intermezzo 1 Three Multimodal Cases 2.1 Contents and Origins 2.2 What's Next? 3. Creating a Model of Use 3.1 AMITUDE - A model of system use 3.2 Application Type 3.3 Users and people 3.4 Tasks and other activities, Domain 3.5 Use Environment 3.6 Interaction 3.7 Key points 4. Modalities and Devices 4.1 What is a Multimodal system? 4.2 Which modalities exist? 4.3 Practical use of modalities 4.4 Multimodal representation 4.5 Input/Output devices 5. Intermezzo 2 Status on Cases and Next Steps 5.1 Case AMITUDE Models of Use 5.2 Case Usability Goals, Requirements and Evaluation Criteria 5.3 Towards a Broader Perspective on Usability Work 6. Common Approaches, Methods, Planning 6.1 Common Usability Approaches 6.2 Methods for Usability 6.3 Writing a usability workplan 6.4 Writing a usability method plan 6.5 Key points 7. Intermezzo 3 Case Usability Workplan, Design 7.1 Case Usability Workplans 7.2 Case Design 8. Question-Answering 8.1 About Interviews 8.2 About questionnaires 8.3 User Survey 8.4 Customer Interviews and Questionnaires 8.5 Expert interviews and questionnaires 8.6 Screening interviews and questionnaires 8.7 Pre-test interviews and questionnaires 8.8 Post-test interviews and questionnaires 9. Meetings with Discussion 9.1 Focus group meetings 9.2 Stakeholder meetings 9.3 Workshops and other meetings with user representatives 10. Observation of Users 10.1 Macro-Behavioural field methods 10.2 Micro-Behavioural field observation 10.3 Category sorting 10.4 Observation of users in real time 10.5 Human data collection in the lab 11. Imagination 11.1 Use cases and scenarios 11.2 Personas 11.3 Cognitive walkthrough 11.4 Guideline-based usability development and evaluation 11.5 Usability standards 12. Interaction with the System 12.1 Mock-up 12.2 Wizard of Oz 12.3 Implemented prototype lab test 12.4 Field test 12.5 Think-aloud 13. Lab Sessions with Subjects 13.1 Subjects lab test and development methods 13.2 Session Preparation - subject recruitment 13.3 Session Preparation - material and equipment 13.4 During the session 13.5 After the session 13.6 Key points 14. Intermezzo 4 Case usability method plan 14.1 Data Collection Purpose 14.2 Getting the Right Data 14.3 Communication with the Data Producers 14.4 Subject Recruitment, A Representative User Group 14.5 Staff Roles and Responsibilities 14.6 Location, Equipment, Other Material, Data, Results 14.7 Method Script 15. Data Handling 15.1 The data handling cycle 15.2 The nature of data, corpora, data resources 15.3 Raw data files, data book-keeping, meta-data 15.4 Preparing to use the data 15.5 Raw data annotation 15.6 Coding procedure and coding best practice 15.7 Key points 16. Usability Data Analysis and Evaluation 16.1 Data analysis 16.2 Usability evaluation 16.3 Types of evaluation results and purposes 16.4 Types of evaluation criteria 16.5 Usability in practice 16.6 Reporting the results of data analysis 16.7 Key points 17. Intermezzo 5 Sudoku Usability Evaluation 17.1 Data 17.2 Technical Issues 17.3 Modality Appropriateness 17.4 Functional Issues 17.5 User Interviews 17.6 Conclusions 18. Multimodal Usability: Conclusions and Future Work 18.1 Simple to grasp? 18.2 Nerdy Stuff: Generalisations of HCI made in this book 18.3 Future Work
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