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Other titles in the REA Test Preps series:
AP Chemistry (Rea) - The Best Test Prep for the Advanced Placement Exam (REA Test Preps)by Jay M. Templin
THE AP CHEMISTRY EXAM
ABOUT THE EXAMINATION
The Advanced Placement Chemistry Examination is offered each May at participating schools and testing centers throughout the world. The Advanced Placement Program is designed to allow high school students to pursue college-level studies while attending high school. Participating colleges, in turn, grant credit and/or advanced placement to students who do well on the examinations.
The Advanced Placement Chemistry course is designed to be the equivalent of a college introductory chemistry course, often taken by chemistry majors in their first year of college. Since the test covers a broad range of topics, no student is expected to answer all of the questions correctly. (Consequently, it is important for students to not feel defeated when confronting a question that appears unanswerable.)
The examination follows the outline, published by the College Board, that appears below. The exam is divided into two, 90 minute sections. The first section is composed of 75 multiple-choice questions designed to test recall of a broad range of concepts and calculations. The score students earn on the multiple-choice test composes 45% of the total score. Calculators are not permitted on the multiple choice portion of the exam, although simple arithmetic may be needed to answer some questions.
The second section is a free-response exam and constitutes 55% of the final grade. Calculators are allowed on Part A, during which the student has 40-minutes to complete two problems. Calculators are not allowed on Part B, during which students have 50 minutes to complete chemical reaction questions and three essay questions. Most hand-held calculators are allowed in the examination. However, calculators with typewriter-style (QWERTY) keypads are not allowed. If you are unsure if your calculator is permitted, check with your teachers or Educational Testing Services.
A detailed outline of the topics on the examination and specific strategies for both portions of the Advanced Placement Chemistry examination follow.
DETAILED OUTLINE OF THE EXAMINATION
The following is an outline of the general breadth of topics that The College Board identifies as being on the AP Chemistry Examination.
I. Structure of Matter (20% of the AP test)
A. Atomic theory and structure
1. Evidence for atomic theory
2. Atomic mass
3. Atomic number, mass number; isotopes
4. Electron energy levels, quantum numbers, atomic orbitals
5. Periodic relationships: atomic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity, oxidation states.
B. Chemical Bonding
1. Binding forces
a.Types of forces: ionic, covalent, network covalent, metallic, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals.
b.Relationships to states, structure, and properties of matter.
c.Polarity of bonds, electronegativities.
2. Molecular Models
b.Hybridization of orbitals, resonance, sigma and pi bonds.
3. Geometry of molecules and ions, structural isomerism of simple organic molecules and coordination compounds; dipole moments of molecules, relation of properties to structure.
C. Nuclear chemistry: nuclear equations, half-lives, and radioactivity; chemical applications.
II. States of Matter (20% of the AP test)
1. Laws of ideal gases
a.Equation of state for an ideal gas
2. Kinetic-molecular theory
a. Interpretation of ideal gas laws on the basis of theory
b. Avogadros hypothesis and the mole concept
c. Dependence of kinetic energy on temperature
d. Deviations in the ideal gas laws
B. Liquids and Solids
1. Liquids and solids from the kinetic-molecular viewpoint
2. Phase diagrams
3. Changes of state, including critical points and triple points
4. Structure of solids; lattice energies
1. Types of solutions and factors affecting solubility
2. Methods of expressing concentration
3. Raoults law and colligative properties; osmosis
4. Behavior of non-ideal solutions
III. Reactions (35-40% of the AP test)
A. Reaction types
1. Acid-base reactions, concepts of Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis; coordination complexes, amphoterism.
2. Precipitations reactions
3. Oxidtion-reduction reactions
b.The role of the electron in oxidation-reduction
c.Electrochemistry: electrolytic and galvanic cells; Faradays laws; standard half-cell potentials; Nernst equation; prediction of the direction of redox reactions
1. Ionic and molecular species present in chemical systems; net ionic reactions
2. Balancing of equations, including oxidation-reduction reactions
3. Mass and volume relations with emphasis on the mole concept; including empirical formulas and limiting reactants
1. Concept of dynamic equilibrium, physical and chemical; Le Chateliers principle; equilibrium constants
2. Quantitative treatment
a.Equilibrium constants for gaseous reactions: Kp, Kc
b.Equilibrium constants for reactions in solution
i. Constants for acids and bases; pK; pH
ii. Solubility product constants and their application to precipitation and dissolution of slightly soluble compounds
iii. Common ion effect; buffers; hydrolysis
1. Concept of reaction rate
2. Use of experimental data and graphical analysis to determine reaction order, rate constants, and rate laws
3. Effect of temperature on reaction rates
4. Energy of activation; the role of catalysts
5. Relationship between the rate-determining step and mechanism of reaction
1. State functions
2. First law: change in enthalpy; heat of formation; heat of reaction; Hesss law; heats of vaporization and fusion; calorimetry
3. Second law: entropy; free energy of formation; free energy of reaction; dependence of change in free energy of enthalpy and entropy changes
4. Relationship between change in free energy, equilibrium constants, and electrode potentials
IV. Descriptive Chemistry (10-15% of the AP test)
A. Chemical reactivity and products of chemical reactions
B. Relationships in the periodic table; horizontal, vertical, and diagonal with examples of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, and the first series of transition metals
C. Introduction to organic chemistry: hydrocarbons and functional groups (structure, nomenclature, chemical properties)
V. Laboratory (5-10% of the AP test)
A. Making observations of chemical reactions
B. Recording data
C. Calculating and interpreting results based on observed quantitative data
D. Effectively communicating experimental results, including error analysis
Format, Scoring, and Strategies of Multiple Choice questions and Free Response Questions follows...
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