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The Complete Musician: An Integrated Approach to Tonal Theory, Analysis, and Listening

by

The Complete Musician: An Integrated Approach to Tonal Theory, Analysis, and Listening Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Beginning with music fundamentals, this text covers all the topics necessary for a thorough understanding of undergraduate music theory by focusing on music in context. The text links each of the tasks that comprise a tonal theory curriculum, explicitly connecting written theory (writing and analysis), skills (singing, playing, and dictation), and music-making outside the theory class.

DISTINCTIVE FEATURES

* Presents an outstanding quality, quantity, and diversity of exercises geared toward real music and real music situations

* Explores not only standard four-voice harmony, but also other musical domains including melody, counterpoint, and a multitude of textures; the result is a text with applicability and relevance to all musicians

* Includes almost 4,500 musical examples from the common-practice repertoire in the text and workbooks, more than 90 percent of which are on the CDs included with the text and workbooks--nearly twenty hours of music on MP3 files (all music is performed, recorded, and engineered at Eastman)

NEW TO THIS EDITION

* Revised with beginning students in mind, this edition contains more basic exercises as well as solutions to selected exercises in the text. Longer and more difficult exercises have been moved to the workbooks.

* Streamlined and reorganized with fewer chapters (31, down from 37), the text presents the most commonly taught topics in sequence and moves less-common topics--such as invertible counterpoint, compound melody, and motive (covered in chapters 15, 16, and 23 of the previous edition)--to the appendices, where instructors may access them as their individual curriculum permits, or omit them altogether.

* This edition offers a new presentation of fundamentals: the first three chapters provide a review and synthesis for students with experience in music fundamentals, and a 75-page appendix introduces key concepts for students with little or no experience. This allows instructors to choose the pacing that best suits their class and individual students.

* Numerous musical examples include guiding annotations, with textural and structural reductions of more complex examples.

* This edition presents more than 250 new literature excerpts and complete works for analysis and dictation, including new instrumental combinations.

* New appendices offer further support: Appendix 5 covers terms and abbreviations used in the text and Appendix 6 includes selected answers to exercises in the text.

SUPPORT PACKAGE

* The new Companion Website (www.oup.com/us/laitz) provides instructor and student resources that include supplementary drill exercises.

* The Instructor's Manual provides solutions to all of the dictation exercises, sample solutions for more than 250 writing (e.g., figured bass and melody harmonization) and analytical exercises, supplementary examples, exercises, and teaching guidelines that detail effective strategies for each chapter.

* The two workbooks have been significantly reorganized: Workbook 1 is now dedicated to written and analytical activities, including figured bass, melody harmonization, model composition, and analysis. Workbook 2 covers musicianship skills. Exercises within each chapter of Workbook 2 are organized by activity type: singing arpeggiations of the chord being studied, then within a tune from the literature; two-part singing; dictation; keyboard; then instrumental application.

About the Author

Steven G. Laitz is Professor of Music Theory at the Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester. He is also an Affiliate Faculty Member in the Chamber Music Department at Eastman. Dr. Laitz is the current editor of the Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy.

Table of Contents

PART 1: THE FOUNDATION OF TONAL MUSIC

CHAPTER 1: MUSICAL SPACE AND TIME

Tonality in Context: Bach's Violin Partita no. 3, Prelude

Specifics of the Pitch Realm

Pitches and Pitch Classes

Scales

Keys

Intervals

Enharmonic Intervals

Consonant and Dissonant Intervals

The Metrical Realm

Meter Signature

Asymmetrical Meters

Clarifying Meter

More Rhythmic Procedures

Accent in Music

» Temporal Accents

» Nontemporal Accents

Metrical Disturbance

» Syncopation

» Hemiola

CHAPTER 2: HARNESSING SPACE AND TIME: INTRODUCTION TO MELODY AND TWO-VOICE COUNTERPOINT

Melody: Characteristics and Writing

Controlling Consonance and Dissonance: Introduction to Two-Voice Counterpoint

First-Species Counterpoint

» Contrapuntal Motions

» Beginning and Ending First-Species Counterpoint

» Rules and Guidelines for First-Species (1:1) Counterpoint

Second-Species Counterpoint

» Weak-Beat Consonance

» Weak-Beat Dissonance

» More on Perfect Consonances

» Beginning and Ending Second-Species Counterpoint

» Rules and Guidelines for Second-Species Counterpoint

CHAPTER 3: MUSICAL DENSITY: TRIADS, SEVENTH CHORDS, AND TEXTURE

Adding Voices: Triads and Seventh Chords

Triads

» Figured Bass

» Triads and the Scale: Harmonic Analysis

» Harmony and the Keyboard

Seventh Chords

Musical Texture

Analytical Method

PART 2: MERGING MELODY AND HARMONY

CHAPTER 4: WHEN HARMONY, MELODY, AND RHYTHM CONVERGE

Tonal Hierarchy in Music

Embellishing Tones

The Importance of Context in Analysis

Analytical Interlude

Melodic Fluency

Melody as Harmony

CHAPTER 5: TONIC AND DOMINANT AS TONAL PILLARS AND INTRODUCTION TO VOICE LEADING

Characteristics and Effect of V and I

The Cadence

Introduction to Voice Leading

Texture and Register

Three Techniques to Create Voice Independence within a Four-Voice Texture

» Technique 1: Smoothness

» Technique 2: Registral Independence

» Technique 3: Contrapuntal Independence

Creating the Best Sound: Incomplete and Complete Chords, Doubling, and Spacing

» Omitted Chord Tones

» Doubled Chord Tones

» Spacing and Voicing

Summary of Voice-Leading Rules and Guidelines

CHAPTER 6: THE IMPACT OF MELODY, RHYTHM, AND METER ON HARMONY; INTRODUCTION TO V7

The Interaction of Harmony, Melody, Meter, and Rhythm: Embellishment and Reduction

Embellishment

Reduction

The Dominant Seventh and Chordal Dissonance

Derivation and New Melodic Possibilities

Part Writing with the Dominant Seventh Chords

An Analytical Interlude

Harmonizing Florid Melodies

Summary

CHAPTER 7: CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS OF TONIC AND DOMINANT: SIX-THREE CHORDS

Chordal Leaps in the Bass: I6 and V6

Neighbor Tones in the Bass (V6)

Second Level Analysis

Passing Tones in the Bass: viio6

Tonic Expansion with an Arpeggiating Bass: IV6

Dominant Expansion with Passing Tones: IV6

Combining First-Inversion Chords

Summary

CHAPTER 8: MORE CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS: INVERSIONS OF V7, INTRODUCTION TO LEADING TONE SEVENTH CHORDS, AND REDUCTION AND ELABORATION

V7 and Its Inversions

V6/5

V4/3

V4/2

Voice-Leading Inversions of V7

Combining Inversions of V7

Compositional Impact of Contrapuntal Chords

Leading Tone Seventh Chords: viio7 and viio7

Voice Leading for viio7

viio7

Summary of Contrapuntal Expansions

Reduction and Elaboration: Compositional and Performance Implications

» Reduction

» Elaboration

Summary of Part 2

PART 3: A NEW HARMONIC FUNCTION, THE PHRASE MODEL, AND ADDITIONAL MELODIC AND HARMONIC EMBELLISHMENTS

CHAPTER 9: THE PRE-DOMINANT FUNCTION AND THE PHRASE MODEL

The Pre-Dominant Function

The Subdominant (IV in Major, iv in Minor)

The Supertonic (ii in Major, iio in Minor)

Pre-Dominants and the Stepwise Ascending Bass

Part Writing for Pre-Dominants

Extending the Pre-Dominant

Introduction to the Phrase Model

Analytical Interlude

CHAPTER 10: ACCENTED AND CHROMATIC EMBELLISHING TONES

The Accented Passing Tone (APT)

The Chromatic Passing Tone (CPT)

The Accented Neighbor Tone (AN)

The Chromatic Neighbor Tone (CN)

The Appoggiatura (APP)

The Suspension (S)

Labeling Suspensions

Writing Suspensions

Additional Suspension Techniques

The Anticipation (ANT)

The Pedal (PED)

Summary of the Most Common Embellishing Tones

CHAPTER 11: SIX-FOUR CHORDS, REVISITING THE SUBDOMINANT, AND SUMMARY OF CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS

Unaccented Six-Four Chords

Pedal

Passing

Arpeggiating

Accented Six-Four Chords

Cadential

» Additional Uses of Cadential Six-Four Chord

---- As Part of Half Cadences and Authentic Cadences

---- Preceding V7

---- Within a Phrase

---- Evaded Cadences: Elision and Extension

---- Triple Meter

---- Writing Six-Four Chords

Revisiting the Subdominant

Summary of Harmonic Paradigms

Harmonizing Florid Melodies

CHAPTER 12: THE PRE-DOMINANT REFINES THE PHRASE MODEL

Nondominant Seventh Chords: IV7 (IV6/5) and ii7 (ii6/5)

Analyzing Nondominant Seventh Chords

Embedding the Phrase Model

Contrapuntal Cadences

Expanding the Pre-Dominant

» Passing Chord between ii and ii6 (or between ii6 and ii)

» Passing Chord between IV and IV6 (or between IV6 and IV)

» Passing Chord Moving from IV6 (IV6/5) to ii6/5

» Restate Tonic Material Up a Step

Subphrases

Composite Phrases

Summary of Part 3

PART 4: NEW CHORDS AND NEW FORMS

CHAPTER 13: THE SUBMEDIANT: A NEW DIATONIC HARMONY, AND FURTHER EXTENSIONS OF THE PHRASE MODEL

The Submediant

The Submediant as Bridge in the Descending-Thirds Progression

The Submediant in the Descending-Circle-of-Fifths Progressions

The Submediant as Tonic Substitute in Ascending-Seconds Progressions

Voice Leading for the Submediant

» The Descending-Thirds Progression, I-vi-IV

» The Descending-Fifths Progression, I-vi-ii (or I-vi-ii6)

» The Ascending-Seconds Progression, V-vi

Contextual Analysis

Tonic and Dominant Embellish the Submediant

Apparent Submediants

The Step Descent in the Bass

CHAPTER 14: THE MEDIANT, THE BACK-RELATING DOMINANT, AND A SYNTHESIS OF DIATONIC HARMONIC RELATIONSHIPS

The Mediant (iii in Major; III in Minor)

The Mediant in Arpeggiations

A Special Case: Preparing the III Chord in Minor

Voice Leading for the Mediant

More Contextual Analysis: The Back-Relating Dominant and Synthesis: Root Motion Principles

The Back-Relating Dominant

Synthesis: Root Motion Principles

» Compositional Application

CHAPTER 15: THE PERIOD

Aspects of Melody and Harmony in Periods

Representing Form: The Formal Diagram

Sample Analysis of Periods and Some Analytical Guidelines

Summary for Analyzing Periods

Composing Periods

CHAPTER 16: OTHER SMALL MUSICAL STRUCTURES: SENTENCES, DOUBLE PERIODS, AND MODIFIED PERIODS

The Sentence: An Alternative Musical Structure

The Double Period

Modified Periods

Extensions

Phrase Group

Asymmetrical Periods

CHAPTER 17: HARMONIC SEQUENCES

Components and Types of Sequences

The Descending-Second (D2) Sequence

» The Descending-Second Sequence in Inversion

The Descending-Third (D3) Sequence

» The Descending-Third Sequence in Inversion

The Ascending-Second (A2) Sequence

Another Ascending-Second Sequence: A2 (-3/+4)

Sequences with Diatonic Seventh Chords

» Sequences with Inversions of Seventh Chords

Writing Sequences

Summary of Diatonic Sequences

Summary of Part 4

PART 5: FUNCTIONAL CHROMATICISM

CHAPTER 18: APPLIED CHORDS

Applied Dominant Chords

Applied Chords in Inversion

Tonicized Half Cadences

Recognizing Applied Chords

Voice Leading for Applied Chords

Applied Leading-Tone Chords

Incorporating Applied Chords within Phrases

An Example Composition

Sequences with Applied Chords

The D2 (-5/+4) Sequence

The D3 (-4/+2) Sequence

The A2 (-3/+4) Applied-Chord Sequence

Writing Applied-Chord Sequences

Summary of Diatonic and Applied-Chord Sequences

CHAPTER 19: TONICIZATION AND MODULATION

Extended Tonicization

Modulation

Closely Related Keys

Analyzing Modulations

Writing Modulations

Modulation in the Larger Context

The Sequence as a Tool in Modulation

CHAPTER 20: BINARY FORM AND VARIATIONS

Binary Form

Simple Sectional Binary

Simple Continuous Binary

Rounded Sectional Binary

Rounded Continuous Binary

Balanced Binary Form

Summary of Binary Form Types

Variation Form

Continuous Variations

Sectional Variations

Summary of Part 5

Answers to Exercise 20.1

PART 6: EXPRESSIVE CHROMATICISM

CHAPTER 21: MODAL MIXTURE

Altered Pre-Dominant Harmonies: iio and iv

Application: Musical Effects of Melodic Mixture

Altered Submediant Harmony: bVI

Altered Tonic Harmony: i

Altered Mediant Harmony: bIII

Voice Leading for Mixture Harmonies

Chromatic Stepwise Bass Descents

Plagal Motions

Modal Mixture, Applied Chords, and Other Chromatic Harmonies

Summary

CHAPTER 22: EXPANSION OF MODAL MIXTURE HARMONIES: CHROMATIC MODULATION AND THE GERMAN LIED

Chromatic Pivot-Chord Modulations

An Analytical Interlude: Schubert's Waltz in F major

Writing Chromatic Modulations

Unprepared and Common-Tone Modulations

Analytical Challenges

Modal Mixture and the German Lied

An Analytical Interlude: Schumann's "Waldesgesprach"

Analytical Payoff: The Dramatic Role of bVI

CHAPTER 23: THE NEAPOLITAN CHORD (bII): CHARACTERISTICS, EFFECTS, AND BEHAVIOR

Writing the Neapolitan Chord

Expanding bII

The Neapolitan in Sequences

The Neapolitan as a Pivot Chord

CHAPTER 24: THE AUGMENTED SIXTH CHORD: CHARACTERISTICS, DERIVATION, AND BEHAVIOR

Types of Augmented Sixth Chords

Writing Augmented Sixth Chords

bVI and the Ger6/5 Chord

Augmented Sixth Chords as Part of PD Expansions

The Augmented Sixth Chord and Modulation: Reinforcement

The Augmented Sixth Chord as Pivot in Modulation

Summary of Part 6

PART 7: LARGE FORMS: TERNARY, RONDO, SONATA

CHAPTER 25: TERNARY FORM

Characteristics

Transitions and Retransitions

Da Capo Form: Compound Ternary Form

Da Capo Aria

Minuet-Trio Form

Ternary Form in the Nineteenth Century

CHAPTER 26: RONDO

Context

The Classical Rondo

Five-Part Rondo

Coda, Transitions, and Retransitions

Compound Rondo Form

Seven-Part Rondo

» Distinguishing Seven-Part Rondo Form from Ternary Form

Missing Double Bars and Repeats

CHAPTER 27: SONATA FORM

Historical Context and Tonal Background

The Binary Model for Sonata Form

Analytical Prelude: Beethoven, Piano Sonata in G minor, op. 49, no. 1

Transition

Closing Section

Development and Retransition

Recapitulation and Coda

Additional Characteristics and Elements of Sonata Form

Monothematic Sonata Form

The Slow Introduction

Harmonic Anomalies

Other Tonal Strategies

Three-Key Exposition

Extended Third-Related STAs

Sonata Rondo

Analytical Synthesis: Sonatas of Haydn and Mozart

Haydn: Piano Sonata no. 48 in C major, Hob. XVI.35, Allegro con brio

» Exposition

» Development

» Recapitulation

Mozart, Piano Sonata in Bb Major, K. 333, Allegro

» Exposition

» Development

Summary of Part 7

PART 8: INTRODUCTION TO NINETEENTH-CENTURY HARMONY: THE SHIFT FROM ASYMMETRY TO SYMMETRY

CHAPTER 28: NEW HARMONIC TENDENCIES

Tonal Ambiguity: The Plagal Relation and Reciprocal Process

Tonal Ambiguity: Semitonal Voice Leading

Semitonal Voice Leading and Remote Keys

Analytical Interlude

The Diminished Seventh Chord and Enharmonic Modulation

Analysis

Analytical Interlude

Tonal Clarity Postponed: Off-Tonic Beginning

Double Tonality

CHAPTER 29: THE RISE OF SYMMETRICAL HARMONY IN TONAL MUSIC

A Paradox: "Balanced" Music Based on Asymmetry

Symmetry and Tonal Ambiguity

The Augmented Triad

Altered Dominant Seventh Chords

The Common-Tone Diminished Seventh Chord

Common-Tone Augmented Sixth Chords

Analytical Interlude

CHAPTER 30: MELODIC AND HARMONIC SYMMETRY COMBINE: CHROMATIC SEQUENCES

Distinctions between Diatonic and Chromatic Sequences

Chromatic Sequence Types

The DM2 (-4/+3) Sequence

The Chromatic Forms of the D2 (-5/+4) Sequence

The Chromatic Forms of the A2 (-3/+4) Sequence

Other Chromatic Step-Descent Basses

Six-Three Chords

Diminished Seventh Chords

Augmented Sixth Chords

Writing Chromatic Sequences

Chromatic Contrary Motion

The Omnibus

A Final Equal Division of the Octave

CHAPTER 31: AT TONALITY'S EDGE

Sequential Progressions

Nonsequential Progressions and Equal Divisions of the Octave

The Intervallic Cell

Analytical Interlude:

Chopin, Prelude, op. 28, no. 2

Wagner, Tristan und Isolde, "Prelude"

Scriabin, Prelude, op. 39, no. 2

» Intervallic Properties of Key Sonorities

» Compositional Processes:

---- A Traditional View

---- A Radical View

Summary of Part 8

APPENDICES

1: FUNDAMENTALS

a. The Pitch Realm

Charting Musical Sound: Staff and Clef

Pitch and Pitch Class

The Division of Musical Space: Intervals

Accidentals

Scales

Enharmonicism

Scale Degree Numbers and Names

Specific Scale Types: Major and Minor

Building Scales in the Major Mode

Key Signatures and the Circle of Fifths

Building Scales in the Minor Mode

Key Signatures in Minor

Relative Major and Minor Keys

b. Pulse, Rhythm, and Meter

Rhythm and Durational Symbols

Dots and Ties

Meter

» Beat Division and Simple and Compound Meters

» The Meter Signature

c. Intervals

Naming Generic Intervals

Melodic and Harmonic Intervals; Simple and Compound

Tips for Identifying Generic Intervals

Naming Specific Intervals

Transforming Intervals: Augmented and Diminished Intervals

Interval Inversion

Generating All Intervals

» Method 1

» Method 2

d. Triads, Inversions, Figured Bass, and Harmonic Analysis

Triads

» Voicing Triads: Spacing and Doubling

» Triad Inversion

» Figured Bass

---- Analyzing and Composing Using Figured Bass

---- Additional Figured Bass Conventions: Abbreviations and Chromaticism

» Triads and the Scale: Harmonic Analysis

» Roman Numerals

» Introduction to Harmonic Analysis

e. Seventh Chords and Harmonic Analysis

Definitions and Type

Musical Characteristics of Seventh Chords

Inverted Seventh Chords

Analytical Tips

Seventh Chords and Harmonic Analysis

2: INVERTIBLE COUNTERPOINT, COMPOUND MELODY, AND IMPLIED HARMONIES

Invertible Counterpoint

Definitions and Effects

Invertible Counterpoint below the Music's Surface

Harmonic Implications of Single Melodic Lines: Compound Melody

Definitions

Implied Harmonies

3: THE MOTIVE

Introduction

Motive Types

Motivic Repetition

Strict Repetition

Modified Repetition

Additional Pitch Transformations

Rhythmic Transformations

Developmental Repetitions

Inter-Section and Intermovement Motivic Repetitions

Single-Interval Motives

Hidden Motivic Repetitions

Depth and Surface: Motivic Parallelism

4: ADDITIONAL HARMONIC SEQUENCE TOPICS

Compound Melody and Implied Seventh Chord Sequences

Parallel First-Inversion Triads

Sequences versus Sequential Progressions

Composing Sequences within the Phrase Model

5: ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

6: SELECTED ANSWERS TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES

INDEX OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS

INDEX OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES AND EXERCISES

Product Details

ISBN:
9780199742783
Author:
Laitz, Steven G.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Author:
null, Steven G.
Subject:
Theory
Subject:
Music
Subject:
Music-Theory and Composition
Copyright:
Publication Date:
20110431
Binding:
HARDCOVER
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Pages:
896
Dimensions:
8.3 x 10.1 x 1.5 in 3.9 lb

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