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22 Remote Warehouse Geology- Rocks and Minerals

Introduction to Mineralogy

by

Introduction to Mineralogy Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

The second edition of Introduction to Mineralogy follows the highly successful first edition, which become an overnight market leader. Introduction to Mineralogy consolidates much of the material now covered in traditional mineralogy and optical mineralogy courses and focuses on describing minerals within their geologic context. It presents the important traditional content of mineralogy including crystallography, chemical bonding, controls on mineral structure, mineral stability, and crystal growth to provide a foundation that enables students to understand the nature and occurrence of minerals. Physical, optical, and X-ray powder diffraction techniques of mineral study are described in detail, and common chemical analytical methods are outlined as well. Detailed descriptions of over 100 common minerals are provided, and the geologic context within which these minerals occur is emphasized. Appendices provide tables and diagrams to help students with mineral identification, using both physical and optical properties. Numerous line drawings, photographs, and photomicrographs help make complex concepts understandable. Introduction to Mineralogy is available with Daniel Schulze's An Atlas of Minerals in Thin Section for a nominal additional fee.

About the Author

William D. Nesse is the Chair and Professor of Geology at the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction

Minerals

Mineraloids

Mineralogy

Mineral Nomenclature

General References on Mineralogy

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 2. Crystallography

Introduction

Translational Symmetry

Plane Lattices

--Translational Symmetry: 3-D

--Space Lattices and Unit Cell

--Bravais Lattices and Crystal Systems

Point Symmetry

--Reflection

--Rotation

--Inversion

--Compound Symmetry Operations

--Symmetry Notation

32 Point Groups

--Steno's Law

--Measurement of Crystal Angles

--Determining Crystal System and Crystal Class

Space Groups

Crystal Faces

--Laws of Haüy and Bravais

--Miller Indices

--Indices and Crystal Axes in the Hexagonal Crystal System

--Determining Miller Index

--Assigning Miller Indexes by Inspection

Crystallographic Directions

Zones

Crystal Forms

--Isometric Forms

--Non-isometric Forms

--Combining Crystal Forms

--Enantiomorphous Forms and Crystals

--Positive and Negative Forms

Forms in the Six Crystal Systems

--Triclinic Crystal System

--Monoclinic Crystal System

--Orthorhombic Crystal System

--Tetragonal Crystal System

--Hexagonal Crystal System

--Isometric Crystal System

Crystal Habit

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 3 Crystal Chemistry

Introduction

The Nature of Chemical Elements

--Nucleus

--Electrons

--Formation of Ions

Abundance of the Elements

Chemical Bonding

--Valence-related bonding

--Relation among the Valence-dependent Bonds

--Bonds Not Involving Valence Electrons

Size of Atoms and Ions

--Oxidation State

--Coordination

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 4: Crystal Structure

Introduction

Controls of Crystal Structure

--Structure Controls with Metallic Bonding

--Structure Controls with Covalent Bonding

--Structural Controls with Molecular Crystals

--Structure Controls with Ionic Bonding

--Application of Pauling's Rules

Illustrating Mineral Structures

Isostructural Minerals

Polymorphism

--Reconstructive Polymorphism

--Displacive Polymorphism

--Order-Disorder Polymorphism

--Polytypism

Mineral Classification

Compositional Variation in Minerals

--Substitutional Solid Solution

Mineral Formulas

Graphical Representation

--Binary diagrams

--Ternary diagrams

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 5: Mineral Growth

Introduction

--Mineral Stability

--Stability

--Gibbs Free Energy

--Mineral reactions

Mineral Nucleation

--Homogeneous Nucleation

--Heterogeneous nucleation

Crystal Growth.

--Rate of growth

--Zoned Crystals

Structural Defects

--Point Defects

--Line Defects

--Planar Defects

--Twinning

Post-crystallization Processes

--Ordering

--Twinning

--Recrystallization

--Exsolution

--Radioactivity and Minerals

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Section II: Mineral Properties, Study, and Identification

Chapter 6: Physical Properties of Minerals

Introduction

Mass Dependent Properties

--Density

--Specific Gravity

Properties Related to Mechanical Cohesion

--Hardness

--Tenacity

--Cleavage

--Fracture

--Parting

Color and Luster

--Light

--Perception of Color

--Mineral Luster

--Mineral Color

--Color From Mechanical Causes

--Consistency of Mineral Color

--Streak

--Luminescence

Magnetism

--Diamagnetism

--Paramagnetism

--Ferromagnetism

--Ferrimagnetism

Electrical Properties

--Electrical Conductivity

--Piezoelectricity

--Pyroelectricity

Miscellaneous Properties

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 7: Optical Mineralogy

Introduction

Light

--Light Waves

--Polarized Light

Interaction of Light and Matter

--Optically Isotropic vs. Anisotropic Materials

--Reflection and Refraction

--Dispersion

Petrographic Microscope

--Illuminator

--Substage Assembly

--Microscope Stage

--Objective Lenses

--Upper Polarizer

--Bertrand Lens

--Oculars

--Focusing Mechanism

--Accessories

--Direction Conventions

Isotropic Materials

Anisotropic Minerals

--Interference Phenomena

--Use of the Interference Color Chart

--Extinction

--Function of Accessory Plates

Optical Indicatrix

--Isotropic Indicatrix

--Uniaxial Indicatrix

--Biaxial Indicatrix

Mineral Color and Pleochroism

--Isotropic Minerals

--Uniaxial Minerals

--Biaxial

Extinction Angle and Sign of Elongation

--Extinction Angle

--Sign of Elongation

--Categories of Extinction

--Extinction in Uniaxial Minerals

--Extinction in Biaxial Minerals

Interference Figures

--Uniaxial Interference Figures

--Biaxial Interference Figure

Refractometry: Measurement of Index of Refraction

--Immersion Method

--Refractometry in Thin Section

--Isotropic Minerals

--Uniaxial Minerals

--Biaxial Minerals

Reflected-Light Optics

--Observation in Plane Polarized Light

--Observations with Crossed Polarizers

Tactics for Mineral Identification

--Thin section identification

--Grain Mount Identification

--Polished section identification

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 8. Introduction to X-ray Crystallography

Introduction

X-rays

--X-ray Generation

--X-ray Detection

X-ray Diffraction

Powder Method

--Sample Preparation

--Instrumental Output

--Data Reduction

--Powder Diffraction File

--Bragg Reflection Indices

--Mineral Identification

--Mixed Samples

--Estimation of Relative Mineral Abundance

--Estimation of Composition

Determining Unit Cell Parameters

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 9. Chemical Analysis of Minerals

Introduction

Analytical Methods

--Wet Chemical

--Electron Probe Microanalysis

--X-ray Fluorescence

--Mass Spectrometry

--Conventions in Reporting Chemical Analyses

Conversion of Chemical Analyses to Structural Formulas

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 10. Strategies for Study

Introduction

Mineral Identification Tactics

--Mineral Separation

--Hand Sample Identification

--Thin Section Identification

--Grain Mount Identification

--Polished Section Identification

--X-ray Diffraction

Mineral Association

Problems in Paradise

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Index

Section III: Mineral Descriptions

Chapter 11. Silicates

Introduction

Silicate Structure and Classification

Mafic vs. Felsic

Igneous Rocks

--Magmatic Processes

--Igneous Environments

Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocks

--Sedimentary Processes

--Sedimentary Environments

Metamorphic Rocks

--Metamorphic Variables

--Metamorphic Processes

--Metamorphic Grade, Facies, Mineral Zone Boundaries and Isograds

--Major Compositional Groups of Metamorphic Rocks

--Metamorphic Environments

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 12: Framework Silicates

Introduction

Silica Group

--Quartz

--Tridymite

--Cristobalite

Feldspar Group

--Composition

--Structure

--Al/Si Order/Disorder

--Exsolution in the Feldspars

--Other Feldspar Intergrowths

--Twinning

--Plagioclase

--K-Feldspar

Feldspathoids

--Nepheline

--Leucite

--Sodalite

Zeolite Group

Scapolite

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 13 Sheet Silicates

Introduction

Structure and Classification

--1:1 Layer Silicates

--2:1 Layer Silicates

--Polytypism

TO Structures (1:1)

--Serpentine (Antigorite, Chrysotile, Lizardite)

--Kaolinite

TOT Structures (2:1)

--Talc

--Pyrophyllite

TOT + c Structures: Mica Minerals (2:1)

--Muscovite

--Biotite

--Glauconite

TOT + c Structures: Brittle Micas (2:1)

--Margarite

--Clintonite

TOT + O Structure

--Chlorite

Clay Minerals

--Structure and Classification

--Geology of Clay

--Identification

--Uses

--Clay in the Environment

Other Sheet Silicates

--Stilpnomelane

--Prehnite

Chapter 14. Chain Silicates

Introduction

Pyroxene group

--Structure and Classification

--Geology of Pyroxenes

--Orthopyroxene

--Lo-Ca Clinopyroxene

--Calcic Clinopyroxene

--Aegirine (Acmite), Aegirine-augite

--Jadeite

--Omphacite

--Spodumene

Pyroxenoid Group

--Introduction

--Wollastonite

--Rhodonite

--Pectolite

Amphibole Group

--Structure and Classification

--Geology of Amphiboles

--Orthoamphibole

--Cummingtonite-Grunerite

--Tremolite - Ferro-actinolite

--Hornblende

--Glaucophane - Riebeckite

--Other amphiboles

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 15. Disilicates and Ring Silicates

Disilicates

--Structure and Classification

--Zoisite

--Clinozoisite-Epidote

--Allanite

--Lawsonite

--Pumpellyite

Ring Silicates

--Structure and Classification

--Beryl

--Cordierite

--Tourmaline

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 16. Orthosilicates

Introduction

Olivine Group

Garnet Group

Zircon

Aluminum Silicates

--Andalusite

--Sillimanite

--Kyanite

Staurolite

Chloritoid

Titanite

Topaz

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 17. Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Borates, Tungstates, and Molybdates

Structure and Classification

Carbonates

Rhombohedral Carbonates (Calcite and Dolomite Groups)

--Calcite

--Magnesite

--Siderite

--Rhodochrosite

--Dolomite-Ankerite

Aragonite Group

--Aragonite

--Witherite

--Strontianite

OH-Bearing Carbonates

--Malachite

--Azurite

Sulfates

--Gypsum

--Anhydrite

--Barite

Phosphates

--Apatite

--Monazite

--Xenotime

--Tourquoise

Tungstates and Molybdates

Borates

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 18. Oxides, Hydroxides, and Halides

Introduction

Oxides

X2O Group

--Cuprite

--Ice

XO Group

XY2O4 Minerals

--Spinel Group

--Magnetite

--Chromite

--Spinel Series

--Chrysoberyl

X2O3 Group

--Hematite

--Corundum

--Ilmenite

XO2 Group

--Rutile

--Cassiterite

--Uraninite

Hydroxides

--Brucite

--Iron Hydroxide Minerals

--Aluminum Hydroxide Minerals

--Manganese Oxide and Hydroxide Minerals

Halides

--Halite

--Sylvite

--Fluorite

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 19. Sulfides and Related Minerals

Introduction

--Crystal Chemistry and Classification

Sulfide Paragenesis

--Hydrothermal Deposits

--Supergene Processes

Sulfide Minerals

--Sphalerite

--Galena

--Pyrrhotite

--Chalcopyrite

--Cinnabar

--Pyrite

--Marcasite

--Molybdenite

--Bornite

--Chalcocite

--Covellite

Sulfarsenides

--Arsenopyrite

Arsenides

Tellurides

References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading

Chapter 20. Native Elements

Introduction

Metals

--Gold

--Silver

--Copper

Semimetals

Nonmetals

--Sulfur

--Graphite

--Diamond

References Cited and Suggestions for Reading

APPENDICES

Appendix A. Effective Ionic Radii of the Elements

Appendix B. Determinative Tables

--Table B.1. Non-metallic minerals with white, gray, or other pale colored streak.

--Table B.2. Non-metallic minerals with distinctly colored streak.

--Table B.3. Minerals with metallic and submetallic luster.

--Table B.4. Specific gravity.

--Table B.5. Minerals that may fluoresce.

--Table B.6. Color of minerals in thin section and grain mount.

--Table B.7. Indices of refraction of isotropic minerals

--Table B.8. Indices of refraction of uniaxial minerals.

--Table B9. Indices of refraction of biaxial negative minerals arranged in order of increasing n?.

--Table B.10. Indices of refraction of biaxial positive minerals arranged in order of increasing n?.

--Table B.11. Minerals that produce pleochroic halos in surrounding minerals.

--Table B.12. Colors exhibited by opaque minerals in polished section viewed in air.

--Table B.13. Opaque or nearly opaque minerals that display internal reflections with reflected light.

Appendix C. Mineral Associations

--Table C1. Mineralogy of Common Igneous Rocks

--Table C2. Mineralogy of Sedimentary Rocks

--Table C3. Mineralogy of Common Metamorphic Rocks

--Table C4. Mineralogy of Hydrothermal Sulfide Deposits

Product Details

ISBN:
9780199827381
Author:
Nesse, William D.
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Author:
Nesse, William
Subject:
Mineralogy
Subject:
Earth Sciences - Geology
Subject:
Geology-General
Subject:
Geology-Rocks and Minerals
Copyright:
Publication Date:
20110831
Binding:
HARDCOVER
Language:
English
Pages:
496
Dimensions:
8.8 x 11 x 1.2 in 3.6 lb

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