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The North Pole Was Here: Puzzles and Perils at the Top of the World (New York Times)


The North Pole Was Here: Puzzles and Perils at the Top of the World (New York Times) Cover




Chapter One


Where All Is South


For nearly two hours, I have been staring out a small window on a droning

propeller-driven airplane. The low, unsetting sun casts the plane's shadow off

to the side, where it slides over what looks like an endless crinkled white

landscape. But there is no land below us. There is only an ocean—a frozen

one. We are flying out across a cap of floating, drifting ice that's the size of

the United States. As far as the eye can see, colliding plates of ice raise

jumbled miles-long ridges, some as high as houses. Here and there, the ice

is split by cracks that expose the black depths of the Arctic Ocean



The plane is jammed with instruments and survival gear and scientists

heading to the top of the world to study climate changes at the pole. Nearly

five hundred miles ago, we left the most northern spot where people can live

year-round, a Canadian military base called Alert, and headed farther north—

as far north as you can go before you suddenly find yourself pointed south



Researchers have long been measuring a global warming trend, but it is in

the Arctic that temperatures have risen the most. This research team is

trying to understand why conditions are changing and what the changes may

mean for people and the environment.


Finally, the pilot says we are nearing our destination. The plane's shadow

grows as we descend. We are all overheated and sweating, stuffed into puffy

layers of clothing and huge insulated boots. But no one else seems quite as

nervous as I am about what is coming. In a few moments, the pilot is going to

set this fifteen-ton rubber-tired airplane down on a rough runway scraped

across the eight-foot-thick sea ice. The crew and scientists around me, who

have done this for several years in a row, are munching peanut butter

sandwiches and apples, reading books, chatting. I tighten my seatbelt. The

Arctic has claimed the lives of many of the people who have been brave

enough, or crazy enough, to press north. I wonder if the ice will hold, or if it

will crack open and swallow the plane.


We finally touch down. There is a quick series of thumps and bumps and the

rising roar of engines thrown into reverse. The propellers raise clouds of

sparkling whiteness called "diamond dust"—crystals of flash-frozen sea mist

far finer than snowflakes. A hatch opens and we climb down aluminum steps.

Quite suddenly, I am standing on top of the world, about sixty miles from the

spot around which the earth spins. The frigid air bites at my cheeks. The

bright sun forces me to squint. My boots scrunch on what feels like snow-

covered ground. It takes a few moments before I remember I am walking on

floating ice that is drifting about four hundred yards an hour over an ocean two

miles deep—deep enough that ten Empire State Buildings could be stacked

beneath us without breaking the surface. I am standing at the earth's last real

edge, the last place where people cannot get very comfortable for very long.

Unlike the planet's South Pole—where a continent is home to permanent

research stations and dozens of scientists, engineers, cooks, doctors, and

other staff—at the North Pole nothing is permanent except the seabed far

below. The ice that is here today will be somewhere else tomorrow. In a few

years, much of what I am walking on, what our airplane landed on, will break

up and slide out of the Arctic Ocean altogether through passages around

Greenland, replaced by newly formed ice. A visitor once left a message in a

container on the ice near this spot. It was found on a beach in Ireland a few

years later.


A couple of weeks ago, Russian workers flew here from Siberia to plow the

runway into ice that had frozen solid through the long Arctic night. Six weeks

after we leave, that same ice will pool with slushy meltwater and crack in



Welcome to life around the North Pole. The air is fifteen degrees below zero.

The sun is circling in low, twenty-four-hour loops. If you define a day as the

stretch between sunrise and sunset, today began on March 21 and will end

on September 21. We are at one of the two places on the earth's surface

where time loses all meaning. The only reason anyone here has any idea

whether we should be asleep or eating lunch or breakfast is because the

Russian crew running operations on the ice have set their watches to

Moscow time. The only food I will eat in the next eight hours is a shared half-

frozen salmon sandwich. And I am in love with this place.


This is a strange feeling for me. I never liked the cold much. When I was a

kid, I was drawn to sun-baked regions, either real or imagined, preferring The

Swiss Family Robinson to White Fang. I loved nothing more than pulling on a

diving mask and snorkel in summertime to swim in warm bays and sneak up

on fish and hermit crabs. I once spent more than a year on a sailboat

journeying from the sunny South Pacific across the Indian Ocean and up the

Red Sea.


Now I am at sea again, but this time I am standing on top of it. The sun is

blinding, but the air is painfully cold. I feel like a mummy, stiffly stuffed into

four layers of clothing. (I will end up smelling a bit like a mummy, too,

because we will not be able to wash for three days.) My toes tingle from the

cold despite the giant insulated "bunny boots" I am wearing, but I am totally

uninterested in fleeing to the small red tents nearby—the only hints of color

in this blindingly bright ice world. I have somehow been captured by the

magnetic pull of the Arctic, a tug that I have read about but never



For thousands of years, philosophers and navigators puzzled over what might

be found at the world's northernmost spot. On one expedition after another,

explorers died trying to reach this place. And now we have flown here in two

hours from Canada.


Each year between mid-March and the end of April, after the single Arctic

day has dawned and before the ice gets too soggy, dozens of people come

here—and not just scientists. There are tourists popping champagne corks,

skydivers from Moscow, and ski trekkers from South Korea. There are

extreme athletes from Manchester, England, who trained for their treks here

by jogging around their neighborhoods dragging heavy truck tires from ropes

tied around their waists. There are even marathon runners, including one man

from Rhode Island who prepared for the first North Pole marathon, run here in

2003, by jogging in place in a dairy's walk-in ice cream freezer. Technology

has invaded as well, and it helps make life here possible. We know our

position within a few feet thanks to cell phone–size GPS navigational

devices. From the ice, I call my ninety-eight-year-old grandmother on a

satellite telephone. She tells me she hopes I am wearing a hat.


Most visitors stay in a Russian-run base camp called Borneo, which is a

strange mix of comforts and rugged simplicity. It has heated tents,

electricity, a DVD player and TV, and four microwave ovens. But the toilet for

men is nothing more than a waist-high igloo-style wall of ice blocks.


The scientists and I are using Camp Borneo only as a stepping-stone. Our

final destination is an unnamed group of tents thirty miles closer to the pole—

tents with no heaters, no DVDs, no champagne. The scientists are part of a

small international army of dedicated researchers undertaking a host of

inventive, and sometimes dangerous, projects aimed at understanding the

changing face of the North Pole.


As I'm marveling at this frozen floating icescape, I am struck by the idea that

later in this century the Arctic Ocean could well be uncloaked in the summer,

no longer crusted in ice but instead mainly open water, as wave-tossed and

blue as the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.


The global warming trend that raised the earth's average temperature one

degree Fahrenheit in the twentieth century has had a stronger effect here.

Average temperatures in some parts of the Arctic have risen as much as

eight degrees since the 1970s. The sea-ice cover, which always shrinks a bit

in summer, has for decades been pulling back more and more, exposing

great stretches of open water. Computer simulations show that it may

disappear altogether late in this century.


Most scientists have concluded that people are probably causing most of the

recent global warming trend and some of the changes in the Arctic climate

and ice by adding to the atmosphere long-lived gases that trap the sun's

heat, somewhat as a greenhouse roof does. But, as always in science,

questions follow answers. No one can be sure exactly how much of the

recent warming is human-caused and how much is the result of natural

fluctuations in the climate system. Indeed, there is little information on how

temperatures in the high Arctic varied in centuries past. Until recently, the

forbidding nature of the vast icy seascape has prevented all but a few bold

explorers from traveling here.


The planet has for millions of years seen great cycles of ice ages and warm

periods. The changes under way around the North Pole could at least partly

reflect natural flickers in climate, which is full of ups and downs.

But each year brings more signs that recent environmental shifts around the

Arctic are extraordinary. Dragonflies are showing up for the first time in

memory in Eskimo villages, causing children to run to their parents, startled

by these unfamiliar insects. Robins are pecking at the tundra. The Arctic's

native peoples have no name for this bird.


In a few decades, if the warming continues, it may also be harder to find a

safe site to set up camp here. Perhaps there will come a time when the new

North Pole will be a place that is easier to sail to than stand on.


In the meantime, though, the best option for studying the pole is to camp on

the ice. Much science these days is done in laboratories, on computers, or

using long-distance probes like orbiting satellites. But some science still

must be done up close and personal. On this floating, shifting, melting ice,

there is no place to stick a thermometer or other device and expect to find it

again. So the team must come here, study the atmosphere, ice, and sea

below, and return year after year to create a picture of what is going on.


They call their project the North Pole Environmental Observatory, but that

name gives the impression that it's some exotic domed facility. The reality is

clear to me soon enough. After a quick ride in a Russian helicopter with

black soot stains on its orange sides and a fabric strap holding the cargo

doors shut, we arrive at the science camp. It consists of two tentlike huts,

each about the size of a garden shed, and a scattering of buoys, tools, and

boxes. At this spot, instruments recording sea currents and temperature

were dropped to the sea floor one year ago on a two-mile-long line. Now they

have to be retrieved from beneath that shifting ice. The procedure will require

several of the researchers to get into diving suits and drop through a small

opening melted through ice. And I thought that I was being adventurous.

To celebrate getting here, one scientist who arrived a couple of days before

us, Jim Johnson, erected a red-and-white-striped barber pole and a sign that

said north pole is here.


But after a day or so, Johnson changed the wording, so that the sign now

reads north pole was here.


The past tense is meant as a joke. The drift of the ice guarantees that

anyone who is at the North Pole at one moment is not there a few minutes



But the sign also reflects the broader and much more profound idea that

confronts everyone up here: that the unreachable, unchanging North Pole of

our imagination, history, maps, and lore no longer exists.


How to Get to the North Pole


July 2003: My trip to the North Pole started with a car ride from my home in

New York State to Newark, New Jersey. From Newark International Airport, I

took a short evening flight to Ottawa, Canada, and then the fun began. On

each leg of my trip, the planes and airports got smaller and the temperature

colder. The runways switched from asphalt to packed snow.


A Boeing 737 carried me north to Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut, Canada's

newest territory. With some scientists and a reporter from the Dallas Morning

News, Alexandra Witze, I boarded a twin-engine Beechcraft, which is the

local equivalent of a Greyhound bus, stopping at ever-smaller outposts on the

long route north until it reached the end of the line, Resolute.


Resolute lies on a winding passage through a maze of islands about nine

hundred miles south of the pole, right near the place where the nineteenth-

century British explorer Lord Franklin and his crew lost their way, went

insane, and—dragging themselves over the frozen landscape—died.

After a night at the metal-roofed Narwhal Inn, it was time for the four-hour

flight to the pole, including one last stop—at Alert, a Canadian military

outpost and the northernmost place permanently occupied by people—to top

off the fuel tanks.


Finally, four days and 2,900 miles from New York, the fifteen-ton plane

lurched heavily as it landed on a runway carved by a Russian bulldozer on

the drifting ice sixty miles from the pole.


Reporting from the North Pole


The North Pole, June 5, 2003: Notebook computers, digital cameras, and

satellite telephones are enabling journalists to do what seemed impossible

just a few years ago: transmit stories and images from the world's last

untamed edges. But technology still has limits, and they may be most

obvious on the floating ice near the North Pole. During my stay there, I

learned the art of practicing journalism at fifteen degrees below zero.


First, the basics: Bring pencils, not pens. Ink freezes. Bring lots of pocket

warmers, little yellow packets that heat up for hours when exposed to air.

These are not just for fending off frostbite, but also for keeping your batteries



And of course bring tape, every kind—electrical, duct, and the like—to fix the

things that break (they will break) and to attach those pocket warmers to the

back of a camera, the side of a microphone, the bottom of a laptop computer.

Satellite telephones have significant limitations. The signals travel in a

straight line, so getting the antenna right is essential. There are sometimes

painful gaps in conversations while the transmission jumps from one satellite

to the next. Things can get tense if you are in the habit of watching the rise

and fall of the little glowing bars on your laptop screen that show the data

flow when you e-mail a big file. Halfway through the thirty- or forty-minute

process of sending a picture, it is not uncommon to see the bars disappear



Despite the limitations, I am still amazed at the ability to link the last

frontiers on a fast-shrinking planet.

Product Details

Puzzles and Perils at the Top of the World
Revkin, Andrew
Revkin, Andrew C.
New York
Description and travel
Arctic regions
History - Exploration & Discovery
Exploration & Discovery
Science & Nature - Environmental Science & Eco Logy
Arctic regions Description and travel.
North Pole Description and travel.
Childrens Science
Science & Nature/Environmental Science & Ecosystems
Science & Nature - Environmental Conservation & Protection
Edition Description:
Middle-Grade Nonfiction
New York Times Book
Publication Date:
May 2006
Grade Level:
from 7
9.34 x 8.1 x 0.615 in
Age Level:

Related Subjects

Children's » History » World History
Children's » Nonfiction » Ecosystems
Children's » Nonfiction » Environmental Studies
Children's » Nonfiction » Geography
Children's » Nonfiction » Science and Nature » General
Children's » Nonfiction » World History » General
Children's » Science and Nature » General

The North Pole Was Here: Puzzles and Perils at the Top of the World (New York Times)
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Product details 128 pages Kingfisher - English 9780753459935 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , In 2003, environmental reporter Andrew Revkin joined a scientific expedition to the North Pole, where he was the first "New York Times" reporter ever to file stories and photographs from the top of the world. Revkin leads readers through the mysterious history of arctic exploration with period photos and illustrations.
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