The Human Body in Health and Disease is an invitation to discover more about yourself and how your body works, both when it is healthy and when it is suffering from disease. It is intended for anyone interested in gaining a basic understanding of the human body, and seeing how that information can be used to diagnose and treat various diseases. You don't need a background in biology or science to follow the concepts presented here. We've designed this book to make it easy for you to build a foundation of basic knowledge (What structure is that? How does it work? What happens if it doesn't work?). We've also organized the material to provide a framework for understanding related information obtained outside of the classroom.
There are three general themes in The Human Body in Health and Disease. The first is that the human body functions as an integrated and coordinated unit. Coordination exists at all levels, from single cells, the smallest living units in the body, to organs like the brain, heart, and lungs. The second theme, which is closely related to the first, is that the components of the body work together to maintain a stable internal environment. These two themes are introduced in Chapter 1 and reinforced in all subsequent chapters. The third theme is that diseases fall into a relatively limited number of categories. Those general categories remain valid no matter which body system is considered. For example, diseases resulting from infection or tumors may affect any system. An awareness of these common patterns will help you organize new information and make it possible for you to make predictions about the cause, effects, and treatment of specific diseases. This third theme is introduced in the chapter on human diseases (Chapter 6) and it forms the organizing principle behind the Disorders sections in Chapters 7-22.
GENERAL FEATURES OF THIS 1300K
No two people use books the same way, and everyone has a different learning style. We have organized each chapter to help you learn the important material, whatever your particular learning style. The three key features are (1) an emphasis on concepts and concept organization, (2) clearly organized and integrated illustrations, and (3) extensive review materials and self-tests.
AN EMPHASIS ON CONCEPTS
- Learning Objectives: Each chapter begins with a short list of learning objectives. These objectives focus attention on the key concepts presented in the chapter text.
- System Brief. Each of the chapters that deals with a major body system begins with an overview of that system's functions. After this quick summary of what the system does, we spend the rest of the chapter discussing the hows and the whys.
- The Use of Analogies: Whenever possible, the basic functions of the human body are related to familiar physical principles or events in everyday life. This helps to create a mental picture that makes it easier to follow abstract concepts.
- Clinical Notes: Most chapters include at least one boxed clinical note. These boxes, found near the relevant narrative, provide useful insights into the relevance or application of important concepts.
- Discussions of the Effects of Aging on Body Systems: These discussions summarize the structural and functional changes associated with aging and relate them to normal anatomy and physiology. An understanding of the aging process is becoming increasingly important because the proportion of the population over age 65 is increasing dramatically.
- Disorders of Each Body System: These discussions begin with an overview of the signs and symptoms of the diseases for that body system followed by information about diagnostic procedures. Concept maps organize the diseases according to their underlying causes. The diseases for each body system may change, but these recurring causes of disease will help you understand the underlying links between diseases, no matter which body system you're studying.
- An Emphasis on Vocabulary Development: Important terms are highlighted in the page margins near their first appearance in the narrative. The word roots are shown, and once you are familiar with them you will be able to understand the meaning of most new terms before you find their formal definitions.
- Concept Checkpoints: A few questions are placed near the end of each major section in a chapter. These questions are a quick way to check your reading comprehension. The answers are located at the end of the chapter; if you find you've made an error, you can reread the appropriate section before continuing through the chapter.
- Cross-referencing: A concept link icon and page reference will be found wherever the development of a new concept builds on material presented earlier in the text.
- Thumb-tabs: Color-coded thumb-tabs are associated with icons representing specific systems. This combination makes it easy for you to find a particular section within the book.
INTEGRATED AND COMPREHENSIVE ILLUSTRATIONS
EXTENSIVE CHAPTER REVIEW MATERIAL
- One View, One Vision: The art program and the text evolved together, and the layout helps you correlate the information provided by the text and the illustrations. All of the illustrations were done by the same two illustrators, so the color usage and presentation style is consistent throughout the book.
- Integrating Structural Relationships at All Levels: You are most familiar (and probably most comfortable) when dealing with individuals, organ systems, or organs—things that can easily be seen. You are probably much less comfortable when dealing with events at the molecular or cellular level. The Human Body in Health and Disease includes keystone figures that bridge the gap between the immediate, large-scale world and the unfamiliar microscopic world of cells and tissues.
- Figure Dots: Each figure callout in the text is followed by a red dot that refers the reader to the red dot that precedes the figure captions. The dot in the text provides a convenient placemark for the reader, making it easy to return to the narrative after studying the figure.
Each chapter ends with an extensive Chapter Review that will help you study, ply, and integrate new material into the general framework of the course. Each chapter Review contains the following elements:
- Key Words and Selected Clinical Terms: The most important key terms or words in the chapter are listed in this section, along with their definitions.
- Study Outline: The Study Outline reviews the major concepts and topics in their order of presentation in the text. Relevant page numbers are indicated for major headings, and related key terms are boldfaced. For ease of reference, the related figure and table numbers are indicated as appropriate.
- Review Questions: The basic review questions are intended to test the understanding and recall of basic concepts and related terminology The Short Essay questions encourages you to combine and relate the basic concepts of the chapter and to promote critical thinking skills. The Applications questions require you to synthesize and apply concepts to real-world problems.
OTHER USEFUL FEATURES
The appendices contain material that most students and instructors will use at some time in the course.
- Appendix I reviews the systems of weights and measures used in the text. You should review this material while reading Chapter 1, because this will prevent confusion and distress later in the text.
- Appendix II contains a list of foreign word roots, prefixes, suffixes, and combining forms.
- Glossary/lndex: The glossary provides pronunciations and definitions of important terms.
The ancillary package has been carefully crafted and integrated with the textbook to meet the needs of the instructor and the student.
For The Instructor
- Instructor's Manual and Test Item File (by Steven Bassett, Southeast Community College). Complete with teaching strategies that are linked to the chapter opening learning objectives, this unique ancillary also contains answers for the textbook's end-ofchapter questions. To simplify the task of developing lectures, this ancillary also includes a topic outline for each chapter. Presented in an easy-to-read grid format, the outline relates key vocabulary terms, illustrations, and transparency acetates to each topic from the text. The test item file includes over 2,000 questions. It is filled with multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank questions that are linked to the textbook's learning objectives, as well as questions that will challenge students to synthesize two or more objectives. (0-13-017265-0)
- Prentice Hall Custom Test. Offering complete question editing capabilities, this electronic version of the Test Item File can be launched from either Windows or a Macintosh platform. (Windows: 0-13-018895-6, Macintosh: 0-13018896-4)
- Transparency Acetates. This set of over 200 full-color transparencies includes key illustrations from the textbook. To simplify their integration into lectures, each transparency has been linked to its topic in the Instructor's Manual's topic outline. (0-13017267-7)
- Companion Website (www.prenhall.com/martini). Beyond an invaluable resource for students, the Companion Website offers instructors unique tools and support to make it easy to integrate Prentice Hall's on-line resources into the course. These tools include the Syllabus Manager which allows instructors to construct an on-line syllabus tailored to assignments and events for a particular class.
For The Student
- Study Guide. (by Steven Bassett, Southeast Community College). Designed to help students master the textbook material, this study guide is organized around the textbook's learning objectives. A variety of exercises, including matching questions, concept maps, and fill-in-the-blank narratives, promote this mastery. Problem-solving skills are developed using clinical concept questions. (0-13-017266-9)
- Companion Website. (www.prenhall.com/martini). An exciting Companion Website has been developed specifically for this text. In addition to multiplechoice, matching, and short-answer questions, this site's self-grading quizzes offer exercises in critical thinking and labeling. Numerous interesting, related Websites are referenced and annotated in the Destinations sections, and the NetSearch offers students a convenient gateway to hundreds of other sites of interest.
- Science on the Internet: A Student's Guide. This hands-on supplement brings you up to speed on what the Internet is and how to navigate it. (0-13-021308x)
- The New York Times "Themes of the Times" Program. Prentice Hall's unique alliance with The New York Times enhances your access to current, relevant information and applications. Articles areselected by the text authors and are compiled into a free supplement that helps you make the connection between your classroom and the outside world.
This textbook represents a group effort that involved the authors and many other people whose efforts are deeply appreciated. Foremost on the list stand the faculty and reviewers whose advice, comments, and collective wisdom helped to shape the text into its final form. Their interest in the subject, their concern for the accuracy and method of presentation, and their experience with students of widely varying abilities and backgrounds made the review process an educational experience. To these individuals, who carefully recorded their comments, opinions, and sources, we express our sincere thanks and best wishes.
The following individuals devoted large amounts of time reviewing drafts of the sections dealing with the normal anatomy and physiology of the body:
Susan Baldi, Santa Rosa Junior College
Barbara Barger, Clarion County Correction Center
Steven Bassett, Southeast Community College
Judith Bell, Midstate College
Mitzie Bryant, St. Louis Board of Education-Practical Nursing
Peggy Guichard, City College of San Francisco
Rosemarie Harris, University of Mississippi Medical Center
Roger Johnson, University of Mississippi Medical Center
Karen Jones, Pitt Community College
Mary Jordan, St. Louis Board of Education-Practical Nursing
Leanna Konechne, Pima Medical Institute-Respiratory Therapy Program
Jack Lazarre, University of Phoenix
Judi Lindsley, Lourdes College
Mary Jane Lofton, Belmont Technical College
Evelyn Moffett, Jones County Junior College
Cheryl Perugini, Porter and Chester Institute
Mary Rahr, Northeast Wisconsin Technical College
Barbara Ramutkowski, Pima Medical Institute-Medical Assistant Program
Wayne Seifert, Brookhaven College
Charles Seiger Atlantic Community College
Janet Sesser, High Tech Institute, Inc.
Ann Smith, Joliet Junior College
Kim Smith, Shelton State Community College
Connie Vinton-Schoepske, Iowa State University
Jeff Walmsley, Lorain County Community College
Pam White, Northwest Mississippi College
Our gratitude is also extended to the faculty members and students at campuses across the country (and out of the country) whose suggestions and comments stimulated the decision to write The Human Body in Health and Disease.
A text has two components: narrative and visual. In preparing the narrative, we were ably assisted by Don ONeal, Development Editor and Project Manager, and Shari Toron Production Editor, who managed to keep text and art moving in the proper directions at the appropriate times. Virtually without exception, reviewers stressed the importance of accurate, integrated, and visually attractive illustrations in aiding the students to understand essential material. The illustrations were produced and assembled by the team of Bill Ober, M.D. and Claire Garrison, RN.
The authors wish to express their appreciation to the editors and support staff at Prentice Hall who made the entire project possible and who kept the text, art, and production programs on schedule and in relative harmony. Special thanks are due to Ray Mullaney, Editor in Chief, College Book Editorial Development; to Tim Bozik, President of Engineering, Science and Mathematics, and Paul Corey, Editor-in-Chief for the Sciences, for their support of the project; and to Halee Dinsey, Senior Editor for Applied Biology, for coordinating everyone's efforts. We also thank David Riccardi, Assistant Vice President of Production & Manufacturing, and Kathleen Shiaparelli, Executive Managing Editor, for their support.
Additional thanks are due the following individuals for their important contributions to this project: David K. Brake, Laura Edwards, Deena Cloud, Steven Bassett, Charles Seiger, Byron Smith, and Damien Hill.
Any errors or oversights within this text are strictly those of the authors, and not the reviewers, artists, or editors. In an effort to improve future editions, we ask that readers with pertinent information, suggestions, or comments concerning the organization or content of this textbook send their remarks to us care of Halee Dinsey, Senior Editor for Applied Biology, Prentice Hall, Inc., 1 Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. You may also reach us directly, using the email addresses below. Any and all comments and suggestions will be deeply appreciated, and carefully considered in the preparation of the second edition.
Edwin F Bartholomew
Kathleen Welch, MD
To PK, Ivy, and Kate.