Brain Candy Sale

Special Offers see all

Enter to WIN a $100 Credit

Subscribe to
for a chance to win.
Privacy Policy

Visit our stores

    Recently Viewed clear list

    Original Essays | September 23, 2015

    Bryan Doerries: IMG Using Greek Tragedies to Comfort the Afflicted and Afflict the Comfortable

    In ancient Athens, during the fifth century BC, military service was required of all citizens. To be a citizen meant being a soldier, and vice... Continue »
    1. $18.87 Sale Hardcover add to wish list


The Fortress of Solitude


The Fortress of Solitude Cover



Reading Group Guide

1. Why has Jonathan Lethem titled his novel The Fortress of Solitude? Where does the phrase come from? In what ways is Dylan Ebdus a solitary child? In what ways does he live inside a fortress?

2. What does The Fortress of Solitude reveal about the dynamics of childhood friendships? What kind of friendship does Dylan have with Mingus Rude? With Arthur Lomb? Why does Dylan want so badly to be accepted by Mingus?

3. The Fortress of Solitude is a realistic novel, except for one fantastic element: the magic ring that enables its wearer to fly and to become invisible. Why has Lethem included the ring in the story? What effect does it have on Dylan? How is the ring crucial to the plot of the novel?

4. When Mingus asks Dylan if “everything” is cool, Dylan thinks of his science teacher explaining that “the universe was reportedly exploding in slow motion, everything falling away from everything else at a fixed rate. It was a good enough explanation for now” [p. 118]. Why does Dylan think of this theory at this moment? How does it explain Dylans neighborhood and home life?

5. What effect do comic books, pop music, and other aspects of popular culture have on the characters in The Fortress of Solitude? How is Dylans sense of self shaped by his fascination with comic book superheroes?

6. When he sees Doses tag on a sleeping homeless man, Abraham tells Dylan, “Maybe this is just a terrible place. Maybe in these streets right and wrong are confused, so you and your friends run insane like animals that would do this to a human person” [p. 141]. Is Abraham correct in his assessment? How does the Gowanus neighborhood affect those who grow up in it?

7. Abby tells Dylan, “Your childhood is some privileged sanctuary you live in all the time, instead of here with me” [p. 316-17]. Why is Dylan so obsessed with understanding his childhood? How have his childhood experiences made it harder for him to connect with others?

8. As Dylan is attempting to rescue Mingus from prison, he thinks of the “ordinary angst” hed earned as a “grown-up Californian . . . an author of liner notes, an inadequate boyfriend,” and asks himself: “How could I have thrown over these attainments for this chimera of rescue?” [p. 488]. Why does he take such risks to rescue Mingus? What are his real reasons for offering the ring to Robert Woolfolk?

9. In what ways is The Fortress of Solitude a satirical novel? How are Hollywood and private school education depicted in the novel? How does Lethem present the world of science fiction publishing?

10. Near the end of the novel, Abby tells Dylan, “I guess being enthralled with negritude still beats self-reflection every time” [p. 457]. Is it true that Dylan is obsessed with race? Does he use that obsession to avoid self-knowledge? What is he afraid to discover about himself?

11. When Dylan leaves Croft Vendle, he thinks: “He wasnt the father I never had. . . . Abraham was the father I never had, and Rachel was the mother I never had, and Gowanus or Boerum Hill was the home I never had, everything was only itself however many names it carried” [p. 506]. In what sense is it true that Dylan grew up without a mother or a father or a home? How have these absences affected him?

12. The Fortress of Solitude is a vivid evocation of a particular period and place, as seen through the eyes of Dylan Ebdus, and while the novel does not overtly make any large statements about race relations, what does it suggest about how blacks and whites see each other? What scenes particularly dramatize the tensions between blacks and whites in Brooklyn?

13. The Fortress of Solitude includes two self-contained chapters, “Liner Note” and “Prisonaires,” which function almost as set pieces. Why has Lethem included these? How are they different from the rest of the narrative? What do they reveal about Dylan?

14. In interviews, Jonathan Lethem has described the novel as structured like a musical boxed set. In what ways is this novel reminiscent of a boxed set? Why might Lethem have chosen this structure?

15. Much of The Fortress of Solitude concerns the gentrification of Gowanus into Boerum Hill. How has the neighborhood changed when Dylan returns at the end of the novel? Has the neighborhood been genuinely improved or simply turned into another playground for the trendy? What does Dylan mean when he says: “A gentrification was the scar left by a dream, Utopia the show which always closed on opening night”? [p. 508]

16. At the end of the novel, Dylan thinks of his mother pushing him into nearly all-black public schools “which were becoming only rehearsals for prison. Her mistake was so beautiful, so stupid, so American” [p. 508]. Why does Dylan think it was a mistake for Rachel to send him to public school? What does Dylan mean when he calls that mistake beautiful, stupid, and American?

What Our Readers Are Saying

Add a comment for a chance to win!
Average customer rating based on 5 comments:

mdemarie, January 2, 2013 (view all comments by mdemarie)
Excellent! Very engaging, clever, and unexpected.
Was this comment helpful? | Yes | No
aharkins33, January 19, 2010 (view all comments by aharkins33)
Great book especially if you grew up in the 1970's.
Was this comment helpful? | Yes | No
(1 of 2 readers found this comment helpful)
Clarita, January 1, 2010 (view all comments by Clarita)
A beautifully written story about an amazing and complicated friendship. Lethem's characters will live forever. A must read.
Was this comment helpful? | Yes | No
(2 of 4 readers found this comment helpful)
View all 5 comments

Product Details

Lethem, Jonathan
Lethem, Jonathan
Male friendship
Race relations
Literature-A to Z
Edition Number:
Reprint ed.
Edition Description:
Trade paper
Vintage Contemporaries
Publication Date:
August 2004
Grade Level:
8.04x5.24x.94 in. .86 lbs.

Other books you might like

  1. Lucky Girls: Stories Used Trade Paper $4.95
  2. The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier...
    Used Trade Paper $7.50
  3. Kafka Americana
    Used Trade Paper $6.50
  4. Empire Falls: A Novel
    Used Hardcover $6.95
  5. Middlesex
    Used Trade Paper $4.95
  6. The Curious Incident of the Dog in...
    Used Trade Paper $6.50

Related Subjects

Featured Titles » Genre
Featured Titles » Staff Picks
Fiction and Poetry » Literature » A to Z
Fiction and Poetry » Science Fiction and Fantasy » A to Z
History and Social Science » American Studies » Popular Culture

The Fortress of Solitude Used Trade Paper
0 stars - 0 reviews
$15.95 In Stock
Product details 528 pages Vintage Books USA - English 9780375724886 Reviews:
"Staff Pick" by ,

Lethem's ambitious new novel introduces readers to Dylan Ebdus and Mingus Rude, two boys, best friends, growing up in 1970s Brooklyn. Dylan is white. Mingus is black. Raised by sullen, single fathers, together and alone the young neighbors awaken to life like loosed animals on the streets. From their unlikely, conflicted friendship Lethem concocts a magical portrait of class and race, art and commerce, confinement and escape.

"Review A Day" by , "Lethem is the new poet of Brooklyn — the new Whitman, even, whose bold imagination and sheer love of words defy all forms and expectations and place him among this country's foremost novelists....To say that Lethem bends the rules, pushes the envelope and extends the possibilities of fiction is to state only part of the case. He's defiant, delicious, in his refusal to be pinned....The book is a Bildungsroman in the exact sense, the story of Dylan's self-development in the context of place and time. It's also a comedy, a history and a fantasy, where the strange and supernatural mix freely with the solid and austere, as they do in life, in memory, in everyone's autobiography." (read the entire Salon review)
"Review A Day" by , "[I]n Dylan and Mingus's relationship, Lethem has created a profound, sad, and perfectly crafted story." (read the entire Esquire review)
"Review A Day" by , "[A] novel of boundless energy and startling insight about the conundrum adults impose on children by demanding that they live the ideal of integration that we've been unable to demonstrate ourselves....Lethem's mock-heroic voice, full of innocence and mischief, perfectly captures the challenges of childhood, the desperation to belong, the acute sensitivity to embarrassment, the unquestioning endurance of adults' absurd behavior....This is daring stuff, as dazzling for its style as for its politics." (read the entire CSM review)
"Review A Day" by , "There is a genuine atmosphere of cognitive novelty; Lethem manages to combine childish innocence and adult knowingness (not just childish knowingness) in ways that ought to fail but invariably delight and intrigue.

And Lethem delights and intrigues in the end because, while a perfectly adept theorizer, he is a much better painter. His street scenes, his pictures from childhood, have a true coloration; they are drawn, not just spoken....Alas, the thirtysomething Dylan turns out to be a vague character; he talks like Lethem's prose, which is pleasant when the prose is good, but is hardly very distinguishing....It as if the delicate balance of the novel's earlier style has been turned inside out." James Wood, The New Republic (read the entire New Republic review)

"Review" by , "[C]onfirms Lethem's status as the poet of Brooklyn....[S]tunning, disturbing and authoritatively observed....Scary and funny and seriously surreal, the novel hurtles on a trajectory that feels inevitable."
"Review" by , "[B]ig, personal, sometimes breathtaking, and sometimes disappointing....[T]errifically entertaining: a fine, rich, thoughtful novel from one of our best writers."
"Review" by , "Lethem is a tremendous writer, and in the first half he uses magnificent language to capture the complexity of a child's worldview....[T]his often-excellent novel labors under the weight of its ambition."
"Review" by , "Glorious, chaotic, raw....One of the richest, messiest, most ambitious, most interesting novels of the year....Lethem grabs and captures 1970s New York City, and he brings to it a story worth telling."
"Review" by , "Magnificent....[A] massively ambitious, profoundly accomplished novel."
"Review" by , "The finest novel of the year, by far, and likely of the past five....Better than a movie, better than a symphony, better than a play, and better than a painting, because it is all of them."
"Review" by , "[A] stunner...flawlessly evoked, original, and vividly imagined....The final 200 pages maunder, deflate, and stumble through time....As long as Fortress stays earthbound, it soars. (Grade: B+)"
"Review" by , "[D]azzling but fundamentally once wildly ambitious and quietly intimate....Mr. Lethem has written a novel with many defects, but a novel that nonetheless attests to his potent storytelling talents."
"Review" by , "[E]motionally compelling....Transcending category while defying expectation, the book starts out sounding like Richard Price, morphs into an unlikely Nick Hornby-Michael Chabon hybrid and resolves itself as only a Jonathan Lethem novel can."
"Review" by , "[S]prawling, ambitious....[W]hile Lethem is an impressively savvy writer on race, women come and go without adding much weight to his story. This flawed but daring work is recommended for all general collections."
"Review" by , "Lethem has done a number of things here, any one of which is impossible for any but the very finest novelists. He has vividly and lovingly and truthfully, through thrilling evocation of its music, its popular culture, its street games, argot, pharmacology, social mores and racial politics, recreated a world, a moment in history that I would have thought lost and irrecoverable. He has created, in young Dylan, a genuine literary hero. He has reinvented and reinvigorated the myths of the superhero, of black-white relations, of New York City itself. But most of all, from my point of view, he captures precisely — as only a great novelist can — how it feels to love the world that is, on a daily basis, kicking your ass." Michael Chabon, Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier and Clay and Wonder Boys
"Review" by , "The Fortress of Solitude is luminous, stinging with truth and life. A story of two boys, a Brooklyn story, an American story that gives in its very specificity the force of the universal."
"Synopsis" by , The Fortress of Solitude is the story of Dylan Ebdus growing up white and motherless in downtown Brooklyn in the 1970s. Its a neighborhood where the entertainments include muggings along with games of stoopball. In that world, Dylan has one friend, a black teenager, also motherless, named Mingus Rude. As Lethem follows the knitting and unraveling of their friendship, he creates an overwhelmingly rich and emotionally gripping canvas of race and class, superheros, gentrification, funk, hip-hop, graffiti tagging, loyalty, and memory. The Fortress of Solitude is the first great urban coming of age novel to appear in years.
  • back to top


Powell's City of Books is an independent bookstore in Portland, Oregon, that fills a whole city block with more than a million new, used, and out of print books. Shop those shelves — plus literally millions more books, DVDs, and gifts — here at