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Oracle Design (Nutshell Handbooks)

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 Symbols 1NF (first normal form), 71 2NF (second normal form), 72 2PCs (two-phase commits), 305, 314-316 3GL scripts, 206, 209 3NF (third normal form), 70, 73 3-tier architectures, 36, 420-422 4NF (fourth normal form), 76-80 5NF (fifth normal form), 76-80 A abstract data types (ADTs), 113 acceptance test, 32 access, 33, 304 access security, 244-248 ADTs (abstract data types), 113 advisory checking, 419 aggregation, 356-358, 456 aging passwords, 246 allocating to tablespaces, 217 alternative design methods, 15-18 analysis phase of design, 7-9 analyzing logs, 238, 243 API (application programmatic interface), 280, 482 application rules, 97 applications authentication, 288 caches, 285 CASE tools for, 407-409 management of, 401 n-tier, 36 off-the-shelf, 480-482 online, 428 prototypes of, 428-433 source code-driven, 96 template, 405 approval cycles, 415 architecture, 24 client/server (see client/server environment) designing for specific, 35-39 distributed databases (see distributed databases) NCA, 36, 334, 449 NUMA, 388 parallel (see parallel processing) shared nothing, 369 symmetric multiprocessor, 384-388, 444 three-tier, 36, 420-422 archiving, 226-233 archive groups, 232 archivelog mode, 257, 260-261 schedule for, 231 arcs, 88-92 array interfaces, 42 asynchronous RPCs, 323 asynchronous symmetric replication, 323-326 atomic functions, 394 attributes, 7, 63 1NF and, 71 attribute occurrences, 63 attributes (continued) domains of, 113-122 in ERDs, 65 object, 220-223 supertype and subtypes, 64 (see also denormalization) AUDIT command, 236 auditing, 233-243 audit trails, 233-236 authentication, 244-247, 288 awk scripts, 205 B Bx-tree indexes, 144, 147-150 back door entry, 247 backups, 255-263 export/import, 259 balanced tree indexes (see Bx-tree indexes) bandwidth, 271, 273 batch processing, 247, 426, 436 commit interval, 464-466 designing programs for, 458-467 parallelism and, 375-379 updates, 333 BCNF (Boyce-Codd normal form), 75 big bang implementation, 224 binary floating-point representation, 115 bind stage, SQL execution, 278 bind variable problem, 157 bitmapped index, 146 BLOB (Binary Large Object) data, 122-123 blocks block cleanout, 442-445 block visits, 148 branch blocks, 147, 150, 387 contention, 444 root blocks, 147 Boolean, null value and, 126 bottlenecks, 371 Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF), 75 branch blocks, 147, 150, 387 bridge, 271 brought forward transactions, 226 browsers, designing for, 451 browsing data, 400 buffer busy waits, 444 bugs, rollback, 468 build process, 13, 34 environment for, 27 metrics for, 423-425 tools for, 29 buried information, 365 business rules, 9 BY ACCESS clause, 237 C C programs, 205 caching, 282-285 candidate keys, 63, 86, 140-142, 419 cardinal entities, 68, 85 cardinality, 66 Cartesian products, 292 cartridges, 313 cascading keys, 136-140 case sensitivity, 108 CASE tools, 27, 61, 78, 407-409 centralized mainframe, 311 chained rows, 148 CHAR data type, 119, 124 character data (see strings) sorting, 117 (see also strings) CHECK constraint, 115 children foreign keys (see foreign keys) upward denormalization and, 104 chocolate teapots, 237 client/server environment, 36, 217, 268-270 client role, 275 client-side caching, 282-285 data validation in, 294-296 designing for, 267, 272-276, 282-298 distributed databases and, 285-286 hardware for, 270-272 middleware, 280-282 security of, 245 temporal data in, 296-298 tools for, 448-451 clocks (see temporal data) clusters, 40, 145, 161-163, 385 for comment text, 121 hash keys, 145, 158-161 (see also indexes) code (see source code) codes, obsolete, 195-196 columns, LONG and LONG RAW, 109 combining fact tables, 358 comments, 121-122 commits commit point, 306 frequency of, 209 interval between, 464-466 two-phase (2PCs), 305, 314-316 comparing null values, 126 string data, 120 compatibility of external data, 194-201 completeness of design, 34 complex snapshots, 319 composite primary keys, 63 compound keys, 137 concatenated indexes, 145, 152-154 conflicts (see contention) connection delay, 246 connectivity, 421 consistency of caches, 284 constraining tables, 494 constraints, 24, 417 CHECK, 115 customizing, 503-511 data rules, 411-418, 420 declarative, vs. triggers, 199 design, 4, 6 documentation for, 415 entity, 198 foreign key, 64, 142, 200, 439 mutating table, 241, 487-494 precision, 115 rule types, 410-415 rules-based optimization, 41, 154 three-tier architecture and, 420-422 updatable snapshots and, 321 WITH CHECK OPTION, 83 (see also security) contention block contention, 444 conflict detection/resolution, 324 delete conflicts, 326 head contention, 376 lock contention, 443 memory bus contention, 385 context, navigation with, 30, 470 context-sensitive help, 471 continuity of temporal data, 176-180 control break processing, 464 conversion, data (see transformation, data) cooperative locking, 159, 458 corporate data models, 486 corrupt data, 196-197 cost-based optimization, 41, 154 CPU time (see performance) cross-network joins, 286 CSFs (critical success factors), 23 cue cards, 472 customization, 503-511 menus, 247 D data archiving (see archiving) backing up, 255-263 BLOB, 122-123 cartridges, 313 clustering (see clusters) compatibility issues, 194-201 controlling, 403 corrupt, 196-197 deleting, 214, 227-229 audit logs and, 241 encoding values, 128 feeds (see loading data) filtering, 360 flow diagrams (see DFDs) historic, 180-183, 360 integrity (see integrity, data) loading (see loading data) meta, 364 migration (see migration, data) nonvolatile, caching on client, 282-285 null values, 125-130 numeric, 115-117, 366 numeric (see numeric data) outbound, 213 ownership, 304 partitioning among servers, 37 permanently offline, 229 redundant, 41, 101-105 scrubbing, 339 security of (see security) string (see strings) striping (see striping) temporal (see temporal data) validating, 294-296, 363 data browse facility, 400 data cube (see star schema) data-driven design, 97, 408 data-driven extensibility, 505 data mining, 338, 345, 367 data models, 28, 61-64, 485 data rules (see constraints) data transformation, 203-207, 364-367 data types, 114, 116 data warehouses, 38, 75, 167, 192, 230, 337-347 aggregation policy for, 356-358 designing, 343, 346-358 database links, 302, 329 database writer (DBWR), 260 databases controlling, 403 design process of, 27-29 development of, 29 distributed (see distributed databases) image backup, 257-258 local, 287 multidimensional vs. spatial, 339-341 OLTP systems, 218, 341 resident code, 11 schema for, 9-10 standby configurations, 261-262 triggers (see triggers) very large (VLDBs), 42 date and time (see temporal data) DATE data type, 117-119 $$DATETIME$$, 297 DDL (Data Definition Language), 316 deadlocks, 380, 440 debugging, designing for, 406 decimal floating-point representation, 115 decision support systems (DSS), 342 declarative constraints, 199 Deferred Call Interface, 279 define stage, SQL execution, 278 defining functions, 396 keys, order of, 85 modules, 30 delay, connection, 246 deleting data, 214, 227-229 audit logs and, 241 conflicts, 326 deliverables, 6, 10, 21 prototyping, 429 source code design and, 394-397 denormalization, 41, 101-105 implementation methods, 105-107 intra-table, 107-109 merging/splitting tables, 109-112 departmental computing, 335 dependency, 68 BCNF and, 75 functional (FD), 70 multivalued (MVD), 70, 76 derived columns, 136 derived records, 242 descriptive text (see comments) design aggregation policy, 356-358 alternative methods of, 15-18 architecture-specific, 35-39 audit requirements, 234 backup strategy, 255-256 CASE tools for, 27, 61, 78, 407-409 choosing tools for, 446-452 client/server (see client/server environment) constraints (see constraints) data-driven, 97, 408 data security and, 225 data warehouses, 343, 346-358 database, 27-29 definition of, 3 distributed databases, 299-300, 307-328, 332 early stages of, 20-27 ensuring completeness of, 34 high-level vs. low-level, 20 metrics, 423-425 parallelism and, 375-380 performance (see performance) physical elements of, 215-224 planning, 18, 223 prototypes, 428-433, 455 reports, 456-458 rollback bugs, 468 screens, 453-456 source code (see source code) design (continued) SQL execution and, 279 standards, 26 for testing code, 406 testing understanding of, 21 time issues (see temporal data) detailed design, 20 development database, 29 DFDs (data flow diagrams), 9, 95 dial-in support, 271 digits, strings of, 116 dimension tables, 347-350, 353 dimensional analysis/modeling, 38, 343, 347 direct path loading, 211, 344 dirty data, 194 disabling indexes, 150-152 discontinuous temporal data, 176-180 disk mirroring, 374 distributed databases, 37, 285-286, 299-312 examples of, 328-332 strategies for, 312-328 distributed joins, 303 Distributed Lock Manager (DLM), 386 DLM (Distributed Lock Manager), 386 DML (Data Management Language), 279, 316 documentation for functions, 396 online help, 471-473 for rules, 415 domains, attribute, 113-122 constraining numbers to, 115 dominant value null, 130 double ranges, 186-189 downward denormalization, 103 drawing ERDs (see ERDs) drill-down technique, 351 DSS systems, 342 duplication, key, 232 E EIS systems, 227, 342 ELHs (entity life histories), 9, 92-95 eliminating joins, 103 empty strings, 125, 198 encapsulation, 246, 270 encoded keys, 365 encoded values instead of null, 128 end dates, working without, 170-172 engines for temporal data, 165 ensuring design completeness, 34 enterprise data models, 486 entities, 7, 63, 396 archiving by, 232 cardinal, 68, 85 constraints on, 198 entity occurrence, 63 external repeating, 95 intersection (link), 64, 68, 85 life histories (see ELHs) mutually exclusive (see arcs) relationship diagrams (see ERDs) for resolving data distribution, 307-314 environment variables, 216 environment, build process, 27 equality (see comparing) ERDs (entity relationship diagrams), 7, 65-69 error messages, 296 errors, 468-469 deadlocks, 380, 440 millennium date problem, 495-503 RPCs and, 318 troubleshooting, 487-511 with updatable snapshots, 321 estimates, time, 424 examples, obtaining, xviii exclusivity, 80-82 execute stage, SQL execution, 278 executive information systems (EIS), 342 explicit database links, 302 export utility (EXP), 259 extensibility, 503-511 extents, object, 221 external entities, repeating, 95 files, 216 interface (see loading data) systems, 32, 43 extracting data (see unloading data) F fact tables, 344, 347-350, 358 fast refresh, 319 FDs (functional dependencies), 70 feeds, data, 32 fetch phase, SQL execution, 279 FETCH_ROW function, 294 field-level help, 471 fifth normal form (5NF), 78-80 files archiving to, 232 external, 216 file format, 207-208, 359 logs (see logs) filtering data, 360 first normal form (1NF), 71 fixed-length records, 207 flags, multilingual system, 365 flat files, 359 FLOAT( ), 115 floating-point numbers, 115 FOR UPDATE clause, 278 foreign keys, 137, 139, 142 constraints for, 64, 142, 439 null values and, 200 dimension tables and, 351 temporal data and, 184-187 fourth normal form (4NF), 76 fragmentation schema, 307 free list groups, 387 FREELIST GROUPS attribute, 221 FREELISTS attribute, 221 FTP, obtaining examples via, xviii full table scans, 144 functional dependencies (FDs), 70 functional specification, 33 functions, 7 function-driven extensibility, 509 function hierarchy, 7 hierarchy of, 394-396 mapping to modules, 397-399 modules for, 30 G gap analysis, 483-485 gaps in temporal data, 176-180 gateways, 313 generated keys, 133 generators, source code, 31, 408 generic arcs, 90 GRANT mechanism, 248 granularity, 117, 168, 350 graphical user interface (GUI) (see interface) groups free list, 387 snapshot groups, 320 H hardware, 479 backups, 255 client/server, 270-272 harnesses, test, 407 hash clusters, 40 hash keys, 145, 158-161 head contention, 376 help, 471-473 hhcode columns, 165 hierarchy, function, 7, 394-396 high-level design, 20 histograms, index, 156 historic data, 180-183, 360 horizontal partitions, 228, 309, 353 hot backups, 261 housekeeping, 33 hybrid CPU configuration, 386 I identifiers, key (see UIDs) "-ilities" (see resolving data distribution) illegal structures, 80-88 image copy backups, 257-258 immediate validation of data, 294 impersonation, user, 245 implementation, 13, 223 implicit database links, 302 import utility (IMP), 259 indexes, 40, 143-147, 375, 387 Bx-tree, 147-150 clusters (see clusters) concatenated, 145, 152-154 disabling, 150-152 index overrun, 174 intra-table denormalization and, 108 PCTFREE and PCTUSED attributes, 221-223 placement of, 217 (see also hash keys) information model, 27, 61 illegal structures in, 80-88 normalized, 70-88 verifying quality of, 69-92 infrastructure, 27 inheritance, 67 INITIAL attribute, 220 insert conflicts, 326 instance level auditing, 236 INTEGER data type, 115, 116 integrity, data, 194, 223, 285 referentially invalid data, 196 (see also compatibility of external data) interested transaction entries (ITEs), 442 interface, 268, 401 external (see loading data) with other systems, 43 screen design, 453-456 interface rules, 411-420 intermediate transformation programs, 205 Internet, 271 interoperability, 336 intersection entities, 64, 68, 85 intranets, 271 intra-table denormalization, 107-109 iterative development, 430 ITEs (interested transaction entries), 442 J JAD (Joint Application Development), 16 join-projection normal form (JPNF), 78-80 joins cross-network, 286 distributed, 303 downward denormalization and, 103 remote join problem, 303 star joins, 292 view containing, 290 Joint Application Development (JAD), 16 JPNF (join-projection normal form), 78-80 K keys, 40 2NF and, 72 candidate, 63, 86, 140-142 cascading, 136-140 composite, 63 compound, 137 duplication, reloading archives and, 232 encoded, 365 foreign (see foreign keys) generated, 133 hash keys, 145, 158-161 length of, 139, 141 matching/merging, 366 nonunique, 134-136 order of definition, 85 partition (see partitions) primary (see primary keys) surrogate/synthetic (see surrogate keys) triangular pattern of, 153 uniqueness of, 419 (see also indexes) L LANs (local area networks), 36, 271, 287 leaf blocks, 144, 147, 150 least recently used (LRU) algorithm, 284 legacy systems, 32, 336 replacing, 224 (see also loading data) length, key, 139, 141 length, string, 119-122 levels of abstraction, 97 limiting number of database links, 302 link entities (see intersection entities) link tests, 32 links, database, 302, 329 load (see performance) loading bay, 338 loading data, 191-194 data compatibility, 194-201 data transformation, 203-207 data warehouses and, 362 direct path, 211, 344 file format and, 207-208 from other systems, 32 outbound data, 213 partitions and, 354 SQLxLoader for, 209-211 local area networks (LANs), 36, 271, 287 local lookup database, 287 location independence, 300 location transparency, 300 locking, 296, 418-420, 437-445 deadlocks, 380, 440 DLM (Distributed Lock Manager), 386 locking later, 438 logging batch jobs, 459-463 logical deletion, 181-182 logical volume manager, 373 logons and logoffs, 233 encapsulating logons, 246 OPS$ accounts, 244 logs, 214 analyzer software for, 238, 243 audit trails, 233-236 redo logs, 243, 260, 262 redo log groups option, 216 threat logs, 247 LONG data type, 109, 122, 332 LONG RAW data type, 109, 122 lookup tables, 308 loosely coupled machines, 386 low-level design, 20 LRU algorithm, 284 M mainframe, centralized, 311 mandatory reflexive relationships, 80 relationships at both ends, 87 mandatory checking, 419 manual procedures, 29 many-to-many relationships, 67, 84 5NF and, 78 mapping functions to modules, 30 massively parallel processors (MPPs), 388-389 MAXEXTENTS attribute, 221 mediation of update rights, 324-326 megamodules, 425-428 memory archivelog mode, 260-261 archiving, 226-233 audit requirements and, 234 backup storage, 257 sizing, 219 tightly coupled machines, 386 memory bus contention, 385 menus, access security and, 247 merging keys, 366 merging tables, 111 message pairs, 36 meta models, 97, 364 metrics, 31, 423-425 microfiche, data on, 229 middleware, 280-282 migration, data, 12, 121, 201-203, 230 Bx-tree indexes and, 148 Oracle7 to Oracle7, 211-213 row migration, 222 millennium date problem, 495-503 MINEXTENTS attribute, 221 mining data (see data mining) mirroring, 257, 374 mismatch resolution intelligence, 339 models client/server workload, 273-275 data, 28, 61-64, 485 information, 27, 61, 69-92 illegal structures in, 80-88 normalized, 70-88 meta models, 97, 364 (see also ERDs) modules mapping functions to, 30, 397-399 metrics for, 423-425 specification for, 30 specifications for, 30, 433-435 system modules, 393, 399-402 (see also source code) Moscow analysis, 17 MPPs (Massively Parallel Processors), 388-389 multidimensional databases, 339 OLAP tools (MD-OLAP), 367 schema (see star schema) multidimensional engines, 165, 187 multilingual systems, 365 multi-master technology, 37 multiprocessor machines, 39, 221 multitasking, 282 multivalued dependency (MVD), 70, 76 mutating tables, 241, 487-494 mutually exclusive entities (see arcs) MVD (see multivalued dependency) N name resolution, 269 naming, temporal data and, 118 navigation, 30, 469-471 NCA (Network Computing Architecture), 36, 334, 449 network computers (NCs), 217, 276 networks, 25, 336 cross-network joins, 286 LANs, 36, 271, 287 traffic on (see performance) WANs, 36, 246, 271 newline characters, 208 NEXT attribute, 220 nonexclusive subtypes, 80-82 noninclusive subtypes, 80-82 nonintrusive monitoring, 402 nonunique keys, 134-136 nonvolatile data, 282-286 normalized information model, 70-88 null values, 125-130, 198 equality of, 126 foreign key constraints and, 200 indexing, 150 NUMA (Non-Uniform Memory Architecture), 388 NUMBER( ), 115 numeric data, 115-117, 366 zeroes vs. nulls, 198 O objects database links, 302, 329 granting access to, 248 placements of, 215-217 storage parameters for, 220-223 obsolete data codes, 195-196 ODBC, 449 offline, putting data, 229 offsite backup storage, 257 off-the-shelf packages, 26, 477-486 OLAP (online analytical processing), 165, 338, 367 OLTP systems, 218, 341 one-to-one relationships, 86-88 online analytical processing (see OLAP) applications, 428 help, 471-473 transaction processing (OLTP), 277 open-endedness with temporal data, 170-172 operating systems (see platforms) OPS (Oracle Parallel Server), 369, 384-390 OPS$ accounts, 244 optimistic locking, 439 optimization, 41 choosing an optimizer, 154-157 cost-based (statistical), 154 indexes and optimizers, 147 rules-based, 154 views, 291-294 optionality, 66 ORA_ENCRYPT_LOGIN parameter, 246 Oracle Parallel Query Option (see PQO) Oracle, version of, xvii data warehousing, 344-345 distributed database support, 300-312 Oracle7, xiii audit features, 236-238 data distribution features, 306 data migration from/to, 211-213 data validation, 294 limiting database links, 302 passwords, 246 redo log groups option, 216 Oracle8 LONG and LONG RAW data types, 109 zero-length strings, 125 views containing joins and, 290 order of defining keys, 85 for loading data, 208 numeric vs. character, 117 outbound data, 213 overlapping temporal data, 176-180 overloading, 318 overrun, index, 174 ownership, data, 304 P packages implementing data access via, 250-252 off-the-shelf, 26, 477-486 persistent variables, triggers and, 107 PARALLEL clause, 383 parallel processing, 39, 221, 369-375 design issues, 375-380 MPPs, 388-389 OPS (Oracle Parallel Server), 369, 384-390 PQO (Parallel Query Option), 369, 380-384 parents downward denormalization and, 103 foreign keys (see foreign keys) parse stage, SQL execution, 278 partitions, 353-355 fact tables, 350 horizontal, 228, 309, 353 among servers, 37 pass through mode, 449 passwords, 246 PCTFREE attribute, 221-223 PCTINCREASE attribute, 220 PCTUSED attribute, 221-223 performance, 11, 155, 416 bottlenecks, 25 commit interval, 464-466 database links and, 302 designing for, 39-42 hash clusters, 159 index placement and, 217 key length and, 139 LANs and WANs, 36 lock efficiency, 442-445 memory sizing and, 219 middleware, 282 OLTP, 277 parallelism and, 370-375 redundancy and (see denormalization) snapshots and, 319 SQL execution and, 279 views and, 288-294 (see also speed) permanency of audit trails, 238 persistent package variables, 182, 490 phreaking, 245 physical deletion, 181 physical design, 215-224 pig's ears (see reflexive relationships) ping command, 272 pinging, 386 pivoting, 367 PL/SQL block execution, 279 placement of objects, 215-217 planning the design, 18 platforms, 24, 479 policy, index, 144 post-query triggers, 289 PQO (Parallel Query Option), 369, 380-384 precision numeric, 115 temporal (see granularity) pre-compilers, null values and, 127 primary keys, 63, 132-141 date-effective tables and, 172-176 (see also keys) privileged libraries, 277 ProxC programs, 209 procedure-driven extensibility, 509 process design, 29-31 process rules, 411-418, 420 program navigation, 30, 469-471 programs, off-the-shelf, 26, 477-486 proof of concept, 432 prototypes, 428-433, 455 pseudocode, 433 Q queries against star schema, 351 partitioning and, 355 tools for, 401 R RAD (Rapid Application Development), 16, 429-431 RAID technology, 374 RAW data type, 124 read-only data, 230 REAL data type, 116 real numbers, 115 records deleting (see deleting data) derived, auditing and, 242 file format and, 207 record groups, 283 recovery of data, 209 recursive relationships (see reflexive relationships) redo logs, 243, 260 redo log groups option, 216 symmetric replication of, 262 redundancy, 41 denormalization (see denormalization) hardware, 255 partitions, 355 RAID technology, 374 referentially invalid data, 196 reflexive relationships, 64, 68, 80 recursive SQL, 493 refreshing snapshots, 319 relationship OLAP (ROLAP) tools, 367 relationships, 7, 63 dependency (see dependency) ERDs (see ERDs) mandatory at both ends, 87 many-to-many, 67, 78, 84 to mutually exclusive entities (see arcs) one-to-one, 86-88 reflexive, 64, 68, 80 relationship occurrences, 63 temporal, 43, 84 remote database (see distributed databases) DML, 316 join problem, 303 OPS$ logons, 245 procedures, 317, 323 updates, 304 repeating external entities, 95 replanning, 19 Replication Manager, 328 reports, 427, 456-458 report extract, 457 resident code, 11 resolution, time (see granularity) resolving arcs, 88-92 data distribution, 307-314 subtypes, 83-84 responsibility requirements, 304 restricted views, 248, 254 risk identification/management, 13 roles, 248 rollbacks, 218, 439, 468 rolling cache, 284 root blocks, 147 round trip time, 272-273 row migration, 222 ROWID data type, 124 RPCs (remote procedure calls), 317, 323 rules (see constraints) S saving, 229 (see also audit trails) scheduler, 370 scheduling archives, 231 backups, 255-256 commit interval, 464-466 schema, 9-10, 403 fragmentation schema, 307 schema gridlock, 317 star schema, 339, 347, 349-352 screens, 435, 453-456 screen-level help, 471 scripts, 223 searches, case-insensitive, 108 second normal form (2NF), 72 security, 33, 243-255 access, 244-248 archiving, 226-233, 233-243 backups, 255-263 data, 248-255 navigation and, 471 SELECT statement, 277, 281 self relationships (see reflexive relationships) separate historic data tables, 180-183 sequence sets (Bx-tree index), 147 sequences, 387 serializability, 441, 458 servers, 36 multiple (see distributed database systems) parallel server environments, 221 (see also client/server environment) SGA, sizing, 219 shadowed disks, 257 shared mode, 386 shared nothing architectures, 369 simple snapshots, 319 size, cache, 284 sizing, 218-220 data warehouses, 343 skeleton applications (see templates) SMALLINT data type, 116 SMP (symmetric multiprocessing), 384-388, 444 snapshots, 37, 308, 319-322 LONG columns and, 332 updates on, 310 software bus, 334 sorting, numeric vs. character, 117 source code code-driven applications, 96 code generators, 31, 408 controlling, 402-405 design, 393-402 designing, 29-31 performance and, 42 placement of, 416-418 pseudocode, 433 templates, 31, 405 testing, 406 space (see memory) spatial databases, 340 specifications, 433-436 functional, 33 module, 30, 433-435 technical, 11, 33 speed client/server (see round trip time) dial-in support, 271 export/import backups, 259 improving by archiving, 226 network link, 212 (see also performance) splitting data among servers, 37 tables, 109 spoofing, 245 SQL, 277-280 in module specifications, 434 recursive, 493 SQLxLoader scripts, 209-211 SQLxNet, 276 SQLxPlus scripts, 206, 213 standards, design, 26 standby configurations, 261-262 star joins, 292 star schema, 339, 347, 350-352 time dimension and, 349 state transition diagrams (see ELHs) statistical optimization (see cost-based optizimation) statistics, optimization, 155-156 STORAGE clauses, 220 storage parameters, 220-223 stored procedure/function calls, 281 strategy study, 5 strings, 119-122 of digits, 116 zero-length (empty), 125, 198 striping, 39, 372-374 stub rows, 222 subtypes, 64, 83-84 in ERDs, 67 illegal, 80-82 resolving arcs into, 88-92 (see also attributes) supertypes, 64 in ERDs, 67 resolving arcs into, 88-92 (see also attributes) surrogate keys, 132-134, 136-141, 351 symmetric multiprocessing, 384-388, 444 symmetric replication, 262, 311, 323-327 synchronous RPCs, 317 synchronous symmetric replication, 326 synonyms, 288, 302 synthetic entities (see intersection entities) synthetic UIDs (see surrogate keys) SYSDATE, 297 system clock (see temporal data) constraints (see constraints) external, 32, 43 legacy systems, 32, 224 load (see performance) logons and logoffs, 233 modules, 393, 399-402 support functions, 482 test, 32 T tables archiving to, 232 clustering (see clusters) correcting for obsolete codes, 195 dimension (see dimension tables) fact (see fact tables) index policy for, 144 intra-table denormalization, 107-109 lookup, 308 merging, 111 mutating, 241, 487-494 one-to-one relationships and, 86 tables (continued) partitioning (see partitions) separate historic data, 180-183 sizing, 218 snapshots of, 319-322 splitting into multiple, 109 table-level locking, 443 triggers on (see triggers) tablespaces, 217 hot backups of, 261 tailored menus, 247 technical specification, 11, 33 templates, 31, 405 temporal data, 43, 84, 117-119, 164-168, 366 as basis for conflict resolution, 324 in client/server environment, 296-298 date effectivity, 164, 173, 181-182 design issues, 168-189 discontinuous or overlapping, 176-180 engines for, 165 foreign keys and, 184-187 granularity, 117, 168 millennium date problem, 495-503 open-endedness with, 170-172 primary key and, 172-176 separate historic data tables, 180-183 time in star schema, 349 timestamps, 214, 231, 297 testing designing for, 406 ensuring design completeness, 34 understanding of analysis, 21 text (see strings) third normal form (3NF), 70, 73 third-party products, 26, 477-486 threat logs, 247 three-tier architectures, 36, 420-422 tightly coupled machines, 386 time estimates, 424 time (see temporal data) tools, 446-452 batch processing, 463 build process, 29 tracking batch jobs, 459-463 traffic (see performance) transformation, data, 203-207, 364-367 transparency, location, 300 triangular pattern of keys, 153 triggers, 105, 322 auditing, 235, 238-241, 242 data security and, 253-254 declarative constraints vs., 199 discontinuous temporal data, 177-180 post-query, 289 SQLxLoader and, 210 on updatable snapshots, 321 troubleshooting, 487-511 two-phase commits, 305, 314-316 two-task architecture, 412 U UIDs (unique identifiers), 63, 132 altering to non-unique, 134-136 multiple (see candidate keys) UNION, deleting data and, 228 uniqueness candidate keys, 63, 86, 140-142, 419 hash keys and, 159 non-unique keys, 134-136 (see also UIDs) unit test, 32 unloading data, 213 data warehouses and, 358-362 (see also loading data) UNRECOVERABLE attribute, 345, 465 unstructured data, 122-123 updating on snapshots, 310 batch updates, 333 control over, 404 remotely, 304 snapshots, 321 update rights, 324-326 UPIALL protocol, 279 upward denormalization, 104-105 user interface (see interface) users acceptance test, 32 auditing by user name, 242 backup requirements of, 256 extensibility, 503-511 verification of, 244-247 V validating data, 294-296, 363 VARCHAR data type, 125 VARCHAR2 data type, 116, 119, 125 variable-length records, 207 variables environment, 216 package persistent, triggers and, 107 persistent package, 182, 490 verification checking, 363 verifying users, 244-247 version control, 402-405 versions, Oracle (see Oracle, version of) vertical partitions, 353 very large databases (VLDBs), 42 view-driven extensibility, 509 views, 288-291 optimizing, 291-294 restricting, 248, 254 Visual Basic, null values and, 128 VLDBs (very large databases), 42 W WANs (wide area networks), 36, 246, 271 warehouses (see data warehouses) wide area networks (WANs), 36, 246, 271 WITH CHECK OPTION constraint, 83 workgroup computing, 335 working practices, 29 World Wide Web, designing for, 451 Y "year 2000" problem, 495-503 Z zero-length strings, 125, 198 
END

Product Details

ISBN:
9781565922686
Author:
Ensor, Dave
Author:
Stevenson, Ian
Publisher:
O'Reilly Media
Location:
Cambridge Eng. ;
Subject:
Computers
Subject:
Database Management - IBM Compatible
Subject:
Database Management - General
Subject:
Relational databases
Subject:
Computer software
Subject:
Database design
Subject:
Database Management - Oracle
Subject:
Oracle (computer system)
Subject:
Oracle (Computer file)
Subject:
Oracle
Subject:
Microcomputer Programming
Subject:
Computer Books: Database
Subject:
data modeling;design;oracle
Subject:
Data processing
Edition Number:
1st ed.
Edition Description:
Print PDF
Series:
Nutshell Handbook
Series Volume:
13
Publication Date:
19970331
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Yes
Pages:
552
Dimensions:
9.19 x 7 x 1.17 in 1.69 lb

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Oracle Design (Nutshell Handbooks) Used Trade Paper
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Product details 552 pages O'Reilly & Associates - English 9781565922686 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , Covering database, code, and architecture design for the Oracle operating system, this text is arranged in four sections including an overview of Oracle and data modelling; and aspects of database design including denormalization, data types, nulls, keys and indexes.
"Synopsis" by ,
This book focuses exclusively on Oracle database design. It covers the most up-to-date Oracle issues and technologies, including massively parallel processors, very large databases, data warehouses, client-server, and distributed database. The design advice is detailed and thorough. The book delves deeply into design issues and gives advice that will have a major impact on your database and system performance.
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