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Western Humanities 6/E

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Western Humanities 6/E Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

Chronologically organized, The Western Humanities presents the cultural achievements of western civilizationart, music, history, literature, theater, film and the other artswithin their historical context. By examining the historical and material conditions that influenced the form and content of the arts and literature, the authors provide students a deeper understanding of the meaning of cultural works and a broader basis for appreciating the humanities. Hundreds of illustrations appear throughout the text, "Slices of Life" boxes bring to life the events of the day, and brief sections at the end of each chapter describe the cultural legacy of the era discussed.

Table of Contents

The Western Humanities, 6/e

Preface

Introduction: Why Study Cultural History?

A Humanities Primer: How to Understand the Arts

Chapter 1

PREHISTORY AND NEAR EASTERN CIVILIZATIONS

Prehistory and Early Cultures

Paleolithic Period

Neolithic Period

Technology in Early Cultures

Stone Age Technology

Bronze Age Technology

Iron Age Technology

The Civilizations of the Tigris and Euphrates River Valley: Mesopotamia

    The Sumerian, Akkadian, and Babylonian Kingdoms

    The Cradle of Civilization

        Writing

Encounter: "Phonecians and Their Alphabet"

        Religion

        Literature

  Slice of Life: "A Sumerian Father Lectures His Son"

        Law

Science: Astronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine

        Art and Architecture

The Civilization of the Nile River Valley: Egypt

    Continuity and Change over Three Thousand Years

    A Quest for Eternal Cultural Values

        Religion

        Writing and Literature

  Slice of Life: "The Instruction of Amenemope"

Science and Medicine

Architecture

Sculpture, Painting, and Minor Arts

Heirs to the Mesopotamian and Egyptian Empires

The Hittites

The Assyrians

The Medes

The Persians

The Legacy of Early Near Eastern Civilizations

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Timeline

Chapter 2

AEGEAN CIVILIZATIONS: THE MINOANS, THE MYCENAEANS, AND THE GREEKS OF THE ARCHAIC AGE

Prelude: Minoan Civilization, 3000 - 1100 B.C.E.

Beginnings: Mycenaean Civilization, 1900 - 1100 B.C.E.

Technology in Minoan Crete and Mycenae

Crete and Mycenae

Archaic Greece

Interlude: The Dark Ages, 1100 - 800 B.C.E.

The Archaic Age, 800 - 479 B.C.E.

    Political, Economic, and Social Structures

    The Greek Polis: Sparta and Athens

    Technology in Archaic Greece

The Persian Wars

Encounter: "Near Estern Art and Greek Pottery"

The Emergence of Greek Genius: The Mastery of Form

    Religion

    Epic Poetry

Lyric Poetry

Slice of Life: "The Worlds of Women and Men in Ancient Greece"

    Natural Philosophy

    Medicine

Architecture

    Sculpture

The Legacy of Archaic Greek Civilization

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Timeline

Chapter 3

CLASSICAL GREEK CIVILIZATION: THE HELLENIC AGE

General Characteristics of Hellenic Civilization

Domestic and Foreign Affairs: War, Peace, and the Triumph of Macedonia

Phases of the Hellenic Age

Technology

Shipbuilding

Warfare

The Perfection of the Tradition: The Glory of Hellenic Greece

    Theater: Tragedy

        Features of the Greek Theater

    Encounter: The Representation of Blacks in Greek Art

        Tragic Drama

        Aeschylus

        Sophocles

        Euripides

    Theater: Comedy

    Music

    History

    Philosophy, Science and Medicine

        The Pre-Socratics

        The Sophists

        The Socratic Revolution

        Plato

        Aristotle

    Architecture

        Sanctuaries

        The Temple: The Perfection of the Form

    Slice of Life: Xenophon, "Secrets of a Successful Marriage"

    Sculpture

The Legacy of Hellenic Civilization

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Timeline

Chapter 4

CLASSICAL GREEK CIVILIZATION: THE HELLENISTIC AGE

The Stages of Hellenistic History

    The End of the Empire and the Rise of the States

    The Arrival and Triumph of Rome

Urban Life in the Hellenistic Age

    Pergamum

    Alexandria in Egypt

    Slice of Life: Theocritus, "Street Scene in Hellenistic Egypt

The Elaboration of the Greek Tradition: The Spread of Classicism to the Hellenistic World

    Drama and Literature

    Philosophy and Religion

        Cynicism

        Skepticism

        Epicureanism

        Stoicism

        Fate and the Mystery Cults

Science and Medicine

Encounter: "The Invention of Parchment and the Birth of the Secular Library"

    Architecture

        The Corinthian Temple

        The Altar

    Sculpture

    Rhodes: Late Hellenistic Style

The Legacy of the Hellenistic World

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Timeline

Chapter 5

ROMAN CIVILIZATION: THE PRE-CHRISTIAN CENTURIES

The Colossus of the Mediterranean World

    General Characteristics of Roman Civilization

Technology

Warfare

Construction

    The Etruscan and Greek Connections

    Rome in the Age of Kings, 753-509 B.C.

    The Roman Republic, 509-31 B.C.

        The Early Republic, 509-264 B.C.

        The Middle Republic, 264-133 B.C.

        The Late Republic, 133-31 B.C.

    Growing Autocracy: Imperial Rome, 31 B.C.-A.D. 284

        Pax Romana, 31 B.C.-A.D. 193

        Civil Wars, A.D. 193-284

The Style of Pre-Christian Rome: From Greek Imitation to Roman Grandeur

    Roman Religion

    Language, Literature, and Drama

        The First Literary Period, 250-31 B.C.

Slice of Life: "A College Students Letter Home"

The Second Literary Period: The Golden Age, 31 B.C.-A.D. 14-200

    Slice of Life: Marcus, Son of Cicero, "Changing My Ways"

        The Third Literary Period: The Silver Age, A.D. 14-200

    Philosophy

        Stoicism

        Neo-Platonism

Science and Medicine

    Law

    The Visual Arts

        Architecture

    Encounter: Roman Conquests and Romance Languages

        Sculpture

        Painting and Mosaics

    Music

The Legacy of Pre-Christian Rome

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Timeline

Chapter 6

JUDAISM AND THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY

Judaism

    The People and Their Religion

        Egypt, Exodus, and Moses

        The Kingdom of Israel

        The Babylonian Captivity and the Postexilic Period

        The Hellenistic and Roman Periods

        Societal and Family Relationships

    Slice of Life: "A Jewish Eyewitness to the Destruction of the Second Temple"

    The Bible

    Early Jewish Art and Architecture

Encounter: "Baal, A Rival to the Israelites' God"

Christianity

    The Life of Jesus Christ and the New Testament

    Christians and Jews

    Christianity and Greco-Roman Religions and Philosophies

    Christians in the Roman Empire

    Slice of Life: "A Christian Mother Faces Death from Roman Authorities"

    Early Christian Literature

    Early Christian Art

The Legacy of Biblical Judaism and Early Christianity

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Timeline

Chapter 7

THE CIVILIZATIONS OF LATE ROME, BYZANTIUM, AND THE EARLY MEDIEVAL WEST

The Last Days of the Roman Empire

    Diocletians Reforms and the Triumph of Christianity, 284-395

        The Great Persecution and Christian Toleration

        Early Christian Developments

    Christian Rome and the End of the Western Empire, 395-476

The Transition from Classical Humanism to Christian Civilization

    Literature, Theology, and History

        The Fathers of the Church

    Slice of Life: "A Father's Advice to His Sons"

        Church History

    The Visual Arts

        Architecture

        Sculpture

        Painting and Mosaics

    Music

Encounter: "Ancient Globalization: Rome and The Silk Road"

The Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantine Civilization, 476-1453

    History of the Byzantine Empire

Slice of Life: "A Father's Advice to HIs Sons

    Byzantine Culture: Christianity and Classicism

        The Orthodox Religion

Science and Technology

        Law and History

        Architecture and Mosaics

The Early Medieval West

    The Early Middle Ages: A Romano-Germanic Christianized World

    Religion and the Arts and Humanities in the Early Middle Ages

        Christianity: Leadership and Organization

        Literature, History, and Learning

        Music

        Architecture

        Painting: Illuminated Manuscripts

Technology

Warefare

Farming

The Legacy of Late Rome, Byzantium, and the Early Medieval West

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Timeline

Chapter 8

THE WORLD OF ISLAM, 630-1517

Muhammad, The Prophet

Imperial Islam

    The Post-Muhammad Years

    The Umayyad Dynasty

    The Abbasid Dynasty

    The Seljuk Turk Empire

    Imperial Decline

Islam as Religion

Medieval Islamic Culture

    Medicine

Philosophy and History

Philiosophy

History

Technology

Papermaking

Hydraulics

Mechanical Engineering

Encounter: "An International Community of Scholars"

    Literature

        Poetry

        Prose

    Art and Architecture

        Architecture

        Painting

    Slice of Life: "Feard of Assimilation in a Multi-Cultural Society"

    Music

The Legacy of Medieval Islam

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Timeline

Chapter 9

THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES: THE CHRISTIAN CENTURIES

Feudalism

    The Feudal System and the Feudal Society

    Peasant Life

    The Rise of Towns

    The Feudal Monarchy

        The French Monarchy

        The English Monarchy

        The Holy Roman Empire

        The Papal Monarchy

Medieval Christianity and the Church

    Encounter: Pagan Vikings versus Christian Europeans

Christian Beliefs and Practices

    Religious Orders and Lay Piety

    The Crusades

Slice of Life: "When Love Knows No Boundaries"

The Age of Synthesis: Equilibrium Between the Spiritual and the Secular

    Theology and Learning

        Cathedral Schools and the Development of Scholasticism

        Peter Abelard

        The Rise of the Universities

        Intellectual Controversy and Thomas Aquinas

    Science and Medicine

Science

Medicine

Literature

        Monastic and Feudal Writing

        Vernacular and Courtly Writing

        Dante

    Architecture and Art

        Romanesque Churches and Related Arts

        Gothic Churches and Related Arts

            Early Gothic Style, 1145-1194

            High Gothic Style, 1194-1300

    Music

Technology

Warfare

Waterpower and Windpower

Farming

The Legacy of the Christian Centuries

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Timeline

Chapter 10

THE LATE MIDDLE AGES: 1300 - 1500

Hard Times Come to Europe

    Ordeal by Plague, Famine, and War

    Depopulation and Rebellion

    The Secular Monarchies

    The Papal Monarchy

Technology

The Rise of Industries

The Printing Press

The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages

    Religion

    Slice of Life: "A Gossip Columnist of the Late Middle Ages"

    Theology and Philosophy

        The Via Antiqua Versus the Via Moderna

        Duns Scotus and William of Ockham

        Science

    Literature

        Northern Italian Literature: Petrarch and Boccacio

        English Literature: Geoffrey Chaucer

        French Literature: Christine de Pizan

    Art and Architecture

        Late Gothic Architecture

        Late Gothic Sculpture

        Late Gothic Painting and the Rise of New Trends

    Music

The Legacy of the Late Middle Ages

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Suggestion for Listening

Timeline

Chapter 11

THE EARLY RENAISSANCE: RETURN TO CLASSICAL ROOTS, 1400 - 1494

The Renaissance: Schools of Interpretation

Early Renaissance History and Institutions

    Italian City-States During the Early Renaissance

    Florence, the Center of the Renaissance

    The Resurgent Papcy, 1450-1500

The Spirit and Style of the Early Renaissance

    Humanism, Scholarship, and Schooling

    SLice of Life: Battle of the Sexes, Fifteenth Century Style

    Thought and Philosophy

    Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting

        Artistic Ideals and Innovations

        Architecture

        Sculpture

        Painting

Encounter: "The Influence of Islam on the European Renaissance"

    Music

The Legacy of the Early Renaissance

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Suggestion for Listening

Timeline

Chapter 12

THE HIGH RENAISSANCE AND EARLY MANNERISM, 1494 - 1564

The Rise of the Modern Sovereign State

    The Struggle for Italy, 1494-1529

    Charles V and the Hapsburg Empire

Economic Expansion and Social Developments

Demographics, Prosperity, and the Beginning of a Global Village

Technology

Science and Medicine

Encounter: Portuguese Exploration Sets the Stage of a New World

From High Renaissance to Early Mannerism

    Literature

        Gaspara Stampa

        Castiglione

        Machiavelli

    Painting

        Leonardo da Vinci

        Michelangelo

        Raphael

        The Venetian School: Giorgione and Titian

        The School of Parma: Parmigianino

    Sculpture

    SLice of Life: "Artists and Their Critics: Michelangelo's Strategy"

    Architecture

    Music

The Legacy of the High Renaissance and Early Mannerism

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Suggestions for Listening

Timeline

Chapter 13

NORTHERN HUMANISM, NORTHERN RENAISSANCE, RELIGIOUS REFORMATIONS, AND LATE MANNERISM, 1500 - 1603

Northern Humanism

The Northern Renaissance

Northern Renaissance Thought and Science

Jean Bodin

Andreas Vesalius

    Northern Renaissance Literature

        Michel de Montaigne

        William Shakespeare

    Northern Renaissance Painting

        Albrecht Dürer

        Mathias Grunewald

        Hieronymus Bosch

        Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Encounter: "Indigineous Peoples and New Spain"

Slice of Life: "The Conscience of Sixteenth-Century Christian Europe: Bartolome de Las Casas From, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies"

The Breakup of Christendom: Causes of the Religious Reformations

    The Protestant Order

        Luthers Revolt

            Luthers Beliefs

            Social and Political Implications of Luthers Revolt

        The Reforms of John Calvin

        The Reform of the English Church

    The Counter-Reformation

        The Reformed Papacy

        New Monastic Orders

        The Council of Trent

    Warfare as a Response to Religious Dissent, 1520-1603

Late Mannerism

    Spanish Painting

    Spanish Literature

    Late Mannerist Painting in Italy: Tintoretto

    Music in Late-Sixteenth-Century Italy and England

The Legacy of Northern Humanism, Northern Renaissance, Religious Reformations, and Late Mannerism

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Suggestions for Listening

Timeline

Chapter 14

THE BAROQUE AGE: GLAMOUR AND GRANDIOSITY, 1600 - 1715

Absolutism, Monarchy, and the Balance of Power

    France: The Supreme Example of Absolutism

    England: From Monarchy to Republic to Limited Monarchy

    Warfare in the Baroque Period: Maintaining the Balance of Power

        The Thirty Years War, 1618-1648

    Slice of Life: "Two Views of Power: Master and Servant"

Encounter: "Japan Closes Its Doors, Nearly"

        The Wars of Louis XIV, 1665-1713

The Baroque: Variations on an International Style

    The Florid Baroque

        Architecture

        Sculpture

        Painting

    The Classical Baroque

        Architecture

        Painting

    The Restrained Baroque

        Painting

        Architecture

    Literature

        Baroque Literature in France

        Baroque Literature in England

    Music

The Legacy of the Baroque Age

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Suggestions for Listening

Timeline

Chapter 15

THE BAROQUE AGE II: REVOLUTIONS IN SCIENTIFIC AND POLITICAL THOUGHT, 1600 - 1715

Theories of the Universe before the Scientific Revolution

The Magical and the Practical in the Scientific Revolution

    Astronomy and Physics: From Copernicus to Newton

        Nicolas Copernicus

        Johannes Kepler

        Galileo Galilei

        Isaac Newton

    Medicine and Chemistry

    Technology

The Impact of Science on Philosophy

        Francis Bacon

        Rene Descartes

        Blaise Pascal

    Ironies and Contradictions of the Scientific Revolution

    Slice of Life: "Innocent or Guilty?" - A Seventeenth Century Witch Trial"

The Revolution in Political Philosophy

    Natural Law and Divine Right: Grotius and Bossuet

        Absolutism and Liberalism: Hobbes and Locke

European Exploration and Expansion

Responses to the Revolutions in Thought

    Encounter: The Sinews of Trade

    The Spread of Ideas

    Impact on the Arts

The Legacy of the Revolutions in Scientific and Political Thought

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Timeline

Chapter 16

THE AGE OF REASON, 1700 - 1789

The Enlightenment

    The Philosophes and Their Program

    Religion

Deism

     Popular Religion

The Encyclopedie

    The Physiocrats

The Great Powers During the Age of Reason

    Society: Continuity and Change

    Absolutism, Limited Monarchy, and Enlightened Despotism

        France: The Successors to the Sun King

        Great Britain and the Hanoverian Kings

        Enlightened Despotism in Central and Eastern Europe

Cultural Trends in the Eighteenth Century: From Rococo to Neoclassical

    The Rococo Style in the Arts

        Rococo Painting

        Rococo Interiors

        The English Response

Encounter: Slavery and the French Revolution

    The Challenge of Neoclassicism

        Neoclassical Painting

The Print

        Neoclassical Architecture

    Philosophy

Political Philosophy

    David Hume

Literature

        French Writers: The Development of New Forms

        Neoclassicism in English Literature

    Slice of Life: "How to Manipulate the System: Lady Mary Wortly Mantagu"

        The Rise of the Novel

    Music

The Legacy of the Age of Reason

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Suggestions for Listening

Timeline

Chapter 17

REVOLUTION, REACTION, AND CULTURAL RESPONSE, 1760 - 1830

The Industrial Revolution

    Industrialization in England

Slice of Life: "Life inside a 'Satanic Mill' in 1815: Elizabeth Bently"

    Classical Economics: The Rationale for Industrialization

Political Revolutions, 1760 - 1815

    The American Revolution

    The French Revolution

    Encounter: Slavery and the French Revolution

Technology

Reaction, 1815 - 1830

Revolutions in Art and Ideas: From Neoclassicism to Romanticism

    Neoclassicism in Literature After 1789

    Neoclassical Painting and Architecture After 1789

    Romanticism: Its Spirit and Expression

    The Romantic Movement in Literature

    Romantic Painting

Science and Philosophy

Science

Philosophy

    The Birth of Romantic Music

The Legacy of the Age of Revolution and Reaction

Key Cultural Terms

Suggestions for Further Reading

Suggestions for Listening

Timeline

Chapter 18

THE TRIUMPH OF THE BOURGEOISIE, 1830 - 1871

The Political and Economic Scene: Liberalism and Nationalism

    The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848

    European Affairs in the Grip of Realpolitik

        Limited Reform in France and Great Britain

        Wars and Unification in Central Europe

    Civil War in the United States

    Industrialization, Technology, and Warfare

Industrialism: The Shrinking Globe

New Technologies

The Second Industrial Revolution

Symbols of the Bourgeois

Product Details

ISBN:
9780073136196
Author:
Matthews, Roy T
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Langua
Author:
Matthews, Roy
Author:
Platt, F. DeWitt
Author:
Platt, DeWitt
Author:
Matthews, Roy T.
Author:
Platt, DeWitt DeWitt
Subject:
Non-Classifiable
Subject:
History
Subject:
Civilization, western
Subject:
World - General
Subject:
Civilization, Western -- History.
Subject:
World History-General
Copyright:
Edition Number:
6
Publication Date:
February 2007
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Y
Pages:
736
Dimensions:
10.77x8.64x1.27 in. 4.70 lbs.
Age Level:
the Crystal Palace and the Suez Canal  &

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