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A Brief Guide to Writing Academic Arguments

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A Brief Guide to Writing Academic Arguments Cover

 

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments:

A Brief Guide to Writing Academic Arguments prepares the reader to read and write the types of argument-related source-based writing they are most likely to encounter in college.

 

 

  Prepares students to read and write the types of argument-related source-based writing they are most likely to encounter in college.  academic arguments.  General Interest; Improving Writing

Synopsis:

A Brief Guide to Writing Academic Arguments prepares the reader to read and write the types of argument-related source-based writing they are most likely to encounter in college.

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

 

Ch. 1     What Makes an Academic Argument “Academic”?

What “Argument” Means in an Academic Setting

Context Is Everything: Understanding the Rhetorical Situation of Academic Arguments

Elements of the Rhetorical Situation

     How the Elements of the Rhetorical Situation Are Interconnected

Reading: “Generation Q,” by Thomas L. Friedman

 

Qualities of Effective Academic Arguments

     Effective Academic Arguments Are Clear and Precise

     Effective Academic Arguments Are Well Supported

     Effective Academic Arguments Are Properly Qualified 

     Effective Academic Arguments Are Placed in Context

     Effective Academic Arguments Employ an Appropriate Voice and Tone

     Effective Academic Arguments Follow Established Conventions      

     Effective Academic Arguments Are Sensitive to Audience Needs

 

Ch. 2     The Elements of Persuasive Academic Arguments         

What Makes Academic Arguments Persuasive?

Logos: The Role of Logic and Reason in Academic Arguments

     Claims

     Grounds 

     Explanations

     Qualifications

     Rebuttals

     Logos in Action: A Sample Argument

     Sample Reading: Letter to the Editor

     Common Logos-related Fallacies

Pathos: The Role of Emotion in Academic Arguments

     Pathos in Action: A Sample Essay

     Reading: “Perils and Promise: Destroy an Embryo, Waste a Life,” by Christopher H. Smith

     How Pathos Can Help You Develop Content and Choose Language

     How Pathos Can Help You Create a  Bond with Your Audience

     How Pathos Can Help You Communicate Your Own Emotional Investment in Your Argument

     Common Pathos-related Fallacies

Ethos: The Role of the Writer’s Authority and Credibility in Academic Arguments

     Establishing Ethos through Your Knowledge of the Topic

     Establishing Ethos through Accurate Writing

     Establishing Ethos by Being Open Minded, Honest, and Fair

     Establishing Ethos by Following Conventions

     Ethos in Action: A Sample Reading        

     Reading: “Embryo Ethics: The Moral Logic of Stem-cell Research,” by Michael J. Sandel

     Common Ethos-related Fallacies

The Interrelatedness of Logos, Pathos, and Ethos

 

Ch. 3     Reading Academic Arguments Critically

 A Process Approach to Critical Reading

Pre-reading Strategies

Reading: “Rank Colleges, but Rank Them Right,” by David Leonhardt

Comprehending Arguments

     Sample Annotated Text

Analyzing Arguments

     Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument’s Author

     Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument’s Topic

     Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument’s Audience

     Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument’s Purpose

     Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument’s Occasion

     Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument's Claims

     Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument’s Structure

    Analytical Questions Regarding an Argument's Language

Evaluating Arguments

     Evaluating the Quality of an Argument’s Claims

     Evaluating the Quality of an Argument’s Grounds

     Evaluating the Quality of an Argument’s Explanations

     Evaluating the Quality of an Argument’s Rebuttals

 

Ch. 4     The Role of Claims in Academic Arguments

What Claims Are and What They Aren’t

     Claims Are Debatable

     Claims Are Substantive

     Claims Are Sincere

Stating Claims Effectively

     Effective Claims Are Precise

     Effective Claims Are Clear

     Effective Claims Are Properly Qualified

     Effective Claims Are Affirmative

The Structure of Claims in Academic Arguments

The Process of Crafting Claims

 

Ch. 5     Supporting Claims

The Role of Reasons in Supporting Arguments

     The Relationship between Claims and Reasons

     Choosing Which Reasons to Include in an Argument

     Choosing How Many Reasons to Include in an Argument

     Organizing Reasons in Support of a Thesis

     Note: Using First-person Point of View When Stating Reasons           

The Role of Evidence in Supporting Arguments

     Types of Evidence Commonly Employed in Academic Writing

     What Makes Evidence Persuasive

The Role of Beliefs and Values in Supporting Arguments

     Stating Beliefs and Values in Support of an Argument

    Leaving Beliefs and Values Unstated in an Argument

 

Ch. 6     Explaining Your Argument

Connecting Claims, Reasons, and Evidence

     Case in Point: The TV Courtroom Drama

     Explaining Your Argument: An Exercise

What to Explain and How to Explain It

     What Typically Needs Explanation

     Explaining Arguments: An Example

     Reading: “Student Cheating,” by Bill Puka

 

Ch. 7     Qualifying Claims and Rebutting Opposition in Academic Arguments

Why You Need to Qualify Your Claims in Academic Arguments

     Qualified Claims Tend to Be More Honest Than Unqualified Claims

     Qualified Claims Are Easier to Support Than Are Unqualified Claims

     Qualified Claims Are More Difficult to Refute Than Are Unqualified Claims

     Qualified Claims Conform to the Conventions of Academic Writing

Language Commonly Used to Qualify Claims

Addressing Opposition in Academic Arguments

     Why It Is Important to Research and Address Opposing Views in Academic Arguments

     Anticipating Opposition

     Rebutting Opposition

 

Ch. 8     Working with Sources in Academic Arguments

Roles Sources Commonly Play in Academic Arguments

     Provide Background Information

     Support Claims

     Present Opposing Views

     Improve Ethos

Techniques Commonly Used to Integrate Source Material into Academic Arguments

     Reading: “Regular Exercise and Weight Management: Myths and Reality,”  Steven Jonas

Summarizing Material

     Qualities of a Good Summary

     Writing a Summary

Paraphrasing Material

     When and Why to Paraphrase Material

     Qualities of a Good Paraphrase

     How to Paraphrase Material

Quoting Material

     When and Why to Quote Material

     How to Quote Material

Avoiding Plagiarism

     Common Forms of Plagiarism in Academic Writing

     Avoiding Problems with Plagiarism       

 

Ch. 9     Working with the Visual Elements of Academic Arguments

Why It’s Important to Understand the Visual Elements of Arguments

How Visuals Function in Academic Arguments

     Using Visuals to Make an Argument

     Using Visuals to Support an Argument

     Using Visuals to Make an Argument Easier to Understand

Reading Visual Texts Critically

     Reading Pictures and Drawings

     Reading Diagrams, Tables, and Graphs

Working with Pictures, Drawings, and Diagrams

     Qualities of Effective Pictures, Drawings, and Diagrams

Working with Tables

     Qualities of Effective Tables

Working with Graphs

     Common Types of Graphs

     Qualities of Effective Graphs

Working with Typographical Features of a Text

      Effective Use of Typographical Features

 

Ch. 10    Writing Arguments: An Overview

Understanding the Rhetorical Situation of an Assignment

Working with Assigned Topics

Working with Open Topics

     Choosing a Topic for an Argumentative Essay: A General Heuristic

     Choosing a Topic for an Argumentative Essay: A Stasis-based Heuristic

Narrowing and Focusing a Topic

Investigating the Topic

     Investigating a Topic through Reflection

     Investigating a Topic through Research

Understanding the Role of Thesis Statements in Academic Writing

    Choosing Among Possible Positions

    Common Types of Thesis Statements in Academic Writing

    Crafting a Thesis Statement: A Process Approach

    Thesis Placement

Organizing an Argument

    Opening and Closing Sections in Academic Arguments

    Organizing the Body of Academic Arguments

    Organizing Academic Arguments around Thesis Statements and Topic Sentences

Drafting an Argument

    Composing Strategies: Three Common Models

    BOX: Writing Habit Inventory

    Overcoming Problems that Commonly Arise When Drafting Academic Arguments

Revising an Argument

    Revising Content

    Revising Structure

    Revising Mechanics and Style

    Revising Quoted and Paraphrased Material

    Revising Documentation    

 

Ch. 11     Writing Definition Arguments

What Are Definition Arguments?

Types of Definition Arguments

     Stipulative Definitions

     Categorical Definitions

Writing a Stipulative Definition Argument

     A Model Process for Writing Stipulative Definition Arguments

     Common Errors to Avoid When Writing a Stipulative Definition Argument

     Sample Student Essay: Stipulative Definition Argument

          “What Is Global Warming,” by Cassandra Leigh Stemsky

Writing a Categorical Definition Argument

     A Model Process for Writing Categorical Definition Arguments

     Common Errors to Avoid When Writing a Categorical Definition Argument

     Sample Student Essay: Categorical Definition Argument

          “Is Cheerleading a Sport?  It Depends,” by Mike Allen

Additional Readings

     “What Is Spirituality?” by Bruce W. Speck

     “Why Spirituality Deserves a Central Place in Liberal Education,” by Alexander W. Astin

 

 Ch. 12     Writing Causal Arguments

What Are Causal Arguments?

Forms of Arguments Focusing on Causes

Forms of Arguments Focusing on Effects

Types of Causes

     Immediate and Remote Causes

     Necessary and Sufficient Causes

Writing a Causal Argument

     Common Errors to Avoid When Writing a Causal Argument

     Sample Student Essay: Causal Argument

          “What Killed Off the Dinosaurs?” by Carlos Mendez

Chapter Summary

Additional Readings

     “The Causes and Nature of Bullying and Social Exclusion in Schools,” by Maria el Mar Badia Martín

     “Sugar and Spice and Puppy Dogs’ Tails: The Psychodynamics of Bullying,” by Ann Ruth Turkel

 

Ch. 13     Writing Proposal Arguments

What Are Proposal Arguments?

Key Elements of a Proposal Argument

     Establishing the Problem

     Identifying Possible Solutions

     Evaluating Solutions

     Establishing the Best Solution

Writing a Proposal Argument

     A Model Process for Writing Proposal Arguments

     Common Errors to Avoid When Writing a Proposal Argument

     Sample Student Essay: Proposal Argument

          “Improving Student Retention at Mountain University,” by Janelle Jackson

Additional Readings

     “How Should We Talk about Student Drinking—and What Should We Do about It?” by Alan David Berkowitz

     “Alcohol Prohibition versus Moderation,” by Franklin B. Drohn and Brandon M. Pyc

 

Ch. 14     Writing Evaluation Arguments

What Are Evaluation Arguments?

Types of Evaluation Arguments

     Aesthetic Evaluations

     Functional Evaluations

     Moral Evaluations

     Mixed Evaluations

Elements of an Evaluation Argument

     Topic or Subject

     Criteria

     Standards

     Consistent Use of Criteria and Standards

Writing an Evaluation Argument

     A Model Process for Writing Evaluation Arguments

     Common Errors to Avoid When Writing an Evaluation Argument

     Sample Student Essay: Evaluation Argument

          “Keys to an Effective Shoe Ad,” by Lilly Boone

Additional Readings

     “The Price of Free Speech: Campus Hate Speech Codes,” by Gerald Uelmen

     “Liberalism, Speech Codes, and Related Problems,” by Cass R. Sunstein

 

 

Appendix 1:    Revision Checklists

Stipulative Definition Argument

Categorical Definition Argument

Causal Argument

Proposal Argument

Evaluation Argument

 

Appendix 2:    Annotated Bibliographies

Annotated Bibliographies

    Definition and Purpose

    Qualities of a Good Annotated Bibliography

    Writing an Annotated Bibliography

    Sample Annotated Bibliography

  Index.

Product Details

ISBN:
9780205568611
Author:
Wilhoit, Stephen W
Publisher:
Longman Publishing Group
Author:
Wilhoit, Stephen W.
Author:
Wilhoit, Stephen
Subject:
Composition & Creative Writing - General
Subject:
Composition & Creative Writing
Subject:
English language
Subject:
Critical thinking
Subject:
Rhetoric
Subject:
Persuasion (rhetoric)
Subject:
Report writing
Subject:
Reference/Writing
Copyright:
Edition Description:
Trade paper
Series:
Pearson English Value Textbook Series
Publication Date:
December 2008
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Grade Level:
College/higher education:
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Y
Pages:
352
Dimensions:
8.9 x 6 x 0.6 in 381 gr

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A Brief Guide to Writing Academic Arguments prepares the reader to read and write the types of argument-related source-based writing they are most likely to encounter in college.

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