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The Fabric of the Cosmos: Space, Time, and the Texture of Reality

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The Fabric of the Cosmos: Space, Time, and the Texture of Reality Cover

 

 

Excerpt

Chapter 1: Roads to Reality

SPACE, TIME, AND WHY THINGS ARE AS THEY ARE

None of the books in my fathers dusty old bookcase were forbidden. Yet while I was growing up, I never saw anyone take one down. Most were massive tomes-a comprehensive history of civilization, matching volumes of the great works of western literature, numerous others I can no longer recall-that seemed almost fused to shelves that bowed slightly from decades of steadfast support. But way up on the highest shelf was a thin little text that, every now and then, would catch my eye because it seemed so out of place, like Gulliver among the Brobdingnagians. In hindsight, Im not quite sure why I waited so long before taking a look. Perhaps, as the years went by, the books seemed less like material you read and more like family heirlooms you admire from afar. Ultimately, such reverence gave way to teenage brashness. I reached up for the little text, dusted it off, and opened to page one. The first few lines were, to say the least, startling.

“There is but one truly philosophical problem, and that is suicide,” the text began. I winced. “Whether or not the world has three dimensions or the mind nine or twelve categories,” it continued, “comes afterward”; such questions, the text explained, were part of the game humanity played, but they deserved attention only after the one true issue had been settled. The book was The Myth of Sisyphus and was written by the Algerian-born philosopher and Nobel laureate Albert Camus. After a moment, the iciness of his words melted under the light of comprehension. Yes, of course, I thought. You can ponder this or analyze that till the cows come home, but the real question is whether all your ponderings and analyses will convince you that life is worth living. Thats what it all comes down to. Everything else is detail.

My chance encounter with Camus book must have occurred during an especially impressionable phase because, more than anything else Id read, his words stayed with me. Time and again Id imagine how various people Id met, or heard about, or had seen on television would answer this primary of all questions. In retrospect, though, it was his second assertion -regarding the role of scientific progress-that, for me, proved particularly challenging. Camus acknowledged value in understanding the structure of the universe, but as far as I could tell, he rejected the possibility that such understanding could make any difference to our assessment of lifes worth. Now, certainly, my teenage reading of existential philosophy

was about as sophisticated as Bart Simpsons reading of Romantic poetry, but even so, Camus conclusion struck me as off the mark. To this aspiring physicist, it seemed that an informed appraisal of life absolutely required a full understanding of lifes arena-the universe. I remember thinking that if our species dwelled in cavernous outcroppings buried deep underground and so had yet to discover the earths surface, brilliant sunlight, an ocean breeze, and the stars that lie beyond, or if evolution had proceeded along a different pathway and we had yet to acquire any but the sense of touch, so everything we knew came only from our tactile impressions of our immediate environment, or if human mental faculties stopped developing during early childhood so our emotional and analytical skills never progressed beyond those of a five-year-old-in short, if our experiences painted but a paltry portrait of reality-our appraisal of life would be thoroughly compromised. When we finally found our way to earths surface, or when we finally gained the ability to see, hear, smell, and taste, or when our minds were finally freed to develop as they ordinarily do, our collective view of life and the cosmos would, of necessity, change radically. Our previously compromised grasp of reality would have shed a very different light on that most fundamental of all philosophical questions.

But, you might ask, what of it? Surely, any sober assessment would conclude that although we might not understand everything about the universe-every aspect of how matter behaves or life functions-we are privy to the defining, broad-brush strokes gracing natures canvas. Surely, as Camus intimated, progress in physics, such as understanding the number of space dimensions; or progress in neuropsychology, such as understanding all the organizational structures in the brain; or, for that matter, progress in any number of other scientific undertakings may fill in important details, but their impact on our evaluation of life and reality would be minimal. Surely, reality is what we think it is; reality is revealed to us by

our experiences.

To one extent or another, this view of reality is one many of us hold, if only implicitly. I certainly find myself thinking this way in day-to-day life; its easy to be seduced by the face nature reveals directly to our senses. Yet, in the decades since first encountering Camus text, Ive learned that modern science tells a very different story. The overarching lesson that has emerged from scientific inquiry over the last century is that human experience is often a misleading guide to the true nature of reality. Lying just beneath the surface of the everyday is a world wed hardly recognize. Followers of the occult, devotees of astrology, and those who hold to religious principles that speak to a reality beyond experience have, from widely varying perspectives, long since arrived at a similar conclusion. But thats not what I have in mind. Im referring to the work of ingenious innovators and tireless researchers-the men and women of science-who have peeled back layer after layer of the cosmic onion, enigma by enigma, and revealed a universe that is at once surprising, unfamiliar, exciting, elegant, and thoroughly unlike what anyone ever expected.

These developments are anything but details. Breakthroughs in physics have forced, and continue to force, dramatic revisions to our conception of the cosmos. I remain as convinced now as I did decades ago that Camus rightly chose lifes value as the ultimate question, but the insights of modern physics have persuaded me that assessing life through the lens of everyday experience is like gazing at a van Gogh through an empty Coke bottle. Modern science has spearheaded one assault after another on evidence gathered from our rudimentary perceptions, showing that they often yield a clouded conception of the world we inhabit. And so whereas Camus separated out physical questions and labeled them secondary, Ive become convinced that theyre primary. For me, physical reality both sets the arena and provides the illumination for grappling with Camus question. Assessing existence while failing to embrace the insights of modern physics would be like wrestling in the dark with an unknown opponent. By deepening our understanding of the true nature of physical reality, we profoundly reconfigure our sense of ourselves and our experience of the universe.

The central concern of this book is to explain some of the most prominent and pivotal of these revisions to our picture of reality, with an intense focus on those that affect our species long-term project to understand space and time. From Aristotle to Einstein, from the astrolabe to the Hubble Space Telescope, from the pyramids to mountaintop observatories,

space and time have framed thinking since thinking began. With the advent of the modern scientific age, their importance has been tremendously heightened. Over the last three centuries, developments in physics have revealed space and time as the most baffling and most compelling concepts, and as those most instrumental in our scientific analysis of the universe. Such developments have also shown that space and time top the list of age-old scientific constructs that are being fantastically revised by cutting-edge research.

To Isaac Newton, space and time simply were-they formed an inert, universal cosmic stage on which the events of the universe played themselves out. To his contemporary and frequent rival Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, “space” and “time” were merely the vocabulary of relations between where objects were and when events took place. Nothing more. But to Albert Einstein, space and time were the raw material underlying reality. Through his theories of relativity, Einstein jolted our thinking about space and time and revealed the principal part they play in the evolution of the universe. Ever since, space and time have been the sparkling jewels of physics. They are at once familiar and mystifying; fully understanding space and time has become physics most daunting challenge and sought-after prize.

The developments well cover in this book interweave the fabric of space and time in various ways. Some ideas will challenge features of space and time so basic that for centuries, if not millennia, theyve seemed beyond questioning. Others will seek the link between our theoretical understanding of space and time and the traits we commonly experience. Yet others will raise questions unfathomable within the limited confines of ordinary perceptions.

We will speak only minimally of philosophy (and not at all about suicide and the meaning of life). But in our scientific quest to solve the mysteries of space and time, we will be resolutely unrestrained. From the universes smallest speck and earliest moments to its farthest reaches and most distant future, we will examine space and time in environments familiar and far-flung, with an unflinching eye seeking their true nature. As the story of space and time has yet to be fully written, we wont arrive at any final assessments. But we will encounter a series of developments-some intensely strange, some deeply satisfying, some experimentally verified, some thoroughly speculative-that will show how close weve come to wrapping our minds around the fabric of the cosmos and touching the true texture of reality.

Classical Reality

Historians differ on exactly when the modern scientific age began, but certainly by the time Galileo Galilei, René Descartes, and Isaac Newton had had their say, it was briskly under way. In those days, the new scientific mind-set was being steadily forged, as patterns found in terrestrial and astronomical data made it increasingly clear that there is an order to all the comings and goings of the cosmos, an order accessible to careful reasoning and mathematical analysis. These early pioneers of modern scientific thought argued that, when looked at the right way, the happenings in the universe not only are explicable but predictable. The power of science to foretell aspects of the future-consistently and quantitatively-had been revealed.

Early scientific study focused on the kinds of things one might see or experience in everyday life. Galileo dropped weights from a leaning tower (or so legend has it) and watched balls rolling down inclined surfaces; Newton studied falling apples (or so legend has it) and the orbit of the moon. The goal of these investigations was to attune the nascent scientific ear to natures harmonies. To be sure, physical reality was the stuff of experience, but the challenge was to hear the rhyme and reason behind the rhythm and regularity. Many sung and unsung heroes contributed to the rapid and impressive progress that was made, but Newton stole the show. With a handful of mathematical equations, he synthesized everything known about motion on earth and in the heavens, and in so doing, composed the score for what has come to be known as classical physics. In the decades following Newtons work, his equations were developed into an elaborate mathematical structure that significantly extended both their reach and their practical utility. Classical physics gradually became a sophisticated and mature scientific discipline. But shining clearly through all these advances was the beacon of Newtons original insights. Even today, more than three hundred years later, you can see Newtons equations scrawled on introductory-physics chalkboards worldwide, printed on NASA flight plans computing spacecraft trajectories, and embedded within the complex calculations of forefront research. Newton brought a wealth of physical phenomena within a single theoretical framework.

But while formulating his laws of motion, Newton encountered a critical stumbling block, one that is of particular importance to our story (Chapter 2). Everyone knew that things could move, but what about the arena within which the motion took place? Well, thats space, wed all answer. But, Newton would reply, what is space? Is space a real physical entity or is it an abstract idea born of the human struggle to comprehend the cosmos? Newton realized that this key question had to be answered, because without taking a stand on the meaning of space and time, his equations describing motion would prove meaningless. Understanding requires context; insight must be anchored.

And so, with a few brief sentences in his Principia Mathematica, Newton articulated a conception of space and time, declaring them absolute and immutable entities that provided the universe with a rigid, unchangeable arena. According to Newton, space and time supplied an invisible scaffolding that gave the universe shape and structure. Not everyone agreed. Some argued persuasively that it made little sense to ascribe existence to something you cant feel, grasp, or affect. But the explanatory and predictive power of Newtons equations quieted the critics. For the next two hundred years, his absolute conception of space and time was dogma.

From the Hardcover edition.

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Anat, September 12, 2013 (view all comments by Anat)
There are times in one's life, when a book touches it in a manner that is life altering. Whether the ideas, expressed in a clear voice and understandable phrasing with highly convincing scientific arguments, or down to earth examples and subtle humor and delightful amusement which makes the not so easy scientific facts, accepted. As for life altering effect - the fascinating explanation of the huge universe and its wonders made it easier to accept that although our existence is extremely short compared to it, we matter! WE ARE STARDUST!
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Anat, September 1, 2011 (view all comments by Anat)
With lucid, well organised prose, with authority and passion, Brian Greene introduces the wonders of the universe. It unravels as a fantastic fairy tale, with enthousiastic participation of the greatest minds of all times. Vulgarisation but not vulgar, it allows the regular folks to dip into this magic and come out starry eyed. Great book. Anyone who has ever wandered how does it all hold together and since when, must read the book.
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dcruz, February 21, 2008 (view all comments by dcruz)
We are builded with atoms and then the book talk about us
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Product Details

ISBN:
9780375727207
Author:
Greene, Brian
Publisher:
Vintage
Author:
Smolin, Lee
Location:
New York
Subject:
Cosmology
Subject:
Astronomy - Universe
Subject:
Physics
Subject:
Astronomy - General
Subject:
science;physics;cosmology;non-fiction;string theory;astronomy;space;time;popular science;relativity;quantum physics;astrophysics;quantum mechanics;universe;philosophy;cosmos;theoretical physics;theory of everything;reality;quantum;time travel;quantum theo
Subject:
science;physics;cosmology;non-fiction;string theory;astronomy;space;time;popular science;relativity;quantum physics;astrophysics;quantum mechanics;universe;philosophy;cosmos;theoretical physics;theory of everything;reality;quantum;time travel;quantum theo
Copyright:
Edition Number:
1st ed.
Edition Description:
Trade paper
Series:
Vintage
Series Volume:
bk. 2
Publication Date:
20050231
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Grade Level:
General/trade
Language:
English
Illustrations:
21 images
Pages:
592
Dimensions:
9 x 6 in 1.19 lb

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The Fabric of the Cosmos: Space, Time, and the Texture of Reality Used Trade Paper
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Product details 592 pages Vintage Books USA - English 9780375727207 Reviews:
"Staff Pick" by ,

Using Simpsons and X-Files examples, Brian Greene explains our current understanding of the universe. Whereas The Elegant Universe was primarily about the obscure, largely theoretical world of susperstring theory, Fabric of the Cosmos holds to more solid ground. Greene is a good communicator and illustrates complex issues well. Folks wanting to learn more about relativity, quantum mechanics, and the main points of string theory should find this a good starting point.

"Staff Pick" by ,

Using Simpsons and X-Files examples, Brian Greene explains our current understanding of the universe. Whereas The Elegant Universe was primarily about the obscure, largely theoretical world of susperstring theory, Fabric of the Cosmos holds to more solid ground. Greene is a good communicator and illustrates complex issues well. Folks wanting to learn more about relativity, quantum mechanics, and the main points of string theory should find this a good starting point.

"Publishers Weekly Review" by , "This is popular science writing of the highest order...Greene [has an] unparalleled ability to translate higher mathematics into everyday language and images, through the adept use of metaphor and analogy, and crisp, witty prose...He not only makes concepts clear, but explains why they matter." Publishers Weekly (Starred Review)
"Review" by , "[Greene's] excitement for science on the threshold of vital breakthroughs is supremely contagious. The Fabric of the Cosmos is as dazzling as it is tough, and it beautifully reflects this theoretician's ardor for his work."
"Review" by , "Nonspecialists will relish this exhilarating foray into the alien terrain that is our own universe." (Starred Review)
"Review" by , "The best exposition and explanation of early 21st-century research into the fundamental nature of the universe as you are likely to find anywhere."
"Review" by , "Perhaps the single best explainer of abstruse science in the world today....Greene has a gift for finding the right metaphor."
"Review" by , "I recommend Greene?s book to any nonexpert reader who wants an up-to-date account of theoretical physics, written in colloquial language that anyone can understand."
"Review" by , "As pure intellectual adventure, this is about as good as it gets....Even compared with A Brief History of Time, Greene's book stands out for its sweeping ambition...stripping down the mystery from difficult concepts without watering down the science."
"Review" by , "Greene is as elegant as ever, cutting through the fog of complexity with insight and clarity. Space and time, you might even say, become putty in his hands."
"Review" by , "Highly informed, lucid and witty....There is simply no better introduction to the strange wonders of general relativity and quantum mechanics, the fields of knowledge essential for any real understanding of space and time."
"Synopsis" by , One of our foremost thinkers and public intellectuals offers a radical new view of the nature of time, and explores its implications for everything from physics and cosmology to economics and climate change.
"Synopsis" by ,
From one of our foremost thinkers and public intellectuals, a radical new view of the nature of time and the cosmos

What is time?

This deceptively simple question is the single most important problem facing science as we probe more deeply into the fundamentals of the universe. All of the mysteries physicists and cosmologists faceand#8212;from the Big Bang to the future of the universe, from the puzzles of quantum physics to the unification of forces and particlesand#8212;come down to the nature of time.

The fact that time is real may seem obvious. You experience it passing every day when you watch clocks tick, bread toast, and children grow. But most physicists, from Newton to Einstein to todayand#8217;s quantum theorists, have seen things differently. The scientific case for time being an illusion is formidable. That is why the consequences of adopting the view that time is real are revolutionary.

Lee Smolin, author of the controversial bestseller The Trouble with Physics, argues that a limited notion of time is holding physics back. Itand#8217;s time for a major revolution in scientific thought. The reality of time could be the key to the next big breakthrough in theoretical physics.

What if the laws of physics themselves were not timeless? What if they could evolve? Time Reborn offers a radical new approach to cosmology that embraces the reality of time and opens up a whole new universe of possibilities. There are few ideas that, like our notion of time, shape our thinking about literally everything, with huge implications for physics and beyondand#8212;from climate change to the economic crisis. Smolin explains in lively and lucid prose how the true nature of time impacts our world.

"Synopsis" by , From Brian Greene, one of the world’s leading physicists and author the Pulitzer Prize finalist The Elegant Universe, comes a grand tour of the universe that makes us look at reality in a completely different way.

Space and time form the very fabric of the cosmos. Yet they remain among the most mysterious of concepts. Is space an entity? Why does time have a direction? Could the universe exist without space and time? Can we travel to the past? Greene has set himself a daunting task: to explain non-intuitive, mathematical concepts like String Theory, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, and Inflationary Cosmology with analogies drawn from common experience. From Newton’s unchanging realm in which space and time are absolute, to Einstein’s fluid conception of spacetime, to quantum mechanics’ entangled arena where vastly distant objects can instantaneously coordinate their behavior, Greene takes us all, regardless of our scientific backgrounds, on an irresistible and revelatory journey to the new layers of reality that modern physics has discovered lying just beneath the surface of our everyday world.

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