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1 Hawthorne Metaphysics- Enneagrams

This title in other editions

Understanding the Enneagram Rev Edition


Understanding the Enneagram Rev Edition Cover




'Chapter 1

The Practical Guide to Personality Types

We are like prisoners in an unguarded cell. No one

confines us against our will, and we have heard that

the key that will release us is also locked inside.

If we could find the key, we could open the door and

be free. Yet, we don\'t know where it has been hidden,

and even if we knew, part of us is afraid to break

out of our prison. Once out, where would we go, and

what would we do with our newfound freedom?

This is not a meaningless metaphor: we are

prisoners of our ego, enchained by our fears,

restricted in our freedom, suffering from our

condition. No one prevents us from searching for the

key that would free us. We must, however, know where

to look for it and be willing to use it once we have

discovered where it is.

With the Enneagram, we have found a master

key, one that will unlock many doors. It gives us

access to the wisdom we need to escape from our self-

imposed prison so that we can embrace a fuller life.

The Enneagram helps us to let go of the limiting

mechanisms of our personality so that we can more

deeply experience who and what we really are. It

provides insights that can help in freeing us from

our fears and conflicts, from our wayward passions

and compulsions, from our disordered desires and

inner confusions.

No part of this process is automatic,

however. Even after we have identified our

personality type, it still may not be clear how to

use the insights we have been given. People often

ask, \"Now that I know my type, what do I do with it?

Where do I go with it now?\" Understanding the inner

workings of the personality types helps to some

degree, but information alone is not enough to free

us. Instead, we need to understand the transformative

process and our role in it. The paradox is that we

cannot bring about our transformation yet, without

our participation, it cannot be done. So what part do

we play in our own inner development, and how can the

Enneagram help?

The Enneagram can help because it is an

invaluable map for guiding us to the points of

blockage in our particular personality structures.

The fundamental premise of the Enneagram is that

there are nine basic personality structures in human

nature - nine points of view, nine value systems,

nine ways of being in the world. They have much in

common with each other, although each manifests its

own set of attitudes and behaviors, reactions and

defenses, motivations and habits. And each requires

its own unique prescriptions for growth.

The central message of this book is that by

showing us what our personality is made of, so to

speak, the Enneagram indicates what is necessary for

our real growth and transformation. Everyone is not

cut from the same cloth, or poured into the same

mold; therefore everyone\'s psychological and

spiritual issues will be somewhat different, and the

order in which they can best be addressed will be

different. By helping us understand the structures of

our own personality type, the Enneagram shows us how

and why we have closed down and become constricted in

our growth. It provides us with a panoramic view of

what is happening in us and in our significant

relationships. It gives us nonjudgmental,

nontechnical language in which to talk about these

ideas, and it demystifies much in the realms of

psychology and spirituality. We see that these

realities are neither foreign nor strange: they are

the worlds in which we already live.

In addition to giving us insight into our day-

to-day behaviors, the Enneagram offers an answer to

our spiritual yearnings because it shows us with

great specificity how our personality has limited us,

what our path of growth is, and where real

fulfillment can be found. It teaches us that the

longings and structures of our personality are

actually useful guides to the greatest treasures of

our soul. By regarding our self-defeating patterns

and even our psychological pain and limitations as

indicators of our spiritual capacities, we are able

to see ourselves in a different light. With this new

perspective comes compassion, healing, love, and


We believe that, rightly understood, the

Enneagram can have a tremendously positive effect in

the world today. By touching people profoundly,

mirroring their experience of themselves and helping

them trace the trajectory of their lives, it reveals

our common humanity. It speaks to the soul,

reawakening faith, hope, and love. Many of our

students and readers have told us that the Enneagram

has helped them to rediscover spirituality - and even

brought many of them back to the churches and

traditions they once left. Their deepened

appreciation of spirituality and awareness of what

spirituality really means allowed them to operate

more gracefully within institutional frameworks. They

could see the soul of the religion they had left and

were able to orient themselves to its true Spirit.

In this book, we have enriched our

presentation of the Enneagram with ideas from Fourth

Way* schools such as the Gurdjieff Work, the Diamond

Approach of A. H. Almaas, the seminal insights of

Oscar Ichazo and Claudio Naranjo, and other awareness

practices. We have also drawn upon major religious

traditions (principally Christianity, Buddhism,

Islam, and Jewish mysticism). We hope that this book

will be a useful introduction to the Enneagram for

those who are unfamiliar with this system, as well as

a valuable resource for those already familiar with

it, as there is much new information here.

Above all, we hope this book will demonstrate

the Enneagram\'s relevance to all forms of

transformational work - and firmly place the

Enneagram in its true psycho-spiritual context. The

Enneagram can be applied on a superficial level, of

course, and the reader may wish only to use this

information to find out what type he or she is, or to

find out the type of someone else. New and valuable

insights are possible with even this kind of

pragmatic information. But to get the full benefits

of the Enneagram, one must integrate it into a

genuine spiritual practice. Otherwise, the

information alone tends to become an end in itself -

and ironically tends to solidify the personality

structures rather than liberate the person from them.

But when the Enneagram is part of a spiritual

practice, it more readily becomes a means for

recognizing our True Nature, and hence for loosening

the structures and limitations of the personality.

Of course, having a spiritual practice does

not guarantee ego transcendence and liberation from

egocentric structures and consequent suffering. But

without a spiritual practice, it is less likely that

we can become liberated from the limitations of our

personality. The momentum of the ego is too great,

and it cannot be transformed without bringing an even

greater force to bear upon it: the awareness that

comes from a spiritual perspective on ourselves and

our lives.

The two principal areas in which to use the Enneagram

are for self-understanding (seeing ourselves as we

actually are) and for understanding others (so that

we can have more harmonious relationships).

By far the most legitimate use of the

Enneagram is to understand ourselves. It can help us

understand our fears and desires, strengths and

weaknesses, defenses and anxieties, how we react to

frustration and disappointment - and, more

positively, what our truest capacities and greatest

strengths are so that we can build on them rather

than on misjudgments and illusions.

We will get the most benefit from the

Enneagram if we approach it with a spirit of open-

ended inquiry, using it as a support for discovering

things about ourselves and for seeing how our

characteristic issues are played out. As we observe

ourselves with the help of the system, we will see

what we are up to again and again, especially how we

are fleeing from ourselves - and why. And although we

may discover many things that make us uncomfortable

or that do not fit into the self-image that we have

of ourselves, it is important not to judge or condemn

ourselves for what we find. As we study our type, we

will begin to understand more clearly than ever that

our personality is a form of defense that we have

continued to use for reasons that started in our

infancy. Our personality has brought us this far, but

we may not need some of its features as much as we

once did. Because the Enneagram predicts the healthy,

transcendent qualities that we can expect to attain,

it helps us to have the courage to let go of old

outmoded habits.

There are three stages to this work. First,

we need to learn self-observation so that we can see

our behavior as objectively as possible. Second, we

need to increase our self-understanding so that we

can know the true motives for our behavior. And

third, we need to cultivate awareness or presence,

which facilitates and deepens the process of

transformation. Self-observation and self-

understanding alone will merely provide us with

insight to get us to the threshold of transformation,

but it is only through presence and awareness that

transformation actually occurs. Without developing

the ability to \"show up\" fully, the transformative

moments of our lives will have limited effect.

The Enneagram is not only about understanding

and transforming ourselves, however; it helps us in

understanding others, in fostering compassion for

them and developing insight into how they think, what

they fear and desire, what they value, and what their

strengths and weaknesses are. In short, we more

easily appreciate perspectives that are different

from our own.

Indeed, understanding others more profoundly

allows us not only to appreciate the good we find in

them but also to be more objective and compassionate

about things we may not like about them. Although we

tend to think that other people are basically like

us, it is helpful to recognize that different types

think and feel and react quite differently. By

understanding personality types, we can see others

more objectively, connecting deeply with them yet

remaining in our own center, true to ourselves. By

understanding the Enneagram, we paradoxically become

both more self-possessed and more capable of reaching

out to others.

In fact, we often use the Enneagram in our

relationships because it is as important to

understand others as it is to understand ourselves.

We simply cannot (and do not) go through life with no

idea about \"what makes others tick\" - about how they

are likely to react in various circumstances, about

their motivations, about how genuine or truthful or

good they are. Whether or not we are conscious of it,

we always use some kind of \"personality theory.\" It

is therefore extremely helpful to recognize what our

implicit theory is and to make sure that it is as

accurate and comprehensive as possible.

Another reason for understanding the

Enneagram is that it helps us recognize our

unconscious tendencies before they become self-

defeating habits so that we can avoid the tragic

consequences of those habits. The Enneagram can act

as an \"early warning system\" of potentially harmful

behavior, allowing us to do something about it before

we become trapped in unhealthy patterns. If our

attitudes and behavior did not have potentially

tragic consequences, we could think, \"Well, why

should I care about self-knowledge? What difference

does it make to know more about myself or my

personality type?\"

The answer is that our attitudes and our

actions always have consequences, some of which can

affect the whole of our lives. This makes acquiring

self-knowledge and insight into others an

extraordinarily practical thing to do. Without self-

knowledge, we can make choices that may turn out

disastrously. Without knowing our own motives and not

having control over our behavior, we can do harmful

things to ourselves, our spouse, our children, our

friends and acquaintances - even to people we may

never meet.

Furthermore, without being good judges of the

characters of others, we can be terribly hurt and

abused. Many marriages end in bitterness and divorce

because people do not know either themselves or each

other. How often have we heard somebody say, \"If I

had only known what my husband was really like, I

would never have married him.\" Or, \"If I had only

known the Enneagram twenty years ago, my life would

have been so different . . .\" We can console

ourselves with the thought that at least we know the

Enneagram now - and with its help, we will be much

more likely to avoid the suffering caused by our lack

of self-knowledge and the unwise actions that may

result. With insight, we have a much better chance to

avoid tragedy and become happier.

Each of the great spiritual traditions uses different

metaphors to express many of the same discoveries

about human nature and to express its insight into

the way out of our predicaments. At its deepest, the

Enneagram is not only profound psychology but a path

toward the spiritual since true self-knowledge is the

first step toward spirituality. Despite the

Enneagram\'s origin in a variety of spiritual and

metaphysical traditions, however, it is not overtly

religious. It can be - and has been - adapted to many

different religions and religious expressions because

it reflects the patterns found in human nature. By

helping us more clearly understand the human side of

the relationship between the Divine and the human,

the Enneagram can become an integral part of any


Thus, while it can say very little about the

revealed truths of religion, the Enneagram can say a

great deal about the forms that the human ego takes -

and these are the primary obstacles to a direct

experience of the Divine. It demonstrates both the

need for working on ourselves and the direction we

must take if we are to do so. The Enneagram is a tool

that, when used properly, can help us discriminate

between the more superficial aspects of ourselves -

our personalities - and the deeper aspects of our

true nature - our Essence. That is all it is. But

considering the sublimity of this work, the Enneagram

is a treasure, something more valuable than anything

we could have hoped to discover.

Even in a purely psychological,

nontheological frame of reference, we want to

understand the Enneagram so that we can become more

free - more liberated - from whatever is blocked,

negative, and destructive - from whatever is unfree,

conflicted, fearful, and wounded in ourselves. The

Enneagram can aid our healing so that we can use our

growing freedom in ennobling and constructive ways.

Once we begin to be liberated from our ego

states and our inner conflicts - from the darkness

and fear inside - with each step we take toward the

light, we will gain that much more freedom and create

new capacities in ourselves. Strength will build upon

strength, grace upon grace, virtue upon virtue, and

each new capacity will summon forth yet another as we

become the persons that we are meant to be.

In the end, however, the Enneagram will be as

useful and rewarding as we make it. The Enneagram

will enrich us to the degree that we understand it

correctly and use it properly in our lives. We can be

confident that we will find endless insights and

great riches here.

Understanding the Enneagram is a practical guide to

this system, building on many of the insights first

presented by Oscar Ichazo and Claudio Naranjo. We are

not concerned here with the basic structure and

theory of the Enneagram or with comprehensive

descriptions of the nine personality types, as they

have been provided in our other books.

Indeed, very little material is repeated from

Personality Types, and what little was necessary to

repeat is completely revised and expanded. This book

is also cross-referenced to the Revised Edition of

Personality Types so that you can return to that

longer resource if you want to find out more about

something. Furthermore, much of the new material here

is completely independent of the earlier book (the

Type Profiles, the Questionnaire, and the

Recommendations for Personal Growth, for example) and

can be used without reference to it.


The Enneagram reveals the patterns by which we

organize and give meaning to all of our experiences.

Its basic premise is that if we could see the core

pattern around which we organize and interpret all of

our experiences, the framework on which we hang the

events of our lives, we could make much quicker

progress in our spiritual and psychological growth.

This core patterning is, of course, our personality


When we recognize our type and see it at work

in ourselves, aspects of our personality that have

been hidden from us are revealed, and paradoxically,

start loosening up. We suddenly have considerably

more psychological space in which to maneuver because

we can see ourselves with more perspective.

It would not be far-fetched to say that one

of the main points of the Enneagram is to show us

where our personality \"trips us up\" the most. It

highlights both what is possible for us, as well as

how self-defeating and unnecessary many of our

reactions and behaviors are. Our type has both

positive and negative qualities, but we do ourselves

no favor either by exalting it or by condemning it -

not to mention using it to judge other people or

their types.

No matter what our type is, and no matter

what particular form our ego has taken, we all face

one central problem - estrangement from our deepest

nature. We may have had intimations that what lies

beneath the structure of our personality is something

miraculous, the very thing that we have wanted more

than anything else, even though we have looked

everywhere else to find it. Despite our intimations,

it is difficult to let go of our personality and to

trust that there is actually something

more \"essential\" in us. It is difficult to believe

that there is actually a spark of Divinity in me.

But there is good news as well because the

structures of our personality tell us what the main

blockages to our true nature are. This is why the

Enneagram, properly understood, is an extraordinary

tool for psychological and spiritual growth: it

illuminates the unconscious parts of ourselves that

stand in the way of our being more fully alive. It

demonstrates that what stands in the way between

ourselves and bliss is our attachment to our


Perhaps one of the most challenging notions

for us to accept at the beginning of transformational

work is that the personality - the ego and its

structures - is an artificial construct. But it only

seems real because up until now it has been our

entire reality. Identifying with our personality has

been how we have lived and gotten by in life. Insofar

as it has enabled us to do so, the personality has

been a useful, even highly valuable, friend.

As our insights deepen, however, we come to

accept the hard truth that our personality is largely

a collection of internal defenses and reactions,

deeply ingrained beliefs and habits about the self

and the world that have come from the past,

particularly from our childhood. To put this more

simply, our personality is a mechanism from the past,

perhaps one that has helped us survive until now, but

one whose limitations can now be seen. We all suffer

from a case of mistaken identity: we have forgotten

our True Nature and have come to believe that we are

the personality. The reason we must explore the

defenses of the personality and the vulnerabilities

it is protecting is so that we can reexperience our

Essential nature - our spiritual core - and know

directly who we really are.

Each of us came into the world as pure

Essence, although that Essence was still undeveloped.

Each of us has also had a mother and a father (or

other caretakers) who already had their personalities

very much in place. Because they had to protect

themselves from experiencing their own developmental

gaps and losses, it was not possible for them to

fully support the unfolding of all of the aspects of

our spirit, no matter how much they loved us. In

short, to the degree that they could not be with the

fullness of their own Essence, they could not

recognize or help develop the fullness of our

Essence. From this perspective, we can also see that

these blockages may go back many generations.

Our parents unintentionally sent \"messages\"

to us as children to hide ourselves. We gradually

came to believe that one or more parts of us were not

safe to have or to display to the world. No matter

how well intentioned our parents were, to some

degree, we all succumbed to the process of hiding and

covering over our Essential nature. Out of the need

to make unconscious adjustments to our caregivers

came the need to form a personality. We began to feel

that \"What I am is not acceptable, so I need to be

different. Maybe I need to be happier, or quieter, or

less energetic.\" The costs of these necessary

survival adjustments are great, although perhaps the

greatest cost is that we gradually become terrified

to be seen as we are. We have spent most of our lives

not allowing ourselves to be seen, not seeing other

people, and most destructively, not wanting to see


Further, the painful events of early

childhood create a particular way of interpreting our

experiences so that later life events reinforce our

beliefs about our self and the world. For instance, a

child who has been physically abused will tend to

view the world as threatening and will have problems

getting close to people. Such a person will expect,

and tend to find, abusive situations. As a result of

this reinforcement of our earliest sense of self, our

personality gets \"thicker\" and we begin to

think, \"This is me - it\'s just the way I am.\" We

identify with our reactions and our habitual self-

image and beliefs. We do not want to see what is

beneath the personality because to go into the areas

that have been blocked and covered over means that we

will reexperience our deepest hurts. Furthermore,

doing so reveals the insubstantiality of our

personality - and that is extremely threatening both

to our sense of identity and to our ideas about how

to survive in the world.

This is not to say that personality is

necessarily bad, but when the mechanisms of the

personality are running the show, the most dire

things can happen. All of us can think of dozens of

times when we came within a hairsbreadth of disaster

but for the fact that we had enough presence of mind

to stop the momentum of events and avert a

catastrophe. We can all look back to times when, if a

few of the wrong words had been spoken, or if we had

allowed rage, sarcasm, or pride to take over, the

rest of our lives would have taken a different turn.

We can all remember pivotal moments when we could

have allowed ourselves to go along with the rush of

our personality, but did not. Something intervened.

That something was awareness. Suddenly we

were able to wake up to the danger, the foolishness,

and the self-destructiveness of what we had been

doing, and to stop it before things got worse. In

retrospect, we may get cold shivers when we think

about how close we came to losing a job, our best

friend, our marriage, or to alienating our children.

If something in us had not been awake to see what we

were unconsciously doing, the rest of our lives would

be very different. That we were present in those

crucial moments changed the course of our own history

and made all the difference.

Awareness is part of our Essential nature: it

is the aspect of our Being that registers our

experience. Awareness is such a fundamental capacity,

that it is almost impossible to imagine what it would

be like to be without it. In more mundane terms, we

can also recognize awareness as our capacity to pay

attention. Unfortunately, our attention is usually

drawn into deep identifications with the

preoccupations of our personality - into fantasies,

anxieties, reactions, or subjective memories. When

our awareness becomes identified with these aspects

of our personality, we lose contact with the

immediacy of our lived experience. Our attention

shrinks away from a broader perspective and from what

is actually occurring around us. It contracts into

narrow concerns or reactions and we \"fall asleep.\"

When we begin to pay attention to what is

actually here, however, to become more aware of the

sensations and impressions of the present moment,

something very interesting happens. The simple act of

returning our attention to the present causes our

awareness to expand. We become aware of much more

than the narrow concerns of our personality, and we

reconnect with aspects of our nature we did not

suspect existed.

What would it be like if we were present so

often that we no longer waited until the last minute

to react to impending disaster? What if we were so

awake that we could see the reality of our

circumstances, even as they shift and change? We

would be able to notice impulses arising in us as if

they were trains pulling into a railroad station. We

could see destructive impulses coming while they were

still at a safe distance, and decide consciously

whether or not to board them, as it were. What would

our lives be like if we did not automatically get on

the train to be whisked away to some undesirable

destination before we knew what had happened? What if

we were so present that we no longer lived in a

semifog of habits and diminished consciousness, going

through much of our lives as if we were barely there

at all? What if we were so present that we no longer

felt that life was some kind of death sentence,

something we must endure until we finally got through

it? Rather than experience most moments as tedious

and dull - and feeling the need to protect and

distract ourselves from their pain and boredom - what

if we experienced every moment as a gift, something

indescribably precious, unique, and irreplaceable?

The good news is that we can have a new life

if we are willing to learn and practice a few simple


The first is that there is more to us than

our personality. Our true Self and our personality

are not the same thing, and it is the quality of

presence that restores the proper balance between

them and allows us to embody the expansive qualities

of our true nature. The personality is highly

automatic: it tends to create the same problems for

us again and again. But the personality is only

automatic when we are not aware of it. When our

awareness arises and we directly experience the

mechanisms of our personality, they cannot function

as automatically as before.

Furthermore, the habits and reactions of our

personality take up far more of our energy than we

can imagine. Many of us believe that letting go of

the patterns of our personality will render us

ineffective and dull-minded. Actually, the opposite

is true. Learning to let go, to relax, to become more

present and awake, liberates enormous energy in us

and enables us to accomplish far more than we would

have thought possible.

The second important lesson is that presence

never becomes habitual. We will never find a formula

or technique that will automatically allow us to be

present all the time. Such an automatic method of

being present would be a contradiction - a way of

being awake while we were actually \"asleep.\" We do

not have to push ourselves, change our basic life

circumstances, or use willpower for transformation to

occur. A real, lasting solution lies in another

direction - by coming back to ourselves with ever-

deepening awareness, we see and experience the

structures of our personality from a larger

perspective, and our old habits begin to loosen and

drop away. The miracle is that to the degree that

they are fully experienced, our old, self-defeating

structures will begin to dissolve.

By speaking to the truth of who we really

are, the Enneagram reminds us of our own innate

nobility and spiritual potentials. It helps us

discern the more superficial, automatic self of

personality from the profound riches of our Essence -

our True Self.

This is the core of spirituality; real

spirituality involves becoming more real. And as we

become more real, we begin to become more aware of

the Divine since the \"really real\" is the Divine. In

order to come in contact with what is \"really real,\"

we must understand and disidentify with the limiting

and destructive aspects of our personality. As we

gradually learn to disengage from our various habits

and fears, agendas and behaviors, we begin to

understand the magnificence we are called to.

There is the widespread sense that humanity

is at an important milestone. While the last century

has seen enormous strides in science, medicine, and

technology, real understanding and healing of the

human psyche has not kept pace. Given our enormous

technological power, and with it, our increased

potential for self-destruction, we have come to a

point in history where genuine self-knowledge is no

longer a luxury. Whether or not human beings will

learn to live together peacefully remains in doubt;

whether or not we will be able to stop ourselves from

stripping the earth of its resources remains in

doubt; whether or not we will be able to stop fearing

those who are unlike us and whose customs and

religion are different from our own remains in doubt;

whether or not hatred will turn out to be a stronger

force than love remains in doubt.

One thing is for sure, however. Unless we

humans are able to get over our identification with

our egoselves - and with it, our willingness to

destroy what does not support our ego and its

demands - we will not survive. Unless we are able to

see beyond our impoverished and desperate ego to the

magnificence of the universal Self manifesting in

each of us, we will be unsatisfied. Unless we truly

learn to love ourselves, we will destroy ourselves.

At this momentous time in human history,

something powerful and decisive has been revealed to

the world: the Enneagram. Its insights puncture our

defenses and lay bare the inner workings of our

psyches with their mysterious mix of spiritual

yearnings and destructive impulses. The Enneagram

helps us rediscover our own humanity and also the

humanity of all human beings. With its help, we can

rediscover the ancient spiritual truth, taught by

many different traditions, that we must love one

another or perish.

What greater gift could be given to the world

as we embark on a new millennium? And what deeper

truth could we learn day in and day out, every moment

of our lives?

The Basics of the Enneagram

This section is included so that readers can grasp

the basics of the system or refresh their memories

about the Enneagram. (For more details, consult PT,

27-55.) *

One of the most important things that

distinguishes the Enneagram from other personality

typologies is that it is a dynamic system. This means

that the nine types are not static categories - they

are interrelated in specific ways, as indicated by

the inner lines of the symbol. The Enneagram is

valuable because it sheds light on our major

challenges to growth as well as on our hidden

strengths. It describes nine distinct personality

types - nine ways that human nature expresses itself,

nine different perspectives on life, nine modes of

being in the world. It has important implications not

only for self-help but for intimate relationships and

all other forms of interactions as well, such as

therapy, education, and business, to name'

Product Details

Hudson, Russ
Hudson, Russ
Riso, Don Richard
Mariner Books
Boston :
Psychology: Personality Disorders
General Self-Help
Edition Number:
Rev. ed.
Edition Description:
Trade Paper
Series Volume:
Publication Date:
January 2000
Grade Level:
8.19x5.49x.99 in. .92 lbs.

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Health and Self-Help » Psychology » General
Health and Self-Help » Psychology » Personality Disorders
Health and Self-Help » Psychology » Personality Types and Testing
Metaphysics » Enneagrams

Understanding the Enneagram Rev Edition Used Trade Paper
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$6.95 In Stock
Product details 416 pages Houghton Mifflin Company - English 9780618004157 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by ,
PERSONALITY TYPES, the first book by Don Richard Riso, has become the leading guide to the Enneagram, as well as a cherished classic in the literature of personal growth around the world. This is the groundbreaking book that set the standard for insight and accuracy about this ancient symbol of human personality. UNDERSTANDING THE ENNEAGRAM soon followed and has since become another indispensable reseource, teaching readers not only how to understand this psychological framework in daily life but how to use it in many different settings. Don Riso and Russ Hudson have now fully revised and updated this authoritative guide to the Enneagram, based on their continuing work in the field, which is attracting ever-increasing attention. Discover how to use the Enneagram to find fulfillment in your personal develpemnt and in all of your relationships.
"Synopsis" by ,
Riso's streamlined manual of the Enneagram emphasizes its application to daily life.
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