Mega Dose
 
 

Recently Viewed clear list


Original Essays | September 18, 2014

Lin Enger: IMG Knowing vs. Knowing



On a hot July evening years ago, my Toyota Tercel overheated on a flat stretch of highway north of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. A steam geyser shot up from... Continue »

spacer
Qualifying orders ship free.
$10.50
List price: $16.99
Used Trade Paper
Ships in 1 to 3 days
Add to Wishlist
Qty Store Section
4 Beaverton Physics- Cosmology

A Short History of Nearly Everything

by

A Short History of Nearly Everything Cover

 

 

Excerpt

1: HOW TO BUILD A UNIVERSE

No matter how hard you try you will never be able to grasp just how tiny, how spatially unassuming, is a proton. It is just way too small.

A proton is an infinitesimal part of an atom, which is itself of course an insubstantial thing. Protons are so small that a little dib of ink like the dot on this i can hold something in the region of 500,000,000,000 of them, rather more than the number of seconds contained in half a million years. So protons are exceedingly microscopic, to say the very least.

Now imagine if you can (and of course you can't) shrinking one of those protons down to a billionth of its normal size into a space so small that it would make a proton look enormous. Now pack into that tiny, tiny space about an ounce of matter. Excellent. You are ready to start a universe.

I'm assuming of course that you wish to build an inflationary universe. If you'd prefer instead to build a more old-fashioned, standard Big Bang universe, you'll need additional materials. In fact, you will need to gather up everything there is — every last mote and particle of matter between here and the edge of creation — and squeeze it into a spot so infinitesimally compact that it has no dimensions at all. It is known as a singularity.

In either case, get ready for a really big bang. Naturally, you will wish to retire to a safe place to observe the spectacle. Unfortunately, there is nowhere to retire to because outside the singularity there is no where. When the universe begins to expand, it won't be spreading out to fill a larger emptiness. The only space that exists is the space it creates as it goes.

It is natural but wrong to visualize the singularity as a kind of pregnant dot hanging in a dark, boundless void. But there is no space, no darkness. The singularity has no "around" around it. There is no space for it to occupy, no place for it to be. We can't even ask how long it has been there--whether it has just lately popped into being, like a good idea, or whether it has been there forever, quietly awaiting the right moment. Time doesn't exist. There is no past for it to emerge from.

And so, from nothing, our universe begins.

In a single blinding pulse, a moment of glory much too swift and expansive for any form of words, the singularity assumes heavenly dimensions, space beyond conception. In the first lively second (a second that many cosmologists will devote careers to shaving into ever-finer wafers) is produced gravity and the other forces that govern physics. In less than a minute the universe is a million billion miles across and growing fast. There is a lot of heat now, ten billion degrees of it, enough to begin the nuclear reactions that create the lighter elements — principally hydrogen and helium, with a dash (about one atom in a hundred million) of lithium. In three minutes, 98 percent of all the matter there is or will ever be has been produced. We have a universe. It is a place of the most wondrous and gratifying possibility, and beautiful, too. And it was all done in about the time it takes to make a sandwich.

When this moment happened is a matter of some debate. Cosmologists have long argued over whether the moment of creation was 10 billion years ago or twice that or something in between. The consensus seems to be heading for a figure of about 13.7 billion years, but these things are notoriously difficult to measure, as we shall see further on. All that can really be said is that at some indeterminate point in the very distant past, for reasons unknown, there came the moment known to science as t = 0. We were on our way.

There is of course a great deal we don't know, and much of what we think we know we haven't known, or thought we've known, for long. Even the notion of the Big Bang is quite a recent one. The idea had been kicking around since the 1920s, when Georges Lem tre, a Belgian priest-scholar, first tentatively proposed it, but it didn't really become an active notion in cosmology until the mid-1960s when two young radio astronomers made an extraordinary and inadvertent discovery.

Their names were Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson. In 1965, they were trying to make use of a large communications antenna owned by Bell Laboratories at Holmdel, New Jersey, but they were troubled by a persistent background noise — a steady, steamy hiss that made any experimental work impossible. The noise was unrelenting and unfocused. It came from every point in the sky, day and night, through every season. For a year the young astronomers did everything they could think of to track down and eliminate the noise. They tested every electrical system. They rebuilt instruments, checked circuits, wiggled wires, dusted plugs. They climbed into the dish and placed duct tape over every seam and rivet. They climbed back into the dish with brooms and scrubbing brushes and carefully swept it clean of what they referred to in a later paper as "white dielectric material," or what is known more commonly as bird shit. Nothing they tried worked.

Unknown to them, just thirty miles away at Princeton University, a team of scientists led by Robert Dicke was working on how to find the very thing they were trying so diligently to get rid of. The Princeton researchers were pursuing an idea that had been suggested in the 1940s by the Russian-born astrophysicist George Gamow that if you looked deep enough into space you should find some cosmic background radiation left over from the Big Bang. Gamow calculated that by the time it crossed the vastness of the cosmos, the radiation would reach Earth in the form of microwaves. In a more recent paper he had even suggested an instrument that might do the job: the Bell antenna at Holmdel. Unfortunately, neither Penzias and Wilson, nor any of the Princeton team, had read Gamow's paper.

The noise that Penzias and Wilson were hearing was, of course, the noise that Gamow had postulated. They had found the edge of the universe, or at least the visible part of it, 90 billion trillion miles away. They were "seeing" the first photons — the most ancient light in the universe — though time and distance had converted them to microwaves, just as Gamow had predicted. In his book The Inflationary Universe, Alan Guth provides an analogy that helps to put this finding in perspective. If you think of peering into the depths of the universe as like looking down from the hundredth floor of the Empire State Building (with the hundredth floor representing now and street level representing the moment of the Big Bang), at the time of Wilson and Penzias's discovery the most distant galaxies anyone had ever detected were on about the sixtieth floor, and the most distant things — quasars — were on about the twentieth. Penzias and Wilson's finding pushed our acquaintance with the visible universe to within half an inch of the sidewalk.

Still unaware of what caused the noise, Wilson and Penzias phoned Dicke at Princeton and described their problem to him in the hope that he might suggest a solution. Dicke realized at once what the two young men had found. "Well, boys, we've just been scooped," he told his colleagues as he hung up the phone.

Soon afterward the Astrophysical Journal published two articles: one by Penzias and Wilson describing their experience with the hiss, the other by Dicke's team explaining its nature. Although Penzias and Wilson had not been looking for cosmic background radiation, didn't know what it was when they had found it, and hadn't described or interpreted its character in any paper, they received the 1978 Nobel Prize in physics. The Princeton researchers got only sympathy. According to Dennis Overbye in Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos, neither Penzias nor Wilson altogether understood the significance of what they had found until they read about it in the New York Times.

Incidentally, disturbance from cosmic background radiation is something we have all experienced. Tune your television to any channel it doesn't receive, and about 1 percent of the dancing static you see is accounted for by this ancient remnant of the Big Bang. The next time you complain that there is nothing on, remember that you can always watch the birth of the universe.

Although everyone calls it the Big Bang, many books caution us not to think of it as an explosion in the conventional sense. It was, rather, a vast, sudden expansion on a whopping scale. So what caused it?

One notion is that perhaps the singularity was the relic of an earlier, collapsed universe--that we're just one of an eternal cycle of expanding and collapsing universes, like the bladder on an oxygen machine. Others attribute the Big Bang to what they call "a false vacuum" or "a scalar field" or "vacuum energy"--some quality or thing, at any rate, that introduced a measure of instability into the nothingness that was. It seems impossible that you could get something from nothing, but the fact that once there was nothing and now there is a universe is evident proof that you can. It may be that our universe is merely part of many larger universes, some in different dimensions, and that Big Bangs are going on all the time all over the place. Or it may be that space and time had some other forms altogether before the Big Bang — forms too alien for us to imagine — and that the Big Bang represents some sort of transition phase, where the universe went from a form we can't understand to one we almost can. "These are very close to religious questions," Dr. Andrei Linde, a cosmologist at Stanford, told the New York Times in 2001.

The Big Bang theory isn't about the bang itself but about what happened after the bang. Not long after, mind you. By doing a lot of math and watching carefully what goes on in particle accelerators, scientists believe they can look back to 10-43 seconds after the moment of creation, when the universe was still so small that you would have needed a microscope to find it. We mustn't swoon over every extraordinary number that comes before us, but it is perhaps worth latching on to one from time to time just to be reminded of their ungraspable and amazing breadth. Thus 10-43 is 0.0000000000000000000000000000000000000000001, or one 10 million trillion trillion trillionths of a second.

Most of what we know, or believe we know, about the early moments of the universe is thanks to an idea called inflation theory first propounded in 1979 by a junior particle physicist, then at Stanford, now at MIT, named Alan Guth. He was thirty-two years old and, by his own admission, had never done anything much before. He would probably never have had his great theory except that he happened to attend a lecture on the Big Bang given by none other than Robert Dicke. The lecture inspired Guth to take an interest in cosmology, and in particular in the birth of the universe.

The eventual result was the inflation theory, which holds that a fraction of a moment after the dawn of creation, the universe underwent a sudden dramatic expansion. It inflated — in effect ran away with itself, doubling in size every 10-34 seconds. The whole episode may have lasted no more than 10-30 seconds — that's one million million million million millionths of a second — but it changed the universe from something you could hold in your hand to something at least 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 times bigger. Inflation theory explains the ripples and eddies that make our universe possible. Without it, there would be no clumps of matter and thus no stars, just drifting gas and everlasting darkness.

According to Guth's theory, at one ten-millionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second, gravity emerged. After another ludicrously brief interval it was joined by electromagnetism and the strong and weak nuclear forces — the stuff of physics. These were joined an instant later by swarms of elementary particles — the stuff of stuff. From nothing at all, suddenly there were swarms of photons, protons, electrons, neutrons, and much else — between 1079 and 1089 of each, according to the standard Big Bang theory.

Such quantities are of course ungraspable. It is enough to know that in a single cracking instant we were endowed with a universe that was vast — at least a hundred billion light-years across, according to the theory, but possibly any size up to infinite — and perfectly arrayed for the creation of stars, galaxies, and other complex systems.

What is extraordinary from our point of view is how well it turned out for us. If the universe had formed just a tiny bit differently — if gravity were fractionally stronger or weaker, if the expansion had proceeded just a little more slowly or swiftly — then there might never have been stable elements to make you and me and the ground we stand on. Had gravity been a trifle stronger, the universe itself might have collapsed like a badly erected tent, without precisely the right values to give it the right dimensions and density and component parts. Had it been weaker, however, nothing would have coalesced. The universe would have remained forever a dull, scattered void.

This is one reason that some experts believe there may have been many other big bangs, perhaps trillions and trillions of them, spread through the mighty span of eternity, and that the reason we exist in this particular one is that this is one we could exist in. As Edward P. Tryon of Columbia University once put it: "In answer to the question of why it happened, I offer the modest proposal that our Universe is simply one of those things which happen from time to time." To which adds Guth: "Although the creation of a universe might be very unlikely, Tryon emphasized that no one had counted the failed attempts."

Martin Rees, Britain's astronomer royal, believes that there are many universes, possibly an infinite number, each with different attributes, in different combinations, and that we simply live in one that combines things in the way that allows us to exist. He makes an analogy with a very large clothing store: "If there is a large stock of clothing, you're not surprised to find a suit that fits. If there are many universes, each governed by a differing set of numbers, there will be one where there is a particular set of numbers suitable to life. We are in that one."

Rees maintains that six numbers in particular govern our universe, and that if any of these values were changed even very slightly things could not be as they are. For example, for the universe to exist as it does requires that hydrogen be converted to helium in a precise but comparatively stately manner — specifically, in a way that converts seven one-thousandths of its mass to energy. Lower that value very slightly — from 0.007 percent to 0.006 percent, say — and no transformation could take place: the universe would consist of hydrogen and nothing else. Raise the value very slightly — to 0.008 percent — and bonding would be so wildly prolific that the hydrogen would long since have been exhausted. In either case, with the slightest tweaking of the numbers the universe as we know and need it would not be here.

Copyright © 2003 by Bill Bryson

What Our Readers Are Saying

Add a comment for a chance to win!
Average customer rating based on 6 comments:

jksquires, May 10, 2013 (view all comments by jksquires)
Once again, when I finished a Bryson book, this one being the most recent one, I felt like I had taken a fascinating journey with a good friend and now was sadly saying goodbye. Bryson's writing is so clear, so entertaining, and so interesting that he can choose any subject and take a reader on a fascinating journey of discovery. A Short History of Nearly Everything covers geology, astronomy, evolutionary theory, and the discovery of DNA, yet Bill Bryson makes all of these subjects accessible to someone like myself who knows very little of any of these sciences. Bill Bryson is quite simply a treasure, and I hope he never stops writing.
Was this comment helpful? | Yes | No
jksquires, May 10, 2013 (view all comments by jksquires)
Once again, when I finished a Bryson book, this one being the most recent one, I felt like I had taken a fascinating journey with a good friend and now was sadly saying goodbye. Bryson's writing is so clear, so entertaining, and so interesting that he can choose any subject and take a reader on a fascinating journey of discovery. A Short History of Nearly Everything covers geology, astronomy, evolutionary theory, and the discovery of DNA, yet Bill Bryson makes all of these subjects accessible to someone like myself who knows very little of any of these sciences. Bill Bryson is quite simply a treasure, and I hope he never stops writing.
Was this comment helpful? | Yes | No
don weng, January 1, 2010 (view all comments by don weng)
Bill Bryson is Brilliant. I read an except of this book, per her request, at a friend's memorial service. I found this book educational, inspirational and comforting. It changed my life and allowed me to look at death more realistically. I have purchased countless copies as gifts. It should be read by everyone.
Was this comment helpful? | Yes | No
(8 of 14 readers found this comment helpful)
View all 6 comments

Product Details

ISBN:
9780767908184
Author:
Bryson, Bill
Publisher:
Broadway Books
Author:
Various
Subject:
General
Subject:
Trivia
Subject:
History
Subject:
Questions & Answers
Subject:
General Travel
Subject:
General science
Subject:
Science Reference-General
Subject:
World
Copyright:
Edition Number:
Reprint ed.
Edition Description:
Trade paper
Publication Date:
September 2004
Binding:
TRADE PAPER
Grade Level:
General/trade
Language:
English
Pages:
560
Dimensions:
9.30x6.08x1.17 in. 1.18 lbs.

Other books you might like

  1. Eragon (Inheritance Cycle #01)
    Used Trade Paper $1.95
  2. A Walk in the Woods: Rediscovering...
    Used Trade Paper $4.95
  3. Schott's Food and Drink Miscellany Used Hardcover $3.50
  4. War Is a Force That Gives Us Meaning
    Used Hardcover $7.50
  5. The Girlfriends' Guide to Surviving... Used Trade Paper $3.95
  6. America (the Book): A Citizen's...
    Used Hardcover $2.50

Related Subjects


Reference » Science Reference » General
Reference » Science Reference » Philosophy of Science
Science and Mathematics » Featured Titles in Tech » General
Science and Mathematics » History of Science » General
Science and Mathematics » Nature Studies » Featured Titles
Science and Mathematics » Physics » Cosmology
Science and Mathematics » Popular Science » General

A Short History of Nearly Everything Used Trade Paper
0 stars - 0 reviews
$10.50 In Stock
Product details 560 pages Broadway Books - English 9780767908184 Reviews:
"Staff Pick" by ,

This learned and amusing work covers the origin of the universe to the human genome. A welcome journey with Bryson in typical wise and witty fashion.

"Review" by , "Bryson...achieve[s] exactly what he'd set out to do, and, moreover, [he does] it in stylish, efficient, colloquial and stunningly accurate prose....[S]eems destined to become a modern classic of science writing."
"Review" by , "Bryson has made a career writing hilarious travelogues, and in many ways his latest is more of the same, except that this time Bryson hikes through the world of science."
"Review" by , "Hefty, highly researched and eminently readable."
"Review" by , "All non-scientists (and probably many specialized scientists, too) can learn a great deal from his lucid and amiable explanations."
"Review" by , "One of the most engaging general-interest science books around. Think of it as a kind of a handy manual to the cosmos....Mr. Bryson believes that much of what humankind has learned can be conveyed to the average reader with humor and clarity."
"Review" by , "To those acquainted with the popular-science writing Bryson has digested, his repackaging is a trip down memory lane, but to his fellow science-phobes, Bryson's tour has the same eye-opening quality to wonder and amazement as his wildly popular travelogues."
"Review" by , "[T]o read Bryson is to travel with a memoirist gifted with wry observation and keen insight that shed new light on things we mistake for commonplace....[A] trip worth taking..."
"Review" by , "Loads of good explaining, with reminders, time and again, of how much remains unknown, neatly putting the death of science into perspective."
"Review" by , "I can't vouch for the accuracy of the content, but written the way it is, it undeniably makes learning fun....I can't imagine what Mr. Bryson will tackle next....But I look forward to his future undertaking with unabashed eagerness."
"Review" by , "With his keen and wonderfully humorous perspective, Bryson has written the best kind of travelogue...in which each stop on the itinerary is fascinating because he settles in and stays awhile, unearthing the stories and myths of the local denizens."
"Review" by , "Bryson is surprisingly precise, brilliantly eccentric and nicely eloquent...a gifted storyteller has dared to retell the world's biggest story."
"Review" by , "Bill Bryson gives you science that's both serious and fun in this detailed and enjoyable book....Bryson's challenge here was...to make us understand and appreciate how profound, frightening or just plain interesting our world is, and he's done a wonderful job."
"Review" by , "A 545-page doorstop that is neither a hilarious travelogue or a witty book about language, both trademarks of the author. Rather, it's a swift tour of the sciences and an ambitious one at that....Bryson is a master of his craft."
"Review" by , "Bill Bryson's latest tome...delivers exactly what the title suggests....Readers familiar with Bryson's wry sense of humor and casual writing style will find plenty here; he makes science interesting and funny."
"Review" by , "A Short History of Nearly Everything is everything a book should be — informative, engaging, well styled, rewarding both for the information it provides and the art that shapes it."
"Synopsis" by , In this book, bestsellling author Bill Bryson confronts his greatest challenge: to understand — and, if possible, answer — the oldest, biggest questions posed about the universe, everything from the Big Bang to the rise of civilization.
spacer
spacer
  • back to top
Follow us on...




Powell's City of Books is an independent bookstore in Portland, Oregon, that fills a whole city block with more than a million new, used, and out of print books. Shop those shelves — plus literally millions more books, DVDs, and gifts — here at Powells.com.