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Original Essays | September 15, 2014

Lois Leveen: IMG Forsooth Me Not: Shakespeare, Juliet, Her Nurse, and a Novel



There's this writer, William Shakespeare. Perhaps you've heard of him. He wrote this play, Romeo and Juliet. Maybe you've heard of it as well. It's... Continue »

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Unix Power Tools 2ND Edition

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Unix Power Tools 2ND Edition Cover

 

 

Excerpt

[ Symbols ], [ A ], [ B ], [ C ], [ D ], [ E ], [ F ], [ G ], [ H ], [ I ], [ J ], [ K ], [ L ], [ M ], [ N ], [ O ], [ P ], [ Q ], [ R ], [ S ], [ T ], [ U ], [ V ], [ W ], [ X ], [ Y ], [ Z ]

#LINK<Symbols[ Top ]>#
Numbers
0 (zero) process ID, 707
-1 process ID, 707
80cols file, 780, 975
8-bit filenames, 410
9-track tapes, 350-351
Symbols
& (ampersand)
   && operator, 202, 831, 913, 924
   &= operator, 912
   for background processes, 32, 696
   C shell operator, 913
   escaping special characters using, 964
   logical operator for expr, 883
' (apostrophe) (see quotes)
x (asterisk)
   x= operator, 912
   as arithmetic operator for expr, 882
   C shell operator, 913
   examples, 951
   filename wildcard, 17, 254
   in pcal, 928
   regular expression metacharacter, 457, 461
@ (at sign), 151
   @-functions (vi), 563-565
   in C shell, 912, 914
` (backtick) (see backquotes)
\ (backslash)
   \< \> metacharacters, 462, 464
   \{ \} metacharacters, 461, 464
   \( \) metacharacters, 463
   \1, \2 metacharacters, 463
   avoiding multiline commands, 159
   before newline, 137, 139
   in C shell scripts, 837
   escaping special characters, 123, 184
   in filenames, 16
   placement of, 145
   preventing history substitution, 121
   in prompt settings, 113
   quoting and, 134
   for root directory, 22
   stty command and, 83
[ ] (brackets)
   [ command, 82, 845, 897
   at start of escape sequence, 82
   fast find and, 305
   filename wildcards, 254
   regular expression metacharacter, 460
   sc program using, 944
   wildcards, 149
^ (caret)
   ^[ (see CTRL key)
   ^= operator, 912
   ^^ sequence, 195, 199
   C shell operator, 913
   in control character, 765
   filename wildcard, 255
   regular expression metacharacter, 458
   within [ ] metacharacters, 460
: (colon)
   alternative to #, 858
   comment character, 858
   colon-separated lists, 72
   examples, 842, 888
   if loops using, 857
   as logical operator for expr, 883
   as null character, 830
   parameter substitute, 858, 863
   separating fields, 11, 80
   separating values, 76
   shell script comments, 851
   string editing operator, 151-153
   trap used with, 856
   while loops using, 857
, (comma) in filenames, 16
{ } (curly braces), 18, 157, 913
   \{ \} metacharacters, 461, 464
   Bourne shell list operators, 228
   building strings, 150
   in C shell, 911
   filename wildcards, 255-256
   find -exec command and, 298
   foreach loop and, 157
   in shells, 18, 21
   with variable names, 98
$ (dollar sign)
   $x, 884, 898
   $@, 838, 842, 884, 899, 926
   $$, 834
   $!, 909
   $#, 839, 920
   $- test, 51
   $<, 905
   $(), 887
   $?, 906
   $0 parameter, 847
   $1 argument, 833-834, 838
   in C shell, 914
   quoting and, 135
   regular expression metacharacter, 458
   with variable names, 98
   wildcard, 828
= (equal sign)
   == operator, 913
   =~ operator, 913
   for alias definitions, 185
   as arithmetic operator for expr, 883
   C shell operator, 912
   as relational operator for expr, 883
   as relatioal operator for expr, 882
! (exclamation point)
   !x notation, 183
   !: notation, 194, 199
   !$ notation, 183, 194-198
   != operator, 882, 913
   automatic temporary files, 165
   with brackets wildcards, 254
   C shell operator, 913
   in C shell quoting, 138
   examples, 952
   history substitution commands, 196-201
   preceding operators, 76
   terms for, 967
   test command using, 845
# (hash mark)
   : used in place of, 858
   #! (shebang) notation, 140, 826, 851-853
   alternatives to, 858
   for comments, 181
   in crontab entries, 740
   shell script comments, 851
   in termcap and terminfo comment lines, 762
- (hyphen)
   -= operator, 912
   << operator with, 141
   arithmetic operator for expr, 882
   C shell operator, 913
   command-line arguments starting with, 840-841
   filenames starting with, 409
   in login shell, 57
   for stdin (on command line), 231
< (left angle bracket)
   \< \> metacharacters, 462, 464
   <= operator, 882, 913
   << operator, 140, 335, 837, 913
   <<- operator, 141, 160
   C shell operator, 913
   examples, 924
   as relatioal operator for expr, 882
( ) (parentheses)
   \( \) metacharacters, 463
   commands printed in, 701
   in extended regular expressions:extended regular, 464
   examples, 925
   in extended regular expressions, 464
   grouping expressions using, 914
   as operators, 42, 227
% (percent sign)
   %= operator, 912
   as arithmetic operator for expr, 882
   C shell operator, 913
   clear command, 774
   default C shell prompt, 101
   for job numbers, 213-214
. (period)
   .. for parent directory, 319
   for current directory, 319
   in filenames, 16, 18
   filenames starting with (see dot files)
   functions compared to, 848
   in pathnames, 25
   regular expression metacharacter, 457, 460
   subroutines compared to, 848
   terms for, 967
+ (plus sign)
   += operator, 912
   ++ operator, 912
   as arithmetic operator for expr, 882-883
   C shell operator, 913
   regular expression metacharacter, 464
   in job reports, 212
? (question mark), 915
   fast find and, 305
   filename wildcard, 254
   foreach loop and, 156
   regular expression metacharacter, 464
   shell variable, 100
   wildcard character, 17
" (quotes) (see quotes)
> (right angle bracket)
   >& operator, 225
   >> operator, 913
   C shell operator, 913
   with for loops, 158
   redirecting output, 99, 870, 875
   relational operator for expr, 882-883
; (semicolon) on command line
   on command line, 122
   separating commands, 834
#! (shebang) notation, 140, 826, 851-853
/ (slash)
   /= operator, 912
   arithmetic operator for expr, 882-883
   C shell operator, 913
   fast find and, 305
   in filenames, 16, 18
   in pathnames, 25, 239
   terms for, 967
~ (tilde)
   C shell operator, 913
   examples, 938
   ending filenames, 249, 305
   for home directory, 111, 249
   in pathnames, 25
_ (underscore) in filenames, 16
| (vertical bar), 4
   |& operator, 223, 225
   |= operator, 912
   || operator, 830-831, 855, 898, 913
   C shell operator, 913
   logical operator for expr, 882
   examples, 842
   in extended regular expressions, 464
   noclobber variable and, 226
   piping commands, 223
   (see also pipelines)

#LINK<A[ Top ]>#
.a filename extension, 19
abbreviations
   Emacs editor, 587-588
   in pathnames, 24
   vi and ex editors, 550-552, 573
absolute pathnames, 57, 238, 322
   archiving with, 339
   in configuration files, 47
   getting, 71
   on #include line, 1019
   tar command and, 355
access
   last file access time, 365
   modes for, 70
   permission, 27-31
   read-only (see read-only files)
   times, 267
accidental file deletion (see deleting files)
accidental logouts, 61-62
address databases
   created using awk, 930-935
   index program for creating, 935-937
address lists, creating, 920
addup script, 519, 943, 975
age_files script, 283, 975
aggregate transfer rate, 727
agrep script, 481-482, 487, 981, 1002
aliases
   arguments for, 183
   for cd command, 106, 245
   in .cshrc file, 182
   command file and, 46
   for commands, 127, 180
   examples, 846
   inside the ($?prompt) test, 49
   for ls command, 269, 273
   for pushd command, 245
   quoting, 184
   recursive, 187
   setprompt, 111
   shell functions and, 189
   simulated shell functions and, 190
   for terminals, 763
   with wildcards, 128
   word vectors and, 131
am capability, 763
ampersand (see &)
anchors, 458
angle brackets (see <; >)
anonymous ftp, 141, 1006
append command (ex), 594
apropos command
   alternatives to, 947-950, 954
   described, 947
   examples, 947
   man -k compared to, 947
   support for, 947-949
   whatis compared to, 949
archive file (library) extension, 19
archives, 334-335
   copying to another directory, 341
   cpio, 341
   extracting files from, 340
   RCS and SCCS, 357-361
   shell (see shell archives)
   System V archiver, 341
   tar archives, 337, 339, 352-355
   tar utility and (see tar command)
   unarchiving, 336-337
arguments
   aliases for, 182-183
   character limit, 958
   command-line (see command-line arguments)
   filenames in, 139
   grabbing from previous command lines, 195
   iterating shell variables over, 899
   maximum allowable, 170
   passed to scripts, 6
   passing, 854, 899
   reading, 133
   for shell variables, 137
Arguments too long message, 168, 172, 958
argv array
   examples, 911
   variables set to, 899
arithmetic operators (see operators, arithmetic)
arrays
   advantages, 914
   awk utility and, 606
   in Bourne shell, 890
   in C shell, 914
   directory stacks in, 915
   setting, 914
   simulating using eval, 890
   word lists compared to, 914
   (see also under specific array names)
arrow keys, mapping in vi, 562
ASCII characters
   decimal conversion, 861
   in escape sequences, 82
   getting values, 963
   listing, 963
   in shell programs, 6
ASCII file, 963
   filename extension, 19
ascii script, 975
ASCII terminals, 769
Assembly language code extension, 19
associative arrays, 282
asterisk (see x)
at command, 730, 732-733, 737
at jobs
   adding calendar information to, 924
   automatically restarting, 735
   making quiet, 735
   listing jobs, 737
at sign (see @)
AT variable, 50
atan2 command (awk), 606
atq command, 733
   reporting jobs in queue, 736
atrm command, 736
automargin capability, 765
automatic
   directory setup, 251
   file cleanup, 61
   history file (csh), 204
   passwd command use, 177-179
   setting aliases, 182
   temporary files, 165
   unique filename generation, 276
   updating of file printouts, 370
autonice time, 725
autowrapping terminals, 778
autowrite, 544
   job control and, 215
averages of command runtimes, 716
awf text formatter, 804, 975
awk: bailing out near line # message, 958
awk utility, 282, 464, 602-611
   addup script using, 943
   advantages/disadvantages, 885
   array support, 890
   arrays and, 606
   centering lines, 653
   colrm compared to, 885
   commands, list of, 606-611
   cut compared to, 885
   editing scripts, 7
   errors caused by, 896
   eval compared to, 837
   examples, 836, 896
   -f option, 852-853
   operators, 605
   patterns, 602
   procedures, 603
   script errors, 958
   searching columns, 489
   straightening columns, 670
   tbl, nroff as alternatives, 938
   variables, 604, 606
   version history, 611
   (see also nawk)

#LINK<B[ Top ]>#
background processes, 31-34, 59, 61, 211, 696
   automatically killing, 710
   exit status of, 829
   output from, 217
   preventing continuing after logout, 706
   watching, 731
backquotes
   command substitution, 161
   examples, 843, 891
   for loops combined with, 866
   nesting, 886
backslash (see \)
BACKSPACE key, 751, 966
   deleting on command line, 148
   erase character, 83, 751, 966
   location for, 53
backspacing over shell prompts, 757
backups, 343-361
   advantages, 344
   bkedit script, 976
   of directories, 353
   Emacs auto-save, backup files, 582
   RCS and SCCS, 357-361
   on remote tape drives, 349
   restoring files from, 347
   timestamps and, 351
bad magic number message, 958
Baldwin, Robert, 391
bang (see exclamation point)
banner command, 796
banners, printing, 796
basename, 988
   bugs in, 867
   described, 867
   examples, 864, 867
   loops using, 868
bash (Bourne-again shell), 975
   alias facility, 180
   aliases in, 185
   .bashrc file, 43
   C shell compared to, 904
   case statement, 51
   command history, 192
   described, 10, 118
   echo used in, 902
   evaluating command line, 130
   fc command, 208
   history file, 203
   octal character strings, 108
   passing command history to, 205
   pre-prompt commands, 113
   process substitution, 164
   prompt setting, 103, 105, 109
   speeding up, 51
   string editing, 153, 864
   (see also sh)
batch command, 730, 734
batch editing, 591
   awk for (see awk)
   diff command, 597
   ex scripting, 593-596
   file size limits, 599
   patch program, 599
   qsubst program, 601
   sed for (see sed)
batch execution, 734
batch queues, 734
baud rate, 749
bc program, 939-941
bdiff command, 498
behead script, 651, 975
Berkeley printing commands, 788
Berkeley UNIX, 750
bg command, 212, 772
big environment, effects of, 721
/bin directory, 66
   /bin/time utility, 712, 717
   programs in, 12
   in search paths, 825
binary data
   archiving, 337
   searching, 490
bit bucket, 233, 418
bit rate, 749
bitmaps, 975
   with pbmplus, 1005
bitwise operators, 913
bkedit scripts, 976
   examples, 831, 833, 863
blank lines (see newline characters; whitespace)
blank shell prompt, 110
block I/O operations, 715
block sizes, tape, 350-351
blocking factor, 351
bold text, 804
Boolean capabilities, termcap/terminfo, 763
Bournegol, 898
Boyer-Moore search algorithm, 482
braces (see {})
brackets (see [ ])
break command
   examples, 888
   redirected loops using, 878
break command (awk), 606
Broken pipe message, 894, 959
bs capability, 765
BSD standalone nice, 723
BSD tty driver
   echoing control characters, 757
BSD UNIX
   alternatives for, 951
   changing a job's priority, 725
   file ownership and, 394
   manual page categories, 945
   which command, 951
BSDC shell nice command, 723
bsdtar program, 976
bsplit program, 655, 976
buffers for output, 229
Buggy Bourne Shell, 898
buildhash script, 516
build.pt script, 1008
builtin command, 130
built-in commands, 103, 130
burn-in, 393
bus error (core dumped) message, 959
byte order conversion, 661

#LINK<C[ Top ]>#
.c filename extension, 19
c function (for changing directories), 246
C language, 1010
   compiling, 1019
   source code, 1007-1020
C program file extensions, 19
C shell (csh), 695
   accidental logouts, 61-62
   advantages/disadvantages, 825, 904-911
   aliases, 188
   arrays in, 890, 914
   avoiding alias loops, 187
   automatically killing background processes, 710
   background processing, 32
   bash shell compared to, 904
   Bourne shell versus, 855, 904-911
   bugs in, 904-911
   built-in string operators, 103
   command history, 192, 966
   command name for, 773
   command tools and, 15
   configuration files, 47
   creating empty file, 366
   .cshrc file, 42, 45, 47, 49
      # in, 181
      if statement in, 911
      creating multiline prompt, 111
      prompt setting, 102, 104
      setting search path, 125
      SHLVL environment variable, 109
      symlinks workaround, 250
   .cshrc.$HOST file, 53
   default prompt, 101
   defining variables, 97
   described, 9, 825
   echo command, 123
   editing history substitutions, 151-153
   environment variables, 908
   error handling, 910
   eval command, 75
   executing scripts via, 732
   expressions in, 912, 914
   -f option, 45
   flow control in, 907
   foreach loop, 156
   history characters, 209
   history file, 204
   if loops in, 909
   importing commands, 131
   interpreting commands, 121
   Korn shell compared to, 904
   .logout file, 59
   mail notification, 367
   managing file descriptors, 905
   matching word, escaping, 141
   multiline commands, 159
   nesting aliases, 183
   noclobber variable, 226
   operator precedence in, 912
   overriding environment variables, 100
   parsing in, 907
   passing command history to, 205
   pipelines in, 906
   quoting, 138
   quoting in, 908
   random number generators, 861
   redirecting input/output, 225
   redirecting stdin, 222
   rehash command, 66
   repeat command, 175
   script file extension, 19
   set nonomatch command, 61
   shell variables, 98
   special characters/operators in, 142-144
   speeding up, 49
   standard input, 905
   standard output, 906
   stray prompt problems, 102
   trapping signals, 908
   variable syntax, 908
C shell scripts
   exit status inserted, 829
   -f option, 853
   interrupted, 856
   quoting in, 899
.c suffix, 1019
c-w script, 385
C132 script, 977
C80 script, 977
cal program, 925-926
   calen program versus, 927
   printing, 927
calculators
   spreadsheets compared to, 943
   types of, 939
   (see also bc program)
calen program, 927, 976
.calendar file, pcal using, 928
calendar program, 922-924
   sending one-line reminders, 738
cal_today script, 926, 976
cancel command (System V), 788
canonicalized input lines, 750
capability lines in termcap or terminfo files, 763
capitalization (see case sensitivity)
CAPS LOCK, typing without, 574
caret (see ^)
carriage returns (see newline characters)
case command
   examples, 839-840, 964
   handling command-line arguments, 840
   in while loops, 840, 876
case sensitivity, 16
   ispell program and, 512
   search patterns, 489
   vi and ex editors and, 538
case statement, 51, 889
   described, 828
   egrep expressions built, 920
   errors caused by, 895
   examples, 828, 920
   pattern matching in, 828
cat command, 2, 223, 437, 440
   backslash character and, 123
   combining files, 120
   -e option, 274, 441
   examples, 831-832
   for loops combined with, 866
   -n option, 452
   -s option, 446
   starting pipelines, 5
   -t option, 441
   -v option, 441-444, 767
catman program, egrep versus, 948
catsaway script, 976
   examples, 833
cbreak mode, 750, 758
cbw program, 391
cd command, 61, 106
   - option, 244
   aliases for, 245
   cdpath variable and, 242
   directory initials and, 246
   in subshell, 228
   (see also current directory)
CDPATH environment variable, 242
cdpath shell variable, 99, 242
   as array, 914
CD-ROM formats, 992
CD-ROM (with this book), 971-1021
center script, 976
centering lines, awk script, 653
cgrep script, 484, 632, 976
change command (ex), 594
change times, 267
character codes in termcap and terminfo databases, 766
character sets, 458-459
characters
   counting, 517-519
   handling most, 751
   nonprintable (see special characters)
   sending repeated to terminals, 782
   sent by special keys, 767
   special (see special characters)
   testing strings of, 884, 889
check command (SCCS), 358
checksed script, 615, 976
chgrp command, 27, 381, 980
child processes, 696, 856-857
   changes to environment of, 697
   file descriptors given to, 871
   killing, 704
   relationship to parent, 696
   (see also processes)
CHLD (child) signal, 702
chmod command, 382, 980
   = operator, 383
   dscribed, 824
   examples, 824
   -R option, 383-384
chmod_edit script, 976
chown command, 27, 394, 980
chsh command, 56
chunksort script, 680, 977
ci command (RCS), 359
cleanup script, 61, 415, 977
clear command, 59, 392
clear screen function in terminal setup menu, 774
clear script, 760, 977
clf, clf2 scripts, 267, 977
clipboard, creating in terminal windows, 921
clock in UNIX, 962, 969
close command (awk), 606
closing
   file descriptors, 906
   files, 874
clri command, 409
ClrStatus script, 977
cls, cls2 scripts, 267, 977
cmd field in crontab entries, 739
cmp program, 503, 978
co command (RCS), 359
col command, 804
   examples, 948
colcrt command, 805
colon (see :)
colrm command, 662
   advantages, 885
   awk compared to, 885
cols script, 977
columns
   formatting, 662-666
   selecting, 662
   straightening, 669
   totaling using addup, 943
comm command, 54, 282, 503-505
comma (,) in filenames, 16
command characters (see special characters)
command command, 130
command directories, 89
command interpreters, 825
   (see also shells)
command line
   advantages, 147
   aliases for arguments, 182-183
   arguments, 123
   changing path on, 126
   commands to long for, 168-172
   deleting on, 148
   editing on, 193, 206
   evaluating, 121
   filenames on, 231
   interpreted by shell, 3
   parsing, 128
   reprinting, 149
   saving to file, 6
   as shell scripts, 823
   submitting for execution at a later time, 732
command not found message, 959
command returns, numeric, 829
command runtimes, averages of, 716
command search table, resetting, 824
command substitution
   in for loops, 840
   nested, 886
command-line arguments
   in Bourne shell scripts, 838
   character limit, 958
   counting, 839
   finding last, 865
   in Korn Shell scripts, 838
   for loops in, 839
   listing using expr, 884
   parsing, 842, 844
   quoting, 898-900
   removing, 839
   saving original settings, 844
   setting, 844
   starting with - (minus), 840
   unsetting, 865
commands
   aliases for, 127
   ampersand (&) character at the end of, 696
   awk utility, 606-611
   background, 59, 61
   Berkeley printing commands, 788
   blocked processes, 727
   built-in, 103, 130, 694, 906
   combining, 227
   command substitution, 161
   on compressed files, 426
   custom (see custom commands)
   displaying running, 719
   Emacs command completion, 583
   ex editor, 594-596
   exit status, 829
   finding, 271
   for adjusting terminals, 759
   history of (see history of command)
   in .logout file, 59
   at login, 42
   multiline, 159
   multiple, while loops using, 868
   naming, 846
   printed in parentheses in ps output, 701
   System V printing, 787
   recalling (see history of command)
   redefining with aliases, 182
   repeating, 156, 201, 966
   RETURN key not used with, 888
   running by typing a single character, 776
   running number of them and averaging, 716
   sed editor, 808-810
   series of, 201
   shell interpretion of, 117-146
   storing, 70
   with temporarily different environment, 100
   terminals, issuing to, 764
   throwaway scripts for, 161
   too long for command line, 168-172
   typing at the shell prompt, 696
   versions, 823
   writing manual pages for, 954-958
   (see also under specific command name)
commenting
   Bourne shell scripts, 824
   ease of use, 837
   examples, 837
   starting with :, 851, 858
   starting with #, 851
   in termcap or terminfo files, 762
communication parameters, changing on the fly, 770
communications utilities, 36
comparing
   directory trees, 281
   editing and, 500-502
   filenames, 282
   files, 325
      bdiff command, 498
      cmp program, 503
      comm command, 503-505
      diff command, 492, 495
      diff3 script, 494
      diffmk command, 508
      make utility for, 505-508
      sdiff command, 497-498
      twin program, 497
   word counts, 517
compilation process, 1018-1019
compiling programs, 1010
complete shell variable, 99
completion, filename, 154-156, 207
compress utility, 422
compressed files, 19, 421
   editing, 427
   in entire directory tree, 423, 428
   paging through, 440
   running commands on, 426
   whitespace and, 421
compressor script, 365
conditional expressions (see expressions, conditional)
configuration files
   for csh, 47
   pathnames in, 47
   shells, 41-44
   storing information, 914
configure shell script, 1016
configuring terminals, 73-88
conserving disk space (see disk space)
CONT (continue) signal, 702
continue command (awk), 607
continue signal (see CONT signal)
control characters, 765
   Emacs and, 586
   ex and vi editors and, 566-578
   in scripts, 890
   storing, 966
control characters, echoing in BSD, 757
control echo, 752
controlling process, 695
controlling terminal, 700
conversion, base
   cvtbase used for, 942
   problems, 941
conversion, binary
   bc program used for, 940
conversion, hexadecimal
   bc program used for, 940
cooked mode, 749
Cooper, Michael, 78
COPTS declaration line
   -I option, 1020
copy command (ex), 594
copying
   directory trees, 329-333
   files, 371
      to directories, 372
   files to different directories, 880
   links, 331
   permission, 391
copying files, 314, 325
   (see also moving files; renaming files)
copying text
   vi editor, 531
core dumps, 420
core file, made by QUIT signal, 703
cos command (awk), 607
counting occurrences, 537
counting text elements, 517-519
   wordfreq script, 519
count.it script, 518, 977
count_types script, 977
cp command, 980
   -b option, 372
   -i option, 372
   -p option, 395
   -r option, 329-331
   (see also rcp utility)
cpio command, 341
cpmod utility, 391, 977
CPU contention, measuring, 726
CPU system time, 715
CPU time, 713, 717
   as percentage of elapsed time, 715
cron command, 741
cron system, 739
   including standard input within, 742
crontab command, 730, 742-743, 977
crontab entries, 739-742
crontab files
   adding calendar information to, 924
   personal, 734
cross-device link message, 959
crush script, 446, 978
Crypt Breaker's Workbench program, 391
crypt utility, 391
csh (see C shell)
csh command name, 773
.csh filename extension, 19
csh time variable, 713
csh_init, 915, 952, 978
csh_logout, 978
.cshrc file, 42, 45, 47, 49
   # in, 181
   if statement in, 911
   creating multiline prompt, 111
   prompt setting, 102, 104
   setting search path, 125
   SHLVL environment variable, 109
   symlinks workaround, 250
.cshrc.$HOST file, 53
CSHRC_READ variable, 50
csplit, 978
csplit program, 656-658
ctags command, 548
ctime, defined, 267
CTRL key, 82
   specifying with stty command, 83
CTRL-\ command, 773, 748
CTRL-/ command, 703
CTRL-c (cancel) command, 167, 703
   aborting programs, 773
CTRL-d command, 45, 61, 748
   flushing the input buffer, 758
   to end scripts, 965
   typing command lines in at, 732
CTRL-h command, 751
CTRL-j command, 775
CTRL-l command, 778
CTRL-m character, 34, 70
CTRL-q command, 752
   killing processes, 709
   restarting output, 771
CTRL-r (reprint) character, 149
CTRL-s command, 752
   stopping output, 771
CTRL-u (line-kill) character, 148
CTRL-w (word-erase) character, 148
CTRL-x (line-kill) character, 148
CTRL-z (suspend) command, 33, 212, 702
   putting jobs in background, 772
   stopping a subshell, 697
   used during sourcing, 907
CTS (Clear to Send), 753
cur function, 190
curly braces (see { })
curly quotes, 808
current directory, 24, 92, 111, 190, 250, 695
   advantages, 240
   finding, 241
current job, 214
custom commands
   advantages of, 6
   directories, 12
custom shells, 41-44
customizing
   Emacs searching, 585
   grep commands, 485-486
   keys (see key definitions)
cut command, 662, 978
   advantages, 885
   awk compared to, 885
   as filter in index program, 938
cvtbase, 942
cvtbase program, 978
cw script, 385
cwd shell variable, 99, 111, 250
cx script, 385

#LINK<D[ Top ]>#
daemons
   controlling terminal and, 700
   described, 14-16
   restarting with the kill command, 705
dashes (see - (hyphen))
databases
   created using awk, 930-935
   index program for creating, 935-937
   searching, 306-308
date (see time)
date command, 113, 276, 373, 988
   cal program using, 926
   described, 969
   examples, 969
day-of-month in crontab entries, 740
dbm files, 433
dc program, 939
   (see also calculators)
DCL (see VAX/VMS command language)
dd command, 652, 980
   performance and, 349
   restoring from remote tape drives, 349
dd utility, 660-661
dead processes (see zombies)
debugging
   Bourne shell scripts, 830, 894-903
   echo command used for, 896
   output, 894-895
   (see also standard output)
   piping to pager, 894
   (see also errors; standard errors)
decimals, ASCII character conversion, 861
decryption (see encryption)
<defunct> status under System V, 704
del script, 402, 978
DEL (to interrupt), 748
delete command, 978
delete command (awk), 607
delete command (ex), 594
DELETE key, 751
   deleting on command line, 148
   erase character, 83, 751, 966
   location for, 53
delete script, 404-407
deleting
   directories, 411-412, 959
   errors caused by, 959
   man pages, 413
   whitespace, 445-447
   wildcards and, 400
deleting files, 17, 371, 399-402, 407, 858
   emptying files instead of, 417
   by exclusion, 415
   find command and, 415
   by i-number, 411
   interactively, 402
   by last access date, 413
   overwriting accidentally, 120
   safeguards against, 358, 371, 403-407
   with special filename characters, 407-411
   with unlink command, 410
delta command (SCCS), 358
deroff command, 522
detaching sessions, 63
/dev directory, 222
   /dev/null file, 232-233
      examples, 833, 884, 892, 905
   /dev/tty file, 223
      examples, 905
   /dev/zero file, 233
device drivers, resetting, 709
device numbers, 310
df command, 310, 424-425, 980
   examples, 886
dialback script, 177
dictionary files (wordlists), 510
   adding to, 515
   arrays compared to, 914
   in C shell, 914
   variables set to, 899
diff command, 54, 492, 978
   -c option, 495
   -e option, 492, 500
   example, 597
   -f option, 281
   -h option, 498
   -t option, 502
   (see also bdiff command; ediff command)
diff3 script, 494, 978
diffmk command, 508
dircmp command, 281
directories, 412
   !$ sequence and, 194
   absolute pathnames and, 239
   access to, 31
   advantages of, 68
   archives/backups of, 344, 353
   automatic setup of, 251
   CD-ROM packages, 995
   changing, 242-250
   copying/moving files to, 372
   creating, 69
   current, 190, 240-241, 250, 695
   deleting, 411-412, 959
   directory stack, 243
   emacs hacks, 67
   file representation in, 315
   files in (see files)
   finding, 247
   home, 23, 249
   links to, 319, 323
   listing, 270, 370
   matching with wildcards, 261
   names of, 867
   notification of change to, 368
   ownership, 376-379
   parsing from pathnames, 277
   permission (see permission)
   printing files to, 150
   private, 67-68
   redundantly named, 280
   remotely mounted, 80
   root (see root directory)
   safer file deletion in, 403
   in search path, 125
   structure of, 995
   subdirectories
      creating, 151
      described, 23
      links in, 320
      ls -R command, 267
   on tape drives, 348
   temporary changes in, 227
   temporary files (see /tmp directory)
   trees of, 278, 281-282
      find command and, 291
   trimming, 430-432
directory not empty message, 959
directory stacks, 243
   in arrays, 915
dirname command, 277, 867-868, 988
dir_path script, 280, 979
dirs command, 244, 250
   output in prompt setting, 111
dirtop script, 370, 979
disk bandwidth, 727
disk quotas, 394, 432
disk space
   compressed files and (see compressed files)
   emptying files and, 417
   hard links vs. symbolic links, 252
   links and, 420
   log files and, 418
   memory contention, 727
   reports on, 424-425
   strip command and, 429
   trimming directories and, 430-432
   unlinking open files and, 419
   vtree program and, 279
DISPLAY environment variable, 52, 93
display, vis compared to, 967
ditroff program, 800
do command (awk), 607
doctor program, 589
documentation (see man pages)
dollar sign (see $)
done command, 948
dot (see .)
dot files, 272
   matching with wildcards, 257
doublequotes in sed scripts, 966
doublespace script, 979
double-spacing text, 447
du command, 424-425, 980
dump utility, 29
dup, file descriptors, 905
duplicate lines, deleting, 667, 678
DVI format documentation, 1001

#LINK<E[ Top ]>#
EBCDIC conversion, 661
echo command, 98
   in bash cells, 902
   in Bourne shell scripts, 834-835
   in C shell, 905
   combining two, 885
   command-line arguments, 123
   control characters used with, 891
   creating error messages, 124
   debugging using, 896
   -e, -E options, 903
   escape sequences interpreted by, 902
   examples, 828, 834, 842, 881, 905, 908
   external versions of, 131
   interpreting octal numbers, 891
   -n option, 903
   sending escape sequences, 759
   shell scripts using, 881
   showing values of variables, 91
   smart echoing, 757
   turning off, 881
   version differences, 902
   writing special escape sequences, 106
echo flag, turning off, 751
echo shell variable, 99, 140
ed editor
   diff command and, 500
   file size limits, 599
   no matches error, 598
ediff script, 499, 979
edit command (SCCS), 358
editing
   compressed files, 427
   paired item checking, 520
   with power tools, 7
   spell checking (see spell checking)
   with file comparisons, 500-502
EDITOR environment variable, 91
editors
   ed (see ed editor)
   Emacs (see Emacs editor)
   ex (see ex editor)
   patch (see patch program)
   qsubst program, 601, 986
   scripting line editors, 591-599
   sed (see sed editor)
   vi (see vi editor)
egrep script, 309, 464, 478, 482, 489, 981
   + (plus sign), 478
   ? (question mark), 478
   | (vertical bar), 478
   calendar command, 922
   case statement building, 920
   catman compared to, 948
   examples, 920, 948-949
   -f option, 480
   -i option, 950
   killing processes, 707
   loop building, 920
   options, 920
   question mark (?), 478
   searching manual pages, 950
eight-bit filenames, 410
elapsed time, 713, 717
elookfor script, 309, 979
else statement
   examples, 830
   (see also if loops)
Emacs editor, 979
   abbreviations, 587-588
   advantages over other editors, 579-581
   auto-save file, 582
   backup file, 582
   C shell's PWD and, 586
   command completion, 583
   directory for, 67
   emacs mode command-line editing, 206
   global initialization file, 582
   insert mode versus overwrite, 583
   key mapping, 584
   mouse-based editors versus, 580
   quoting control characters, 586
   search customizations, 585
   temporary files generated by, 249
   x-on/x-off flow control, 588
.emacs file, 581, 588
.emacs_ml file, 584, 974
email
   multiple mailboxes, 368
   notification of, 367
em-dashes, 808
emoticons, 970
empty files, 232, 366
emptying files, 417
enable command, 131
encoding arguments in termcap or terminfo entries, 766
encryption, 391
end-of-file (EOF) character, 232
   effect on subshells, 698
   End of file unexpected message, 894-895
end-of-line processing, 86
enscript program, 811
.enter file, 251
.enter.csh script, 974
entomb system, 404-407
env command, 97, 247, 988
   listing environment variables, 90
ENV environment variable, 51, 92
environment, 695
   modifying, 847
   temporary changes in, 227
   writing into temporary files, 732
environment variables, 52, 247
   advantages, 89
   in Bourne shell, 908
   in C shell, 908
   changed inside redirected loops, 879
   setting, 42
   (see also under specific variable names)
epsffit program, 812
equal sign (see =)
equations, 797-798
erase character, 83, 751, 966
error messages
   capturing for screen, 783
   creating, 124
   installation process, 1017
   program names included in, 846
   scrolling off screen, 224
   (see also under specific error message)
errors
   handled in C shell, 910
   in redirected loops, 878
   stderr, 223
   storing with logerrs script, 234
syntax, 897
   (see also debugging; standard errors)
ESC key, file completion and, !55
ESC Z string, 78
escape sequences, 82, 759
   backslash character and, 123
   copied into files, 965
   echo command interpreting, 902
   prompt settings and, 107
   removing, 806
   writing with echo command, 106
/etc directory
   /etc/motd script, 54
   /etc/passwd file, 27, 961
   /etc/shells file, 56
   /etc/ttys file, 52
   /etc/ttytab file, 52
   /etc/passwd file
eval command, 75
   advantages, 129
   awk compared to, 837
   examples, 865, 886
   if-then-else in aliases, 188
   scanning contents of variables, 867
   sed combined with, 886
   shell variables and, 190
   simulating arrays, 890
ex editor
   abbreviations, 550-552, 573
   appending to file, 535
   capitalizing words, 538
   command descriptions, 594-596
   confirming substitutions, 533
   counting occurrences, 537
   diff command and, 500
   filtering text, 541
   global command, 532
   line addressing, 593
   modelines, 539
   multiple setup files, 540-541
   no matches error, 598
   open mode, 555-556
   patterns, 532, 535-537
   quoting | (vertical bar), 567
   quoting control characters, 566
   recovering files, 545
   reverting to saved version, 528
   saving files, 528, 534
   scripting, 593-596
   settings, 530, 539-541
   startup commands, 530
   stopping search wraps, 537
   switching between files, 528
   transfer text between files, 529
   undoing changes, 533
   yank buffers, 529
examples, 969
exclamation point (see !)
exec command, 12, 694, 855
   associating file descriptors with files, 875
   examples, 858
executable files, 1010, 1019
   displaying, 853
   errors caused by, 959
   executing without showing #!, 853
   making executable by using #, 852
   permission on, 824
   strip command and, 429
   testing, 826
execute permission, 376, 393
   without read permission, 386
execution statistics, report summarizing, 698
EXINIT environment variable, 92, 100, 181, 530, 555
exit command, 833
   .cshrc file, 49
   effect on subshells, 698
   examples, 828, 833
   redirected loops using, 878
   to end scripts, 965
exit command (awk), 607
exit command (lpc), 790
.exit file, 251
exit status
   background jobs, 829
   commands in Bourne shell scripts, 829
   loops, 868
   nonzero, 901
   pipelines, 830
   redirected loops, 878
   returned by processes, 696
   testing, 830, 832, 901
   values for expr, 882, 884
   zero, 832, 857, 901
   (see also status variable)
.exit.csh script, 974
.exit.sh script, 974
exp command (awk), 607
expand command, 755, 979
Expect program, 979
   described, 176
   testing interactive programs, 179
expr command, 988
   $x argument, 884
   $@ argument, 884
   advantages/disadvantages, 885, 940
   alternatives to, 859
   as calculator, 940, 942
   described, 882
   examples, 882, 890
   exit status values, 882, 884
   jot compared to, 859
   listing command-line arguments, 884
   loops using, 859
   matching character strings, 884
   operators, 882
   syntax, 882-883
   testing character strings, 884
   variables, 883
expressions
   in C shell, 912, 914
   conditional, 830
   (see also loops)
expunge program, 978
.exrc file, 70, 530, 539, 570-573, 979
EXSTAT environment variable, 541
exta, extb rates, 749
extended regular expressions, 464
extensions, filename, 19, 68
external control rates, 749
external commands, 103
   described, 11
   executing, 12
   setting variables with, 112
extractres program, 812

#LINK<F[ Top ]>#
.f/.F filename extension, 19
F# keys, 218
false program, 988
false, returns, 830
fast find, 304-306
   with database, 306-308
fc command, 208
fg command, 212, 214
fgrep script, 479, 979
fi statement (see if statement)
fignore shell variable, 99, 155
file command, 284, 913
file descriptors, 695
   associated with files, 875
   closing, 906
   managing, 855, 905
   redirecting, 871-875
   uses for, 870
file pointer, 875
File Transfer Protocol (see ftp program)
file types, finding, 444
filec shell variable, 99
filenames
   appending date to, 373
   on command line, 231
   comparing, 282
   completion, 154-156, 207
   conventions, 16
   ending with ~, 249
   extensions for, 19, 68
   length of, 267
   links and, 318, 847, 864
   null, 409
   picking automatically, 276
   restoring from backups by, 348
   special characters in, 139, 275, 407-411
   starting with . (see dot files)
   stripped from pathnames, 867
   symbols in, 838
   for temporary files, 363
   whitespace in, 274
   wildcards and, 253-262
files
   access permission, 27-30
   adding to other files, 438
   archiving (see archives)
   automatic cleanup of, 61
   automatic updating of, 370
   backing up, 343-361
   binary, searching, 490
   on enclosed CD-ROM, 971
   closing, 874
   comparing, 325
   compressed (see compressed files)
   copying, 314, 325
      to directory, 372, 880
   counting by types, 282
   creating, 438
   deleting (see deleting files)
   described, 34, 869
   descriptors associated with, 875
   displaying contents of
      adding/deleting whitespace, 445-446
      cat command, 437, 442-444
      displaying beginning/end only, 448-450, 452
      double-spacing, 447
      less utility, 440
      more utility, 439
      numbering lines, 452
      od utility, 442-444
   editing, 173
   empty, 232, 366
   emptying, 417
   executable (see executable files)
   finding (see searching)
   finding duplicate, 280
   hidden (see dot files)
   inodes, 26, 265
   last access time (see last access time)
   links to (see symbolic links)
   listing, 267-288
   modification times, 263, 267, 271, 277, 283, 286
   monitoring growth of, 449-450
   moving, 315
   names for (see filenames)
   naming, 67, 315-318, 325-329
   notification of change to, 368
   ownership (see ownership, file)
   paging through, 439
   permission for (see permission)
   PostScript, 811-812
   printing (see printing)
   RCS files, 483
   recovering, 545
   reading, 905
   reading line-by-line, 875-878
   read-only, 384
   saving to (see saving)
   searching 174, 862
      across lines, 484
      agrep script, 481, 487
      Boyer-Moore search algorithm, 482
      case sensitivity, 489
      by column, 489
      compound searches, 487
      egrep script, 478, 480
      by exclusion, 477
      fgrep script, 479
      glimpse command, 480
      grep command, (see grep command)
      look program, 490
      rcsgrep script, 483
      sed with grep, 484, 488
   (see also searching)
   searching for, 173, 247
   searching for lines in, 862
   size of (see size, file)
   sparse, 433
   spell checking (see spell checking)
   temporary, 163, 249
   text (see text files)
   too many for command line, 168
   uncompressing, 834
   unlinking when open, 419
   writing, 905
filesystems
   find command and, 313
   hierarchical, 314
   ID numbers, 310
   moving files between, 315
   structure of, 21-23
fileutils, 980
filters
   described, 4, 35, 870
   ex editor, 541
   fmt utility for, 557
   in index program, 938
   vi editor, 542-545
find command, 61, 289-291, 295, 980
   \( \) operator, 290
   { } operator, 303
   ! operator, 290, 295
   -a option, 290
   -atime option, 290, 293, 296, 365
   -ctime option, 290,

Product Details

ISBN:
9781565922600
Other:
O'Reilly, Tim
Author:
Peek, Jerry
Author:
O'Reilly, Tim
Author:
Loukides, Mike
Publisher:
O'Reilly Media
Location:
Sebastopol, CA :
Subject:
Programming Languages - General
Subject:
Operating Systems - UNIX
Subject:
Operating Systems - General
Subject:
Operating Systems - IBM Compatible
Subject:
Operating systems (computers)
Subject:
Computers
Subject:
Unix (computer operating system)
Subject:
UNIX (Computer file)
Subject:
Utilities (Computer programs)
Subject:
Unix (Operating system).
Subject:
Books; Computers & Internet; Platforms; Operating Systems; Unix; General
Subject:
Computer Books And Software
Subject:
Computer Bks - Operating Systems
Subject:
Books; Computers & Internet; Networking & OS; Operating Systems; Unix; Administration
Subject:
Books; Computers & Internet; Networking & OS; Operating Systems; Unix; General
Subject:
Books; Computers & Internet; Networking & OS; Operating Systems; Unix; Shell
Subject:
Books; Computers & Internet; Graphics & Software; Word Processers & Editors; VI
Subject:
UNIX System V (Computer file)
Subject:
Books; Computers & Internet; Networking & OS; Operating Systems; Unix; Linux
Subject:
unix power tools
Subject:
General Computers
Edition Number:
2
Edition Description:
Second Edition
Series:
O'Reilly Nutshell
Publication Date:
19970812
Binding:
Paperback
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Yes
Pages:
1122
Dimensions:
24 cm. +

Related Subjects

Computers and Internet » Operating Systems » General
Computers and Internet » Operating Systems » Unix » Unix Enduser

Unix Power Tools 2ND Edition
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Product details 1122 pages O'Reilly & Associates - English 9781565922600 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by ,
Loaded with even more practical advice about almost every aspect of UNIX, this new second edition of "UNIX Power Tools" addresses the technology that UNIX users face today. You'll find increased coverage of POSIX utilities, including GNU versions, greater "bash" and "tcsh" shell coverage, more emphasis on Perl, and a CD-ROM that contains the best freeware available.
"Synopsis" by , Loaded with practical advice about almost every aspect of Unix, this second edition of UNIX Power Tools addresses the technology that Unix users face today.

This edition slants the blend of options and commands toward the POSIX utilities, including the GNU versions. It thoroughly covers the bash and tcsh shells, including emphasis on the core concepts of sh and csh that will help you use all Unix shells. Plus, there is more emphasis on Perl. You'll find articles abstracted from other O'Reilly books, new information that highlights program "tricks" and "gotchas", tips posted to the Net over the years, and other accumulated wisdom.

The CD-ROM includes all of the scripts and aliases from the book, plus perl, GNU emacs, netpbm (graphics manipulation utilities), ispell, screen, the sc spreadsheet, and about 60 other freeware programs. In addition to the source code, all the software is pre-compiled for Sun4, Digital Unix, IBM AIX, HP/UX, Red Hat Linux, Solaris, and SCO Unix.

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