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Unix in a Nutshell 3RD Edition Desktop Quick Ref

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Unix in a Nutshell 3RD Edition Desktop Quick Ref Cover

 

 

Excerpt

[ Symbols ], [ A ], [ B ], [ C ], [ D ], [ E ], [ F ], [ G ], [ H ], [ I ], [ J ], [ K ], [ L ], [ M ], [ N ], [ O ], [ P ], [ Q ], [ R ], [ S ], [ T ], [ U ], [ V ], [ W ], [ X ], [ Y ], [ Z ] 

#LINK<Symbols[ Top ]># Symbols & (ampersand)    AND operator, 221, 271    background commands, 211    ex command, 348    metacharacter, 299    && AND operator, 212, 221, 271, 366    &= assignment operator, 221, 271 x (asterisk)    filename metacharacter, 209    metacharacter, 297    multiplication operator, 220, 271, 367    xx exponentiation operator, 367    x= assignment operator, 221, 271, 366 @ (at sign)    csh command, 291    filename metacharacter, 209 <rs> (backslash)    filename metacharacter, 209    metacharacter, 298    quoting in csh, 262    quoting in sh and ksh, 211 ! (bang)    ex command, 347    filename metacharacter, 209    negation in sed, 351    negation operator, 220, 271    bang= inequality operator, 221, 272    =~ string inequality, 272, 367 {} (braces)    groups of commands, 211    metacharacter, 298 [] (brackets)    filename metacharacter, 209    metacharacters, 298    [[ ]] command (ksh), 227 ^ (caret)    exclusive OR operator, 221, 271    exponentiation operator, 367    metacharacter, 297-298    ^= assignment operator, 221, 271, 366 : (colon)    csh command, 277    sed command, 353    sh and ksh command, 226 , (comma) operator, 221 $ (dollar sign)    built-in shell variables, 216    field reference operator, 367    metacharacter, 297 . (dot) metacharacter, 297 = (equal sign)    assignment operator, 221, 271, 366    equality operator, 367    ex command, 348    sed command, 353    == inequality operator, 367    == equality operator, 221, 272    =~ string equality, 272 # (hash mark)    for comments, 226, 277, 353    #! command, 226, 277 - (hyphen)    subtraction operator, 220, 271, 367    -= assignment operator, 221, 271, 366    -- auto-decrement operator, 220, 271, 367 < (left angle bracket)    ex command, 348    less than operator, 221, 272, 367    redirection operator, 212    <& (file descriptor), 213    <= less than or equal operator, 221, 272, 367    << bitwise shift operator, 221, 271    << redirection operator, 212    <<= assignment operator, 221    <> redirection operator, 213 () (parentheses) for grouping commands, 211 % (percent)    metacharacter, 299    modulus operator, 220, 271, 367    %= assignment operator, 221, 271, 366 . (period) metacharacter, 297 + (plus sign)    addition operator, 220, 271, 367    filename metacharacter, 209    += assignment operator, 221, 271, 366    ++ auto-increment operator, 220, 271, 367 ? (question mark)    filename metacharacter, 209    ?: inline conditional evaluation, 221, 366 " (quotation marks), 210 ' (quotation marks)    quoting in sh and ksh, 211, 262 <oq> (quotation marks)    command substitution, 211    quoting in sh and ksh, 211 > (right angle bracket)    ex command, 348    greater than operator, 221, 272, 367    redirection operator, 212    >& (file descriptor), 213    >= greater than or equal operator, 221, 272, 367    >> bitwise shift operator, 221, 271    >> redirection operator, 212    >>= assignment operator, 221 ; (semicolon) for command sequences, 211 / (slash)    division operator, 220, 271, 367    /= assignment operator, 221, 271, 366 ~ (tilde)    binary inversion operator, 271    ex command, 348    filename metacharacter, 209    metacharacter, 299    negation operator, 220, 367 | (vertical bar)    OR operator, 221, 271    redirecting command output, 211    |= assignment operator, 221, 271    || OR operator, 212, 221, 271, 366

#LINK<A[ Top ]># a command (sed), 353 abbrev command (ex), 339 abbreviations commands (emacs), 307 aborted programs, clearing terminal settings, 145 access modes, changing, 28 active processes, reports on, 142 addbib command, 482 addresses for ex commands, 338 addresses for sed commands, 351 admin command (SCCS), 491, 495 alias command    csh shell, 277    ksh shells, 228 aliases    for commands, 228, 257, 277    email, displaying addresses for, 552 alignment/positioning    emacs centering commands, 309    emacs indentation commands, 309-310    of graphics, pic preprocessor for, 477    nroff/troff requests for, 390 alnum character class, 210 alpha character class, 210 append command (ex), 339 appending to files, 12, 23 applets, Java, 12 appletviewer command, 12 apropos command, 12 ar command, 12 archives, 12    copying, 34    disassembling, 53    dumping parts of, 60    Java archives, 85    loading of, 551    pax (Portable Archive Exchange), 134    removing information from, 157    reorganizing, 559    tar (Tape Archive), 166    zip command for, 196 args command (ex), 339 argv shell variable, 268 arithmetic expressions    csh shell, 270-273    ksh shell, 220-221 arithmetic operators (csh), 271 arrays    assigning in awk, 367    Korn shell, 219 as command, 13 ASCII character set, 537-541, 551 assembly language processing    as command, 13    cc command, 24 assignment operators (csh), 271 at command, 14 atan2 function (awk), 370 atq command, 16 atrm command, 16 $Author$ keyword (RCS), 509 autoload command, 229 awk programming language, 16, 361-378    built-in variables, 366    command-line syntax, 363    commands (by category), 369-378    commands (by name), 370    implementation limits, 369    operators, 366    patterns and procedures, 363    user-defined functions, 368    variable and array assignment, 367    (see also nawk programming language)

#LINK<B[ Top ]># b command (sed), 354 background processes, 191 banner command, 17 basename command, 17    (see also dirname command) batch command, 18 batch execution    immediate, 18    printing queued jobs, 16    removing queued jobs, 16    at specified date/time, 14, 37 bc command, 18 bdiff command, 21 bfs command, 544 bg command, 229, 278 bibliographic references, preprocessing, 481-485 biff command, 22 /bin directory, 11 bitwise operators (csh), 271 blank character class, 210 block size (characters), 46 Bourne shell (see sh) branching commands (sed), 352 break command (awk), 370 break command (csh), 279 break command (sh, ksh), 229 breaksw command, 279 BSD Compatibility Package, 3 BSD-derived system, 9 buffers (emacs) commands for, 307 builtin command, 229 built-in shell variables    csh shell, 267    sh and ksh shells, 216 built-in variables, awk, 366 bundling commands, 193 bundling software packages, 4

#LINK<C[ Top ]># c command (sed), 354 C and C++ languages    call-graph profile data, 78    compilers, 5    compiling source files, 24    debugging, 41    detecting bugs and errors, 104    extracting messages from, 195    extracting strings for localization, 65    formatting files in, 24    symbol cross references, 42 C- commands (emacs), 311-313 C shell (see csh) cal command, 22 calculator commands    bc command, 18    dc command, 46 calendar command, 22 calendars, 22 call-graph profile data, 78 calling out (cu command), 545 cancel command, 23 canceling commands (emacs), 306 capitalization (see case) case    converting, 46    emacs commands for, 307 case command, 230, 279 cat command, 23 cb command, 24 cc command, 24 cd command, 25, 231, 279 cdc command (SCCS), 496 CDE (Common Desktop Environment), 26 CDPATH shell variable, 218 cdpath shell variable, 268 CD-ROM, ejecting, 59 centering (see alignment/positioning), 309 cflow command, 27 change command (ex), 339 changing directory, 25 character classes, 209, 298 character sets, converting, 83 characters, 46    ASCII character set, 537-541    buffer block size, 46    converting DOS to ISO, 53    converting ISO to DOS, 182    counting in files, 191    Greek (eqn preprocessor), 470    mathematical (eqn preprocessor), 470    nroff/troff requests for, 390    (see also text) chdir command, 279 check pseudo-command (sccs), 504 checkeq command, 27 checking in files, 491, 497, 507, 513 checking out files, 498, 507, 515 checknr command, 27 checksum    cksum command, 31 checksum, calculating, 558 chgrp command, 28 chkey command, 28    (see also keylogin command; key-logout command) chmod command, 28 chown command, 30 ci command (RCS), 507, 513 cksum command, 31 class files (Java), disassembling, 93 classes, character, 209, 298 classifying files by data type, 69 CLASSPATH environment variable, 93 clean pseudo-command (sccs), 504 clear command, 31 clearing terminal display, 31 clock modes, setting, 163 close function (awk), 370 cmp command, 31 cntrl character class, 210 co command (RCS), 507, 515 cof2elf command, 544 COFF files, converting to ELF, 544 col command, 32 columns    merging file lines into, 131    selecting from files, 42 COLUMNS shell variable, 218 comb command (SCCS), 497 combination modes, setting, 162 combining files, 23 comm command, 32 command command, 231 command history    csh shell, 273-275    ksh shell, 222 command interpreters (see shells) command-line options, xv command mode (vi), 322 command substitution (csh), 273 commands    aliases for, 228, 257, 277    all Unix commands (list), 12-200    awk programming language, 369-378    bundling, 193    csh shell, 263, 277-291    descriptions of, displaying, 192    emacs commands, list of, 304-320    executing       after logout, 128       with multiple systems, 563       wait between, 151    list of basic, 6-9    lower priority, executing, 125    nroff/troff requests, 387-391    obsolete, 542-565    sed editor, 350-360    sh and ksh shells, 211, 225-259    SVR4 vs. BSD, 9    vi editor, 323-329 comments    in files, modifying, 120    sh and ksh shells, 226 Common Desktop Environment (CDE), 26 compacting files (see compressing files) comparing    directory contents, 52    files, 21, 31-32, 50-51       document drafts, 52 comparison operators (csh), 272 compiler error messages, 61 compiling    C source files, 24    Java code, 86       RMI compiler, 147    regular expressions, 145 compress command, 33 compressing files, 555 compression, 33, 80-81, 182 configuration variables, system, 77 continue command (awk), 370 continue command (csh), 279 continue command (sh, ksh), 232 control assignments, setting, 161 control modes, setting, 158 Control-key commands (emacs), 311-313 conversation between users, 165, 565 converting    character sets, 83    characters       case, 46       DOS to ISO, 53       ISO to DOS, 182       spaces to tabs, 180       tabs to spaces, 62    COFF and ELF files, 544    files       string_files into msg_files, 122       into tables, 196       troff to PostScript, 55       to Unicode, 124    number units, 181 coprocesses (Korn shell), 214 copy command (ex), 340 copying    archives, 34    files, 34, 46       with remote systems, 559       remotely, 75, 144    lines from standard input, 564    standard input, 169, 173 core images, creating, 75 cos function (awk), 370 cp command, 34 cpio command, 34 CRCs (cyclic redundancy checks), 31 create pseudo-command (sccs), 504 creating directories, 121 crontab command, 37 cross references, 37, 42 crypt algorithm, 543 crypt command, 545 cscope command, 37 csh (C shell), 39, 203, 260-291    built-in commands, list of, 277-291    command history, 273-274    command substitution, 273    command syntax, 263    environment variables, 269    expressions, 270-273    features of, 204-206    filename metacharacters, 261    invoking shell, 276-277    job control, 275-276    predefined shell variables, 267    quoting, 262    redirection, 263    variables, 265-270    word substitution, 274 .cshrc file, 261, 269 csplit command, 39 ctags command, 40 ctrace commands, 41 cu command, 545 current date/time, 43 current system name, 179 cursor-movement commands (emacs), 305 customizing login session, 202 cut command, 42    (see also join command; newform command; paste command) cwd shell variable, 268 cxref command, 42 cyclic redundancy checks (CRCs), 31

#LINK<D[ Top ]># d command (sed), 354 D command (sed), 354 data classification of files, 69 data keywords, SCCS, 493 data transmission, verifying, 558 $Date$ keyword (RCS), 509 date command, 43 date/time    batch execution at specific, 14, 37    calendars, 22    current, 43    specifying with RCS, 511    specifying with SCCS, 502    system usage information, 171 dc command, 46 dd command, 46 debugging    C programs, 41, 104    Java code, 94 default command, 279 deledit pseudo-command (sccs), 505 delete command (awk), 370 delete command (ex), 340 deleting    clearing terminal display, 31    directories, 146    emacs commands for, 305    files from archives, 12    nroff/troff request and macros, 48 delget pseudo-command (sccs), 505 delta command (SCCS), 491, 497 deroff command, 48 description file lines (make), 527 Development System Support (Solaris), 4 df command, 49 diacritical marks (eqn), 471 diff command, 50    SCCS utility and, 492 diff3 command, 51 diffmk command, 52 diffs pseudo-command (sccs), 505 digit character class, 210 digital signatures, Java archives, 91 dircmp command, 52 directories    changing (moving between), 25    comparing contents, 52    creating, 121    deleting, 146    moving, 123    navigating, 231, 279    news, accessing, 553    printing names of, 53, 144    renaming, 123 dirname command, 53 dirs command, 279 dis command, 53 disassembling object files, 53 disassmbling Java class files, 93 discipline functions (ksh93), 220 disk space, reporting on, 49 disks    copying archive files, 34    ejecting, 59    formatting, 67    usage information, 56 disown command, 232 displaying    calendars, 22    escape sequences, 32    files, by page, 122, 555    logged-in users, 192    manpages, 119, 192    reverse linefeeds, 32    system status information, 192 ditroff program, 381    (see also troff program) do command (awk), 371 do command (sh, ksh), 232 documentation for Java language, 89 documents, comparing, 52 done command, 232 dos2unix command, 53 download command, 54 dpost command, 55 du command, 56 dumps, octal, 128

#LINK<E[ Top ]># echo command, 56, 232, 279 echo shell variable, 268 ed text editor, 57 edit command (ex), 340 edit pseudo-command (sccs), 505 edit text editor, 58 editing    bfs command, 544    files, restrictions on, 556    sed commands for, 352    stream editors, 150    text editors, 189 EDITOR shell variable, 218 egrep command, 58    metacharacters, 296 eject command, 59 ELF files, converting to COFF, 544 elfdump command, 60 emacs editor, 302-320    commands (by category), 304    commands (by keystrokes), 311    commands (by name), 315    pattern-matching metacharacters, 296 email    displaying addresses for aliases, 552    mail notification, 22    reading and sending, 116 email messages    automatic replies to, 185, 563    encoding binary files for, 185    new, notifying user of, 553    reading and sending, 117 encoded files, recreating original file, 185 encrypting files, 545 end command, 280 End User System Support (Solaris), 4 endif command, 280 end-of-file character (EOF), xv endsw command, 280 enter pseudo-command (sccs), 505 Entire Distribution (Solaris), 5 env command, 60 ENV environment variable, 209 ENV shell variable, 218 environment, displaying, 60 environment variables, 269    modifying values, 60    printing values of, 141 EOF (end-of-file character), xv eqn preprocessor (nroff/troff), 27, 469-473 equations, formatting in nroff/troff, 469-473 erasing (see deleting) error command, 61 error messages    compiler, 61    formatting, 548 esac command, 233 escape sequences, displaying, 32 /etc directory    /etc/passwd file, 203, 261    /etc/profile file, 209       (see also shell variables) eval command, 233, 280 evaluating expressions, 63 ex editor, 61, 337-348    command syntax, 337    commands, list of, 339    pattern-matching metacharacters, 296    search-and-replace examples, 300 exec command, 234, 281 executable files, shared objects for, 102 executing commands    after logout, 128    of lower priority, 125    wait between, 151 EXINIT environment variable, 270 exit command (awk), 371 exit command (csh), 281 exit command (ksh, sh), 234 exit status, 171    commands, 174 exp function (awk), 371 expand command, 62 expanding files, 559    (see also pack command; pcat command) export command, 234 expr command, 63 expressions, C shell, 270-273 expressions, evaluating, 63 exstr command, 65 extracting columns/fields from files, 42

#LINK<F[ Top ]># face command, 547 factor command, 67 false command, 67, 235 fc command, 222, 235-236 FCEDIT shell variable, 218 fdformat command, 67 fflush function (gawk), 371 fg command, 236, 281 fgrep command, 68 fi command, 236 FIGNORE shell variable, 218 fignore shell variable, 268 file command, 69 file command (ex), 340 file creation mode mask, 179 file descriptors, 213 file inquiry operators (csh), 272 filec shell variable, 268 filenames    metacharacters for, 209, 261, 295    stripping from pathnames, 53 files    access and modification times, updating, 172    archives (see archives)    binary, converting for email, 185    breaking lines of, 549    calculating checksum for, 558    checking in, 491, 497, 507, 513    checking out, 491, 498, 507, 515    classifying by data type, 69    combining into module, 98-102    comments in, modifying, 120    comparing, 21, 31-32, 50-51, 149       document drafts, 52    compiling, 24, 196    compression, 33, 80-81, 182, 555    converting       character sets in, 83       DOS to ISO, 53       ISO to DOS, 182       string_files into msg_files, 122       into tables, 196    copying, 34, 46       with remote systems, 559       remotely, 75, 144       from tape, 166    counting words/characters/lines of, 191    deleting, 146    disassembling, 53    displaying       by page, 555       profile data for, 142    dumping parts of, 60    editing (see text editors)       bfs command, 544       restrictions on, 556    emacs commands for handling, 304    encoded, recreating original file, 185    encrypting and decrypting (vi), 189    expanding, 559    extracting columns/fields, 42    formatting, 24, 140, 552    formatting lines in, 74    inserting compiler error messages, 61    joining similar lines of, 95    listing       for current directory, 114       related pairs of, 551       shared objects for, 102       those to be executed, 192    merging lines into columns, 131    moving, 123    on multiple systems, commands for, 563    numbering lines in, 125    ownership of, 28, 30    packed, displaying, 555    paging, 122    patching, 132    permissions, 28    PostScript (see PostScript files)    printing       appending to, 23       initial lines of, 83       last lines of, 164    pseudonyms (links) for, 105    recovering after crash, 189    removing information from, 157    renaming, 123    restoring from tape, 166    revision control (see revision control)    searching contents, 58, 68, 79       by line beginnings, 109       message files, 155       for newline/null sequence, 156       by pattern matching, 16    searching for, 70-74    sending to printer, 109-111    size of, 151    sorting, 559       lines in, 152       removing duplicate lines, 181    source, sending, 563    splitting into multiple files       based on context, 39       based on size, 155    stripping troff/nroff codes, 48    symbol tables for, printing, 127    uncompressing, 180, 196    write-protected, deleting, 146 filesystem-related parameters, 77 find command, 70-74 finger command, 74 fix pseudo-command (sccs), 505 floppy disks (see disks) flowcharting function calls, 27 fmli command, 548 FMLI (Form and Message Language Interpreter), 548 fmt command, 74 fmtmsg command, 548 fold command, 549 fonts    loading to PostScript files, 54    nroff/troff requests for, 390 for command (awk), 371 for command (ksh93), 237 for command (sh, ksh), 236 foreach command, 281 Form and Message Language Interpreter, 548 formatting disks and memory cards, 67 formatting error messages, 548 formatting files, 140, 552 FPATH shell variable, 218 Framed Access Command Environment, 547 free disk space, reporting, 49 ftp command, 75 FTP (File Transfer Protocol), 75 function command (awk), 372 function command (ksh), 237 functions    flowcharting, 27    listing names, 40 functions command, 237

#LINK<G[ Top ]># g command (sed), 355 G command (sed), 355 gawk programming language, 363    (see also awk programming language) gcore command, 75 gencat command, 76 generating filenames, 17 genmsg command, 76 gensub function (gawk), 372 get command (SCCS), 491, 498 getconf command, 77, 238 getline command (awk), 372 getopts command, 238 gettext command, 78 gettxt command, 78 glob command, 282 global command (ex), 340 goto command, 282 gprof command, 78 graph character class, 210 graphics, formatting in nroff/troff, 473-481 Greek characters (eqn preprocessor), 470 grep command, 79    pattern-metacharacters, 296 groups    displaying user membership, 80    file ownership for, 28    listing IDs for, 84    logging in to, 553 groups command, 80 gsub function (awk), 372 gunzip command, 80 gzcat command, 80 gzip command, 81

#LINK<H[ Top ]># h command (sed), 355 H command (sed), 356 hardpaths shell variable, 268 hardware flow control modes    setting, 163 hash command (ksh), 238-239 hashstat command, 282 head command, 83 $Header$ keyword (RCS), 509 headers, Java code, 90 help    emacs commands for, 310    manpage keyword lookup, 12    online manual (see manpages) help command (SCCS), 500 hist command, 239 histchars shell variable, 268 HISTCMD shell variables, 217 HISTEDIT shell variable, 218 HISTFILE shell variable, 218 history command, 240, 273, 282 history, command    csh shell, 273-275    ksh shell, 222 .history file, 261 history shell variable, 268 HISTSIZE shell variable, 218 HOME environment variable, 270 HOME shell variable, 218 home shell variable, 268 horizontal alignment (see alignment/positioning) horizontal spacing (see whitespace) host machine, 83 hostid command, 83 hostname command, 83    (see also uuname command) hyphenation    nroff/troff requests for, 390

#LINK<I[ Top ]># i command (sed), 356 iconv command, 83 id command, 84 ident command (RCS), 516 identification keywords, SCCS, 493 if command (awk), 372 if command (csh), 283 if command (sh, ksh), 240 IFS shell variable, 218 ignoreeof shell variable, 268 images, formatting in nroff/troff, 473-481 indentation, emacs commands for, 309-310 index function (awk), 373 indxbib command, 483 info pseudo-command (sccs), 505 InfoZIP format, 196 inodes, reporting on, 49 input modes, setting, 159 insert command (ex), 341 insert mode (vi), 322 installation levels (Solaris), 4 int function (awk), 373 integer command, 240 interactive conversation, 165, 565 interactive use of shells, 202 internationalization, 65, 78 Internet directory, searching, 564 interprocess communication facilities, 84 invoking the shell, 224-225, 276-277 I/O processing commands (sed), 352 ipcrm command, 84 ipcs command, 84 ismpx command, 550    (see also layers command)

#LINK<J[ Top ]># jar command, 85 java command, 86 java_g command, 88 Java language    applets, running, 12    compiling code, 86    debugging, 94    disassembling class files, 93    documentation, 89    Java Runtime Environment, 96    RMI compiler, 147 javac command, 88 javadoc command, 89 javah command, 90 javakey command, 91 javald command, 93 javap command, 93 jdb command, 94 job control    for csh shell, 275-276    for sh and ksh shells, 223-224    in shell scripts, 97 jobs command, 240, 283 join command, 95, 341 jre command, 96 jsh command, 97, 223 jterm command, 550    (see also layers command) jwin command, 550

#LINK<K[ Top ]># k command (ex), 341 keylogin command, 97    (see also chkey command; key-logout command) keylogout command, 98    (see also chkey command; key-login command) keywords    RCS utility, 508    SCCS utility, 493 kill command, 98, 241, 283 ksh (Korn shell), 203, 207-259    arithmetic expressions, 220-221    arrays, 219    built-in commands, list of, 225-259    command history, 222    command syntax, 211    coprocesses, 214    discipline functions, 220    features of, 204-206    filename metacharacters, 209    invoking shell, 224-225    job control, 223-224    quoting, 210    redirection syntax, 212    setting restrictions on, 145, 225    variables, 214-220

#LINK<L[ Top ]># l command (sed), 356 LANG shell variable, 218 Latin-1 character set, 124 layers    controlling from one terminal, 557    in windowing terminals, 550 layers command, 550 LC_ALL shell variable, 218 LC_COLLATE shell variable, 218 LC_CTYPE shell variable, 218 LC_MESSAGES variable, 78 LC_NUMERIC shell variable, 218 ld command, 98-102 ldd command, 102 Lempel-Ziv (LZ77) coding, 81 length function (awk), 373 let command, 242 lex command, 103    (see also yacc command) lexical analysis programs, 103 limit command, 284 line breaks, nroff/troff requests, 386 line command, 103 line information commands (sed), 352 line numbers, nroff/troff requests, 391 line-edit mode, 222 LINENO shell variable, 217 line-oriented text editor, 58 lines    breaking, 549    counting in files, 191    formatting in files, 74    numbering in files, 125    reading from standard input, 103 LINES shell variable, 218 links    creating for files, 105    editors, 98-102 lint command, 104 list command (ex), 341 listing files    in archives, 12    to be executed, 192    for current directory, 114 listing users, 105 listusers command, 105 ln command, 105 loading fonts to PostScript files, 54 local modes, setting, 160 locale    definitions, reaching, 106    getting information on, 106 locale command, 106 localedef command, 106 localization of strings, 65, 78 $Locker$ keyword (RCS), 509 $Log$ keyword (RCS), 509 log function (awk), 373 logged-in users    displaying list, 185    report on, 557 logger command, 107 logging messages, 107 logging in    as another user, 164    changing to current window, 556    displaying name, 109    to groups, 553 logical operators (csh), 271 login command, 108, 285 .login file, 261 login sessions    customizing, 202    recording, 149 logname command, 109 LOGNAME environment variable, 270 logout command, 285 .logout file, 261 look command, 109 lookbib command, 483 lorder command, 551 lower character class, 210 lowercase (see case) lp command, 109-111 lpq command, 111 lpr command, 111 lprm command, 111 lprof command, 112    (see also gprof command; prof command) lpstat command, 113 lptest command, 551 ls command, 114 LZ77 coding, 81

#LINK<M[ Top ]># M- commands (emacs), 314 m4 processor, 115 machine faults, tracing, 153, 174 macro commands (emacs), 309 macro names, listing, 40 macros    eqn preprocessor, 470    for make utility, 528-534    man macros, 458-464    me macros, 443-457    mm macros, 413-433    ms macros, 434-442    pic preprocessors, 474    processing, nroff/troff requests for, 391    tbl preprocessor, 466 mail (see email; email messages) mail command, 116 MAIL environment variable, 270 mail notification, 22 mail shell variable, 268 MAIL shell variable, 218 mailalias command, 552 MAILCHECK shell variable, 218 MAILPATH shell variable, 218 mailx command, 117 make command, 118 make utility, 525-534    command-line syntax, 526    description file lines, 527    macros, 528    special target names, 529 Makefile files, writing, 529 makefiles, overriding, 118 man command, 119 man macros, 458-464    internal names, 463    predefined strings, 462 manpages    displaying, 119    displaying command descriptions in, 192    keyword lookup, 12 MANPATH environment variable, 119 map command (ex), 341 margins, nroff/troff requests for, 391 mark command (ex), 342 match function (awk), 373 mathematical functions (ksh93), 221 mathematics    characters for (eqn), 470    equations, in nroff/troff, 469-473 mcs command, 120 me macros, 443-457    number registers, 455    predefined strings, 454 measurements for nroff/troff, 385 merge command (RCS), 517 mesg command, 121 messages    appending and merging, 76    extracting, 76    retrieving, 78    searching message contents, 155 messages, error, 548 metacharacters    for filenames       csh shell, 261       sh and ksh shells, 209    for pattern matching, 295-299 Meta-key commands (emacs), 314 mkdir command, 121 mkmsgs command, 122 mm macros, 413-433    number registers, 429    predefined string names, 429    reserved macro and string names, 432 modes    clock, setting, 163    combination, setting, 162    hardware flow control, 163    input, 158-159    local, 160    output, 160    telnet, 170 mon.out file, 25 more command, 122 move command (ex), 342 moving    directories and files, 123    files in archives, 12 ms macros, 434-442    number registers, 440-441    reserved macro and string names, 440 msgfmt command, 123 multiple redirection, 213 multiplexor (layers), testing standard input for, 550 mv command, 123

#LINK<N[ Top ]># n command (sed), 356 N command (sed), 357 $Name$ keyword (RCS), 509 nameref command, 242 names    directories, printing, 53    files (see filenames)    functions and macros, listing, 40    paths (see pathnames) native2ascii command, 124 nawk programming language, 124, 363    (see also awk programming language) newform command, 552    (see also cut command; paste command) newgrp command, 242, 553 news command, 553 news directory, accessing, 553 next command (awk), 373 next command (ex), 342 nextfile command (gawk), 373 nice command, 125, 285 nl command, 125 nm command, 127 nobeep shell variable, 268 noclobber shell variable, 268 noglob shell variable, 268 nohup command, 128, 242, 286 nonomatch shell variable, 268 notification, mail, 22 notify command, 286, 553 notify shell variable, 268 nroff program, 381-391    checking mismatched delimiters, 27    command-line invocation, 382    conceptual overview, 383    eliminating .so requests, 151    eqn processor, 469-473    escape sequences, 405    pic processor, 473-481    predefined registers, 407    preprocessors of, 465-485    refer processor, 481-485    removing all requests/macros, 48    requests (by group), 390    requests (by name), 392    requests, list of, 387-391    special characters, 408    tbl processor, 466-469 null commands, 174 number command (ex), 342 number registers    in man macros, 463    in me macros, 455    in mm macros, 429-432    in ms macros, 440-441    in nroff/troff, 391 numbering lines in files, 125 numbers    prime factors, 67 numbers, converting units of, 181

#LINK<O[ Top ]># oawk programming language (see awk programming language) object files (see archives; files)    generating, 13    removing information from, 157 obsolete commands, 542-565 octal dumps, producing, 128 od command, 128 OLDPWD shell variable, 217 onintr command, 286 online manual (see manpages) open command (ex), 342 openwin command, 554 operators, awk, 366 operators, C shell, 271 OPTARG shell variable, 217 OPTIND shell variable, 217 output modes, setting, 160 output processing commands (sed), 352 ownership, file    changing, 28 ownership of files, 30

#LINK<P[ Top ]># p command (sed), 357 P command (sed), 357 pack command, 555 packed files, displaying, 555 page command, 130    (see also more command) PAGER environment variable, 119 pagination, nroff/troff requests for, 391 paging files, 122 paragraphs, emacs commands for, 306 passwd command, 130 passwd file, 261 passwords    changing, 28, 130    creating, 130    displaying information, 130    for files, 545    prompting for, 97 paste command, 131 patch command, 132 PATH environment variable, 270 PATH shell variable, 218 pathchk command, 133 pathname modifiers, 266 pathnames    checking for acceptability, 133    searching for files, 70-74    stripping filenames from, 53 pattern matching, 295-301 patterns, awk, 363 pax command, 134 pcat command, 555 PCMCIA memory cards, formatting, 67 perl command, 137 permissions, file    changing, 28 pg command, 555 pic preprocessor (nroff/troff), 473-481 .plan file, 74 .po files, 123 popd command, 286 Portable Archive Exchange (PAX), 134 portable object files, 123 positioning (see alignment/positioning) POSIX 1003.2 standards, 10, 573 PostScript files    adding fonts to, 54    creating from troff, 55 PPID shell variable, 217 pr command, 140 predefined shell variables    csh shell, 267    sh and ksh shells, 216 preprocessors for nroff/troff system, 465-485 preserve command (ex), 343 prime factors, 67 primitives, pic preprocessor, 475 print character class, 210 print command (awk), 373 print command (ex), 343 print command (ksh), 243 print pseudo-command (sccs), 505 printenv command, 141 printers, testing, 551 printf command, 141, 243 printf command (awk), 374 printing    banners, 17    cancelling print requests, 23    current system name, 179    environment variable values, 141    file contents (see files, printing)    file creation mode mask, 179    files, 23, 109-111       from archives, 12       lines specified, 164    log files of copied files, 561    queue       displaying, 111       removing requests from, 111       status of, 113    sending files, 111    to standard output, 56    strings, 141    system configuration variables, 77    system names known to uucp, 561    system usage information, 185    terminal capability, 172    terminal device name, 178 procedures, awk, 364 processes    controlling (see job control)    core images of, 75    terminating IDs, 98 prof command, 142 .profile file, 209    (see also shell variables) profile data, displaying, 78    for files, 142    for programs generally, 112 programs    displaying profile data for, 112    getting description of, 178    lexical analysis, generating, 103 .project file, 74 PROJECTDIR environment variable, 505 prompt shell variable, 268 prs command (SCCS), 500    data keywords for, 493 prt command (SCCS), 501 PS# shell variables, 219 ps command, 142 PS files (see PostScript files) pseudo-commands, SCCS, 503-505 pushd command, 287 put command (ex), 343 putting and yanking commands (sed), 352 pwd command, 144, 244 PWD shell variable, 217, 270

#LINK<Q[ Top ]># q command (sed), 358 queued jobs, obtaining reports on, 562 quit command (ex), 343 quoting    csh shell, 262    sh and ksh shells, 210

#LINK<R[ Top ]># r command (sed), 358 r command (sh, ksh), 244 rand function (awk), 375 RANDOM shell variable, 217 rcp command, 144 $RCS$ keyword (RCS), 509 rcs command (RCS), 518 RCS subdirectory, 507 RCS utility, 506-524    commands (by name), 513-524    keyword substitution, 508    keywords, list of, 509    options and environment variables, 511    revision numbering, 510    revision states, 511    SCCS command equivalents, 512    timestamp specifications, 511 rcsclean command (RCS), 520 rcsdiff command (RCS), 508, 521 rcsfreeze command (RCS), 522 RCSINIT environment variable, 511 rcsmerge command (RCS), 522 read command (ex), 343 read command (ksh), 244 read command (sh), 244 reading email messages, 117 readonly command, 245 recording session, 149 recover command (ex), 344 red editor, 556    (see also ed editor) redirect command, 245 redirections    csh forms for, 263    sh and ksh forms for, 212 refer command, 483 refer processor (nroff/troff), 481-485 referencing arrays, 219 regcmp command, 145 regions, emacs commands for, 306 regular expressions    compiling, 145    lexical analysis program, 103    searching file contents, 58, 68    searching files for, 79    for sed command addresses, 351 rehash command, 287 relogin command, 556 remote communications (calling out), 545 remote file transfer, 75 remote host, connecting to, 145 remote object registry, 148 remote shell (see rsh) remote systems, copying files between, 75, 144, 559 removable media    checking if inserted, 190    ejecting, 59 removing (see deleting) remsh command (see rsh) renaming directories and files, 123 repeat command, 287 replacing files in archives, 12 replacing text, metacharacters for, 300 REPLY shell variable, 217 reports    on active processes, 142    on system status, 562 requests, nroff/troff, 387-391 reset command, 145    (see also tset command) restricted shells, 148, 225 return command, 246 return command (awk), 375 reverse linefeeds, displaying, 32 $Revision$ keyword (RCS), 509 revision control    RCS utility, 506-524       commands (by name), 513-524       keyword substitution, 508       keywords, list of, 509       options and environment variables, 511       revision numbering, 510    SCCS utility, 489-505, 512       commands (by category), 490       commands (by name), 495-503       data keywords, 493       identification keywords, 493       pseudo-commands, 503-505 revision numbers (RCS), 510 rewind command (ex), 344 rksh command, 145, 225 rlog command (RCS), 523 rlogin command, 145 rm command, 146 rmdel command (SCCS), 502 rmdir command, 146    (see also mkdir command) RMI (remote method invocation)    compiler, 147 rmic command, 147 rmiregistry command, 148 roffbib command, 484 rsh (remote shell), 148, 203, 225    (see also sh command) ruptime command, 556 rwho command, 557    (see also who command)

#LINK<S[ Top ]># s command (sed), 358 sact command (SCCS), 502 savehist shell variable, 268 SCCS utility, 489-505    commands (by category), 490    commands (by name), 495-503    data keywords, 493    environment variables, 505    identification keywords, 493    pseudo-commands, 503-505    RCS command equivalents, 512    timestamp specifications, 502 sccsdiff command (SCCS), 502 script command, 149 scripts, shell (see shell scripts) sdiff command, 149 searching    file contents, 58, 68, 79       by line beginnings, 109       message files, 155       for newline/null sequence, 156    for files, 70-74    Internet directory, 564    by pattern matching, 16    pattern matching, 295-301    search-and-replace, 300 SECONDS shell variable, 217 secret keys    decrypting, 97    deleting, 98 secure network services    decrypting secret keys in, 97    deleting secret keys in, 98 secure shell, 156 sed editor, 150, 349-360    command syntax, 350-360    command-line syntax, 350    commands (by category), 352    commands (by name), 353    pattern-matching metacharacters, 296    search-and-replace examples, 300 select command, 246 semaphore sets, removing, 84 sending email messages, 117 service grades, listing, 560 sessions (see login sessions) set command, 246, 288 set command (ex), 344 :set command (vi), 332-336 setenv command, 288 sh (Bourne shell), 202, 207-259    built-in commands, list of, 225-259    command syntax, 211    features of, 204-206    filename metacharacters, 209    invoking shell, 224-225    job control, 223-224    quoting, 210    redirection syntax, 212    setting restrictions on, 148, 225    variables, 214-220 sh command, 150 SHACCT shell variable, 219 shared memory identifiers, removing, 84 #! command, 226, 277 shell characters (emacs), 308 shell command (ex), 344 SHELL environment variable, 270 shell layers, 557 shell scripts, 202    for background processes, 191    job control via, 97    reading from terminal, 103    running, 551 SHELL shell variable, 219 shell shell variable, 268 shell variables    csh shell, 267    sh and ksh shells, 216-219 shells    invoking, 224-225, 276-277    multiple       controlling from one terminal, 557    overview of, 201-206    restricted, 225    types (flavors) of, 202 shift command, 248, 288 shl command, 557 signals, tracing, 153, 174 signing on to system, 108 sin function (awk), 375 size    buffer block size, 46    file compression (see compression) size command, 151 sleep command, 151, 249 .so requests, eliminating in nroff or troff files, 151 soelim command, 151 software bundling, 4 Solaris 7, 3    installation levels, 4    SCCS with, 505 sort command, 152    (see also comm command; join command; uniq command) sortbib command, 485 sorting files, 559    joining lines of sorted files, 95    removing duplicate lines, 181 sotruss command, 153 $Source$ keyword (RCS), 509 source command, 289, 344 source files, sending, 563 spacing (see whitespace) spell command, 154 split command, 155 split function (awk), 375 splitting files, 39 sprintf command (awk), 375 sqrt function (awk), 375 srand function (awk), 376 srchtxt command, 155 standard input, copying, 169, 173 standard output, printing to, 56 $State$ keyword (RCS), 509 state, revision (RCS), 511 status shell variable, 268 STDIN, copying, 169, 173 STDOUT, printing to, 56 stop command (csh), 289 stop command (ksh93), 249 stop command (sh, ksh), 249 stream editors, 150 strftime function (gawk), 376 strings    localizing, 65, 78    printing, 141    processing, nroff/troff requests, 391 strings command, 156 strip command, 157 stty command, 157-164 su command, 164 sub function (awk), 376 substitute command (ex), 344 substr function (awk), 376 sum command, 558 SunOS 5.7 operating system, 4 suspend command, 249, 289 SVR4 (System V Release 4), 3 switch command, 289 symbol cross references, 37, 42 symbol tables, printing, 127 syntax on command line, xv system    calls, tracing, 153, 174    configuration variables, printing, 77    dictionary, adding to, 154    logged-in users, 556    name, current, 179    printing, 185    usage information, 171, 190 system function (awk), 376 System V Release 4 (SVR4), 3 system variables, awk, 366 systime function (gawk), 376

#LINK<T[ Top ]># t command (sed), 359 t command (ex), 345 tab characters    converting spaces to, 180    expanding to spaces, 62 tab stops, setting, 558 tables    converting files into, 196    formatting in nroff/troff, 466-469    symbol tables, printing, 127 tabs command, 558 tabs, nroff/troff requests for, 391 tag command (ex), 345 tail command, 164 talk command, 165 tape files, copying/restoring, 34, 166 tar command, 166 targets, updating, 118 tbl preprocessor (nroff/troff), 466-469 tee command, 169 tell pseudo-command (sccs), 505 telnet command, 170 telnet modes, 170 TERM environment variable, 219, 270 term shell variable, 268 terminals    capability of, 172    clearing displays, 31    clearing settings, 145    device name, printing, 178    resetting window layers, 550    setting modes, 177    setting options, 157-164    testing, 551 terminating process IDs, 98 termination status for background processes, 191 test command, 171, 249 text, 46    ASCII character set, 537-541    converting spaces into tabs, 180    expanding tabs into spaces, 62    line formatting, 74    pattern matching, 295-301    searching for (see searching)    (see also characters) text editors    ed, 57    edit, 58    emacs (see emacs editor)    ex, 61    pattern-matching metacharacters for, 296    recovering files after crash, 189    screen-oriented, 189    vedit editor, 187    vi editor (see vi) text formatting    man macros, 458-464       internal names, 463       predefined strings, 462    me macros, 443-457       number registers, 455       predefined strings, 454    mm macros, 413-433       number registers, 429       predefined string names, 429       reserved macro and string names, 432    ms macros, 434-442       number registers, 440-441       reserved macro and string names, 440    nroff and troff programs, 381-391       command-line invocation, 382       conceptual overview, 383       default request operation, 387       eqn processor, 469-473       escape sequences, 405       pic processor, 473-481       predefined registers, 407       refer processor, 481-485       requests (by group), 390       requests (by name), 392       special characters, 408       tbl processor, 466-469    nroff/troff preprocessors, 187, 465-485 TEXTDOMAIN environment variable, 78 time command, 171, 252, 290 time shell variable, 268 times command (ksh93), 253 times command (sh, ksh), 253 timestamps, RCS, 511 timestamps, SCCS, 502 timex command, 171 TMOUT shell variable, 219 tolower function (awk), 377 touch command, 172 toupper function (awk), 377 tput command, 172 tr command, 173 tracing signals, 153, 174 translating strings (see localization of strings) transposition commands (emacs), 306 trap command, 253 troff program, 381-391    checking mismatched delimiters, 27    command-line invocation, 382    conceptual overview, 383    converting to PostScript, 55    eliminating .so requests, 151    eqn processor, 469-473    escape sequences, 405    formatting source code for, 187    pic processor, 473-481    predefined registers, 407    preprocessors of, 465-485    refer processor, 481-485    removing all requests/macros, 48    requests (by group), 390    requests (by name), 392    requests, list of, 387-391    special characters, 408    tbl processor, 466-469 true command, 174, 254 truss command, 174 tset command, 177 tsort command, 559 tty command, 178 type command, 178, 254 typeset command, 254

#LINK<U[ Top ]># ulimit command, 256 umask command, 179, 257, 290    (see also chmod command) unabbreviate command (ex), 345 unalias command, 257, 290 uname command, 179 uncompress command, 180 uncompressing files, 180, 196 undo command (ex), 345 undoing, emacs commands for, 306 unedit pseudo-command (sccs), 505 unexpand command, 180 unget command (SCCS), 502 unhash command, 290 Unicode character set, 124 uniq command, 181 units command, 181 units of measurements (nroff/troff), 385 Unix    bundling software packages, 4    commands (list), 12-200    shells (see shells)    versions of, 3 unix2dos command, 182 unlimit command, 290 unmap command (ex), 346 unpack command, 559    (see also pack command; pcat command) unset command (csh), 290 unset command (sh, ksh), 257 unsetenv command, 290 until command, 258 unzip command, 182 upper character class, 210 uppercase (see case) uptime command, 185 usage information, 171, 190 usage information (disks), 56 USER environment variable, 270 user shell variable, 268 users    displaying data about, 74    displaying group membership, 80    IDs, displaying, 84    information on those logged in, 190    listing, 105    logged-in       displaying list, 185, 192       displaying system usage, 556       report on, 557    permissions, changing, 121    usernames, printing, 193 users command, 185 /usr directory    /usr/ucb directory, 9    /usr/ccs/bin directory, 11    /usr/dt/bin directory, 11    /usr/java/bin directory, 11    /usr/openwin/bin directory, 11    /usr/ucb directory, 11 uucp command, 559    (see also uustat command) uucp requests    cancelling, 562    obtaining information on, 562 uudecode command, 185 uuencode command, 185 uuglist command, 560 uulog command, 561    (see also tail command) uuname command, 561    (see also uucp command) uupick command, 561    (see also uuto command) uustat command, 562    (see also uucp command) uuto command, 563    (see also uupick command) uux command, 563

#LINK<V[ Top ]># v command (ex), 346 vacation command, 185, 563 val command (SCCS), 502 variable modifiers, C shell, 266 variable substitution, 215, 265 variables    awk built-in variables, 366    csh shell, 265-270    sh and ksh shells, 214-220    system configuration, printing, 77 vc command (obsolete), 564 vedit editor, 187 verbose shell variable, 269 version command (ex), 346 versions of Unix, 3 vertical alignment (see alignment/positioning) vertical spacing (see whitespace) vgrind command, 187 vi editor, 189, 321-336    accessing multiple files, 328    commands (by keystroke), 329    edit commands, 326    ex commands in, 337    interacting with Unix, 328    macros, 329    movement commands, 324    pattern-matching metacharacters, 296    saving and exiting, 327    :set command, 332-336    setting up, 332    (see also ex editor) view command (see vi editor) visual command (ex), 346 VISUAL shell variable, 219 volcheck command, 190

#LINK<W[ Top ]># w command, 190, 360 wait command, 191, 258, 291 wc command, 191 what command (SCCS), 503 whatis command, 192 whence command, 258 which command, 192 while command, 258, 291, 377 whitespace    converting spaces into tabs, 180    expanding tabs into spaces, 62    nroff/troff requests for, 391 whitespace character class, 210 whitespace, nroff/troff requests for, 391 who command, 192 whoami command, 193    (see also logname command) whois command, 564 wildcards (filename metacharacters)    csh shell, 261    sh and ksh shells, 209 windows    asynchronous, managing, 550    default, setting size, 189    emacs, commands for, 308    size       printing, 550       setting, 164    testing standard input for, 550 word abbreviations (emacs), 307 word substitution (csh), 274 wordlist files, 154 words, counting in files, 191 wq command (ex), 347 write command, 346, 565 writing to standard output, 56

#LINK<X[ Top ]># x command (sed), 360 xargs command, 193 xdigit character class, 210 xgettext command, 195 xit command (ex), 347 XPG4 standards, 10

Y

Product Details

ISBN:
9781565924277
Subtitle:
System V Edition, 3rd Edition
Other:
Robbins, Arnold
Author:
Robbins, Arnold
Preface:
Gilly, Daniel
Publisher:
O'Reilly Media
Location:
Sebastopol, Calif.
Subject:
Programming Languages - General
Subject:
Operating Systems - UNIX
Subject:
Operating systems (computers)
Subject:
Computers
Subject:
Database Management - General
Subject:
Programming - Systems Analysis & Design
Subject:
Unix (computer operating system)
Subject:
Utilities
Subject:
Operating systems
Subject:
UNIX (Computer file)
Subject:
Utilities (Computer programs)
Subject:
Unix (Operating system).
Subject:
Text editors
Subject:
UNIX
Subject:
Vi
Subject:
UNIX System V
Subject:
KornShell
Subject:
Solaris
Subject:
UNIX device drivers
Subject:
Books; Computers & Internet; Platforms; Operating Systems; Unix; General
Subject:
Computer Books And Software
Subject:
Computer Bks - Operating Systems
Subject:
UNIX System V (Computer file)
Edition Number:
3
Edition Description:
Third Edition
Series:
In a Nutshell (O'Reilly)
Series Volume:
898
Publication Date:
19990913
Binding:
Paperback
Language:
English
Illustrations:
Yes
Pages:
624
Dimensions:
4 3/4 in. +

Related Subjects

Computers and Internet » Operating Systems » General
Computers and Internet » Operating Systems » Unix » Linux
Computers and Internet » Operating Systems » Unix » Unix Administration
Computers and Internet » Operating Systems » Unix » Unix Enduser

Unix in a Nutshell 3RD Edition Desktop Quick Ref
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Product details 624 pages O'Reilly & Associates - English 9781565924277 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by , This text provides a complete reference to UNIX, containing all commands and options, along with descriptions and examples that put the commands in context. For all but the thorniest UNIX problems, this reference book should be of value.
"Synopsis" by ,
This up-to-date guide is not a scaled-down quick reference of common commands but a complete reference containing all commands — including 60 new ones — and options, along with generous descriptions and examples that put the commands in context.
"Synopsis" by , The bestselling, most informative Unix reference book is now more complete and up to date. Not a scaled-down quick reference of common commands, "UNIX in a Nutshell is a complete reference containing all commands and options, along with generous descriptions and examples that put the commands in context. For all but the thorniest Unix problems, this one reference should be all the documentation you need. Thoroughly covering System V Release 4 and Solaris 7, the third edition of "UNIX in a Nutshell features 60 new commands, expanded Korn shell documentation, an expanded text editing section with the latest Emacs information, and a comprehensive Unix bibliography. If you currently use Unix SVR4, or if you're a Solaris user, you'll want this book. "UNIX in a Nutshell is the most comprehensive quick reference on the market, a must for any Unix user.
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