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Merritt Tierce: IMG Has My Husband Read It?

My first novel, Love Me Back, was published on September 16. Writing the book took seven years, and along the way three chapters were published in... Continue »
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    Love Me Back

    Merritt Tierce 9780385538077

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This title in other editions

Database Nation: the Death of Privacy in the 21ST Century


Database Nation: the Death of Privacy in the 21ST Century Cover




[ A ], [ B ], [ C ], [ D ], [ E ], [ F ], [ G ], [ H ], [ I ], [ J ], [ K ], [ L ], [ M ], [ N ], [ O ], [ P ], [ R ], [ S ], [ T ], [ U ], [ V ], [ W ], [ X ], [ Y ], [ Z ], Chapter 12


#LINK<A[ Top ]>#
ACB (see Associated Credit Bureaus)
acoustical surveillance, 118
      easy availability of devices, 119
      future trends, 120
adoption records, denying access to, 143-147
advertising, increasing levels of, 163
AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification System), 44-46
agents (see intelligent agents)
AI (artificial intelligence), 243
      future developments, 253
      intelligent agent (CYRUS), 252
      MIT Lab, START program, 250
      privacy, implications for, 244
      employment rights and, 131
      MIB codes for, 137
      SEPTA employee, privacy violation, 135
air travel
      baggage screening systems, 214
      terrorism, 209
            Pan American Flight 103, bombing of, 210
            TWA Flight 800 investigation, 209
Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building
      bombing of, 217
      video camera surveillance, 107
      collaborative filtering, use of, 247
      predicting success of books, 206
America Online
      MovieFone company purchase, 205
      scams for identity theft, 30
American Protective League, 226
American Type Culture Collection (infectious agents), 221
analytical market information (movies), 205
animals, tracking with implantable tags, 81
      exercising, 172
      of human tissue, 189
anthrax scare (B'nai B'rith headquarters), 211
anthropometrical signalment, 39
Antiterrorism Law (1996), 222
Ardita, Julio Cesar, attacks on computer networks, 225
Argent Digital Watermark System, 199
Armenians, massacred in Turkey, 244
arrests, consumer information reporting, 262
artificial intelligence (see AI)
Ashkenazi Jews, genetic disease research, 190
assassinations and attempts (U.S. presidents), 217
asset management with RFID systems, 81
Associated Credit Bureaus (ACB), disputing credit report inaccuracies, 29
Association of Icelanders for Ethics in Science and Medicine (Mannvernd), 194
asterisk list, 174
      surveillance cameras, using, 104
      transactions, information recorded during, 71
audio recordings
      audiocassettes, copying published music with, 197
      watermarking, 199
Aum Shinrikyo cult
      terrorist plans, chemical and nuclear, 122
      Tokyo subway attack, 215
Automated Fingerprint Identification System (see AFIS)
automatic call units, legislation against, 174
automatic data collection, 77-82
automation of patient records, 147-151
automobiles, identifying with computerized systems, 78
Avis car rental, adoption of bar code VINs, 78
Avrahami, Ram, lawsuit to stop name use, 178

#LINK<B[ Top ]>#
baggage screening systems, 214
Baltimore, outdoor video surveillance, 106
      errors, not holding accountable for, 34
      machine-readable codes, adopting, 77
      surveillance cameras, using, 104
      thumbprint identifiers on checks, 64
bar codes, adding to VIN plates, 78
base pairs (nucleic acid), 48
Bastard Nation adoptee advocate group, 145
Bell Atlantic Caller ID, 74
Bertillion, Alphonse, identification by bodily measurements, 39
Bhagwan Sri Rajneesh followers, 220
billing records (medical), privacy implications, 128
biological warfare, 211
      Aum Shinrikyo cult, 215
      unique dangers of, 223, 237
      vaccines and treatments, need for, 238
biometric identifiers, 10
      computerized, 55-63
      future trends, 59-63
      people vs. bodies, identifying, 65
      piracy of, 62-65
      technologies used in, 37-67
      testing, need for, 59
bipolar and schizophrenia genetic research (Ashkenazi Jews), 191
birth and death records, lack of centralization, 66
Birth certificate number, 20
B'nai B'rith International Headquarters, biological contamination scare, 211
bodies, identifying (vs. people), 65
      Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, 107, 217
      Kaczynski, Ted (Unabomber), 59
      Pan American Flight 103, 210
      TWA Flight 800, investigation of, 209
      World Trade Center, 217
      ownership of, 196-205
      predicting market success, 206
Booth, John Wilkes, 217
Bork, Judge Robert
      privacy hearings in Congress, 90
      video rental printout, 72
Boston, outdoor video camera surveillance, 107
botulism, 238
      scanning into computers, 254
      wiretapping, 234-236
breast cancer gene (Ashkenazi Jews), 190
Brin, David, advocating full disclosure of medical records, 132
British Telecom, iris scanner development, 56
bubonic plague, ordering through mail, 222
Budowle, Bruce (FBI Forensic Science Research and Training Center), 52
Bulmash, Bob (Private Citizen, Inc.), 175
      misuse of personal information, publicizing, 172
      national image databanks, developing, 62
buying privacy, 266

#LINK<C[ Top ]>#
California Department of Motor Vehicles, releasing vehicle registration information, 73
Caller ID service (Bell Atlantic), 74
Cardozo School of Law (Yeshiva University), Innocence Project, 52
Catlett, Jason (Junkbusters), 181
cells, property rights to, 186
cellular telephones
      FBI, tracking location of, 233
      positional information, 84
      sites, mapping by satellite, 98
censorship of Internet content, 8
census, 16
Centers for Disease Control (CDC), monitoring shipments of infectious agents, 222
chat services, public statements on, 87-88
Chaum, David, ECash, 15
check digits, 20
      VINs, 77
      cashing, use of fingerprint identifiers, 64
      fraud prevention with photo IDs, 61
      machine-readable routing codes, 77
chemical warfare, Iraq, 215
chemical-biological terrorism, 220-224
      infectious agents, ordering through mail, 222
      marketing to, 161-163
      video surveillance in homes, 108
Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (1998), 162
circulatory system (facial) as biometric identifier, 58
civil liberties, effects of intelligence gathering, 226-229
civilian satellites, 97
civilian spy satellites, 100
Clinton, President Bill, assassination attempt, 217
Clipper encryption systems, 8
Code of Fair Information Practices, 143
      report on (HEW), 7
codes, use of (MIB), 137
Cody, Richard J. (New Jersey State Senate), 182
collaborative filtering, 247
colon cancer gene (Ashkenazi Jews), 191
commercial spy satellites, use by intelligence agencies, 98
Committee on DNA Technology in Forensic Science (NRC), 51
Committee on Public Information, 227
Communications Assistance to Law Enforcement Act (1994), 8
      FBI wiretapping, 233
Communications Decency Act (CDA), 8
compilation copyright, 252
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, surveillance to enforce, 121
      biometric identifier storage, security risks, 65
      biometrics, computerized, 55-63
      chess, playing, 245
      credit records, use in maintaining, 23
      fingerprints, identifying, 44-46
      hardware, enforcing copyrights, 202
      as intelligent agents, 247-253
      intelligent computers, threat to privacy, 12
      intrusion programs, 59
      masquerading as humans, 241-256
      patient records, maintaining on, 147-151
            effects of incorrect data, 10
            longevity of, 22
            storage capacity, increasing, 73
      satellite images, processing, 95
      scanning human brains into, 254
      security, importance of, 264
            copy protection, disabling, 203
            piracy of (Internet), 198
            unauthorized copying, 197
      terrorist attacks through networks, 224
      tube-based, development of, 19
      Turing test, 245
Computers, Freedom, and Privacy conference, 225
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR), 18
confidentiality issues, Icelandic gene study, 195
Congressional Subcommittee on Invasion of Privacy, 23
Connectix QuickCam (digital video camera), 109
      ethnic groups, genetic research, 193
      Icelandic gene study, 194
      medical claims, 133
      registries (see mutual consent registries)
      rewriting laws to limit abuses, 264
Consolidated Information Service, analysis of credit report errors, 28
consumer information
      FCRA, adding protections to, 263
      hidden data, carrying, 263
      ownership issues, 205
      reporting firms, limiting activities of, 262
copying published material, 196-205
Copyright Clearing House, 198
      computer hardware and software, enforcing, 202
      law, rewriting in 1976 (U.S. Congress), 197
      laws preventing extraction of self, 252
credit bureaus
      consumer information, abuses of, 22
      current U.S. companies, 24
      failure to correct inaccuracies, 28
      IRS reporting (Ross family), 25-29
      personal information, releasing, 25
      SSN, use of, 21-25
credit cards
      issuers, not accountable for errors, 34
      magnetic strips, machine-readable, 77
      photo identifiers, using, 62
      purchases, records of, 69
Credit Data Corporation (see Experian; TRW)
credit score, computing, 25
Creighton University, High Bone Mass discovery, 187
crime, lack of deterrence by video surveillance, 116
      DNA registry for, 53
      identifying, need for, 39
      Freedom system, 267
      privacy activists, distribution of software, 268
      uses of, 266
CTR (Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company), 18
Cypherpunks (privacy activists), 268
CYRUS program, 252
Czolgosz, Leon, 217

#LINK<D[ Top ]>#
daily life, recording details of, 69-92
DARPA (Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), 249
      collectable information, creating, 75
      hiding, 263
data outings, use by privacy activists, 269
data shadow, 70
      actions that leave records, 71
      false information content, 73
data subversion by privacy activists, 269
      daily life, recording, 69-92
      DNA, 53-54
      future trends, 35
      images, business development of, 62
      smart machines, creating, 89
      building, 82
      Internet, world's largest, 84
      automatic data collection, 77-82
      building process, 75-79
      databases, building, 82
Davies, Simon, testimony on video surveillance, 116
DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency)
      marijuana growers, search for, 72
      supermarket buying records, accessing, 159
death records, lack of centralization, 66
deCODE Genetics, Inc., 193
Delivery Information Acquisition Devices (DIADs), 64
deoxyribonucleic acid (see DNA identification)
Department of Defense
      Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 249
      DNA registry (U.S. soldiers), 54
      shutter control on satellites, 101
Department of Energy, Nuclear Emergency Search Team (NEST), 219
destructive technology, spread of, 214
DIADs (Delivery Information Acquisition Devices), 64
DICE Company (Argent Digital Watermark System), 199
Diebold, John, 71
DigiBox (InterTrust), rights management system, 203
Digital Millennium Act (1999), 203
digital signatures, 201, 204
Digital Telephony Act (1994), 233
digital watermarks, 199-205
direct marketing
      process of, 164-168
      taking action against, 170-175
      (see also marketing; telemarketing)
Direct Marketing Association (see DMA)
DIRS (Disability Insurance Record System), 139
discrimination in U.K. video surveillance, 115
DMA (Direct Marketing Association)
      consumer lawsuits, defending against, 182
      preventing advertising solicitation, 169
DNA identification, 46-54
      accuracy issues, 48
      current situation, 52
      DNA databank, 53-54
      problems with, 48-52
DNA Identification Act (1994), 53
DNA, ownership of, 184-196
driver's licenses
      identification, use in (U.S.), 55
      photographs, selling (state governments), 61
      SSN, using, 21
      state governments, selling databases, 83
drugs, reducing voluntary inhibition, 235

#LINK<E[ Top ]>#
Eaglevision, transportable satellite base station, 99
Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT), 100
ECash, anonymous electronic payment, 15
electronic eavesdropping, restricting, 118
Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)
      extraction of self, 252
      FBI wiretapping, 233
electronic surveillance and wiretapping (U.S.), 229-234
Electronic Toll Collection (ETC), 82
      anonymous systems, building, 91
      privacy issues, 83
ELIZA computer program, 243
      forums, public statements on, 87-88
      intelligent agent, handling, 249
      personal information, revealing, 84
      recording daily life in messages, 70
      checking credit records of applicants, 31
      hiring decisions, basing on health information, 135
      medical records, use of, 129
encrypted communications, government efforts to access, 8
encryption of medical records, 151
engineering for privacy, 259
EOSAT satellites, 100
Equifax, 24, 27
      Lotus Marketplace development, 9
      ownership and privacy issues, 207
      personal information, collecting and selling, 5
Equifax-Harris consumer privacy survey (1996), 183
Equifax-Harris medical privacy survey (1993), 261
e-services (Hewlett-Packard), 89
ethnic groups
      genetic research on, 190-196
      minorities, wartime discrimination against, 228
evictions, consumer information reporting, 262
exemptions, copyright restrictions, 197
Experian, 24, 164
      personal information marketing, types, 165-167
      (see also Metromail; TRW)
explosives, terrorists using, 217
extraction of self, 252
E-ZPass toll system, 82

#LINK<F[ Top ]>#
face recognition as biometric identifier, 57
facial thermogram as biometric identifier, 58
Fair Credit Reporting Act (1970), 6, 23
      credit score and, 25
      data protection, adapting for, 262-264
      medical records, exempting, 138
fair use exemptions (copyrights), 197
false data syndrome, 73
      animals, tracking with implantable tags, 81
      satellite images, using, 98
Faulds, Henry, fingerprints as forensic tool, 42
faxes (unsolicited), legislation against, 174
      antiterrorism efforts, lack of effectiveness, 213
      Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), 53
      DNA testing research, 52
      intelligence gathering activities, threat of, 226-229
      investigation of activist groups, 228
      spike mikes, using for surveillance, 230
      terrorism, monitoring, 216
      terrorist attacks through computer networks, 224
      TWA Flight 800 investigation, 209
      wiretapping provisions from telephone companies, 233
FCRA (see Fair Credit Reporting Act (1970))
Federal Bureau of Investigation (see FBI)
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), outlawing unwanted telemarketing calls, 174
federal government
      fraud and abuse computer matching programs, 8
      privacy oversight committee, need for, 260
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 25
      hearing on privacy, 207
      online marketing to children, prosecuting improper, 163
financial reward for genetic study (Iceland), 195
      AFIS, 44-46
      science of, 41-42
food poisoning outbreak (Oregon, 1984), 220
Foster, Donald, writing style as identifier, 59
      computers, posing as humans, 246
      credit cards and checks, prevention with photo IDs, 61
      identity theft, 29-32
      telemarketing scams, 168
free market economy
      consumer privacy, not protecting, 91
      unfairness to private citizens in information handling, 34
Freedom (privacy controlling system), 266
Frye standard (admission of scientific evidence in courts), 51
Fuji, digitized X-rays, 148
functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), 235

#LINK<G[ Top ]>#
gait print as biometric identifier, 58
Garfield, President James, assassination attempt, 217
Gates, Rick, Internet Hunt, 84
General Motors (GM), adding bar codes to VINs, 78
      adopted people and, 144
      discrimination resulting from, 185
      DNA identification, 46-54
      DNA, ownership of, 184-196
      mutations, 184
            favorable mutations, individuals' ownership of, 186-189
      personal information, abuses of, 11
Genome Therapeutics Corporation, 187
Germany, concealing cancer diagnoses, 142
      antiprivacy initiatives, 8
      centralized data collection, 13
      government records, direct marketing uses, 157, 167
      privacy agenda, 21st century, 260-266
      role in protecting privacy, 6-8
      state and local, uses for satellite imagery, 100
            identification photos, selling, 61
            information, making available, 83
            patients, right to view medical records, 142
            SSN, using for income taxes, 21
Grimm, Shea, adoptee rights, 144
ground surveillance, 104-108
Guiteau, Charles J., 217
gunshots, detecting and locating, 120

#LINK<H[ Top ]>#
Haloid Xerox (see Xerox Corporation)
hand geometry as biometric identifier, 56
handwriting analysis as biometric identifier, 56
hardware (computer), enforcing copyrights, 202
Harris, Larry, biological weapons terrorism, 222
Harris-Equifax consumer privacy survey (1996), 183
Harris-Equifax medical privacy survey (1993), 261
Health Claims Index, 139
Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), computer impact on privacy study, 7
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (1996), 141
Health Sector Database (HSD) (Iceland), 194
healthcare workers, patient confidentiality responsibility, 131-133
Herschel, W. J., advocate of fingerprint identity, 42
Hewlett-Packard e-services, 89
hidden data, carrying, 263
High Bone Mass (HBM) genetic trait, property rights suit, 187
high schools, radical privacy activists in, 269
high-resolution satellite images, 102
highway surveillance, 4
      video cameras, using, 112-115
Hinckley, John W., Jr., 217
HIV-infected patients, discrimination against, 131
Hollerith, Herman, automating census data processing, 17
hot files, 72
Human Genome Diversity Project, 193
human genome (DNA identity), 48
human tissue, unauthorized research on, 189
Huntington's disease, 185
hydroacoustic network (monitoring system), 121

#LINK<I[ Top ]>#
IBM, 18
      digital watermarking system, 199
      Social Security information, developing processor for, 19
ICC (Internet Chess Club), 245
Iceland, genetic research on citizens, 193-196
identical twins
      DNA, sharing, 48
      genetic testing issues, 185
      biometric identifiers
            future trends, 59-63
            people vs. bodies, identifying, 65
            technologies, 37-67
      development of need for, 39
      DNA identification, 46-54
            current situation, 52
            DNA databank, 53-54
            testing, problems with, 48-52
      photographs, use in, 55
      social control, role in, 40
identity theft, 29-32
IDs, issuing for medical patients, 8
Image Data LLC, national photo ID database, 61
      national databanks, development of, 62
      national photo ID database, 61
      from satellites, markets for, 100
immigration laws, identity as enforcement tool, 41
implantable tags, tracking animals with, 81
inaccuracies in credit bureau information, 23
income taxes, using SSN for identification, 21
Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), 122
Indian spy satellites, 100
information warfare, 224-226
infrasound network (monitoring system), 121
Innocence Project (Yeshiva University, Cardozo School of Law), 52
insider piracy of digital media, 204
insurance companies
      medical information, reporting to MIB, 137
      medical record privacy issues, 133-135
      medical records, use of, 126, 129
      physicians, concealing patient diagnoses from, 139-141
      preexisting conditions, insurance coverage for, 141
Intel, Processor Serial Number (PSN), 78
intellectual property, antipiracy technology, 12
intelligence gathering as threat to civil liberties, 226-229
intelligent agents
      computers acting as, 247-253
      marketing campaign, 251
      MIT AI Lab, START project, 250
      MIT Media Laboratory, 248
      personal information, scanning for, 252
intercepting written or spoken communications, 229-234
interim ceiling principle, 51
Internal Revenue Service (IRS), inaccurate records on credit report, 25-29
International Business Machines Corporation (see IBM)
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), 227
      birth parents, searching for information on, 147
      censorship of content, 8
      children, marketing to, 161
      database, largest in world, 84
      personal information, protecting, 172
      pornography, marketing web sites, 174
      privacy issues, 4, 266
Internet (continued )
      taxpayer history information, publishing on Internet, 10
      users, tracking with PSN, 78
      video camera images in real time, 110
      wiretap by FBI, 225
Internet Chess Club (ICC), 245
InterTrust, 202
inventory tracking (RFID systems), 80
Iraq, chemical warfare, 215
IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology), 122
iris print as biometric identifier, 56
Israel, satellite imagery of settlements, 102

#LINK<J[ Top ]>#
Jaffe v. Redmond case, therapeutic relationship confidentiality, 130
Japanese-Americans, wartime internment of, 228
Jews (Ashkenazi), genetic research on, 190
junk DNA (identity testing), 49
junk faxes, legislation against, 174
Junkbusters, 175

#LINK<K[ Top ]>#
Kaczynski, Ted, identifying through writing style, 59
Kallstrom, James D. (FBI, New York Office), 215-217
Katz v. U.S decision, prohibition of public telephone surveillance, 121
Kennedy, President John F., assassination of, 217
Kennedy-Kassebaum healthcare portability legislation, 148
KidsCom web site, 162
Kleid Company, marketing magazine subscription lists, 167
Klein, Joe, identifying as author of Primary Colors, 59
Kurzweil, Ray, AI future, 254

#LINK<L[ Top ]>#
labor movement, government attacks on, 227
laboratories (DNA testing), irregularities, 49
Lander, Eric S., proponent of DNA testing, 52
Landsat satellites, 97
law enforcement
      DNA identity testing, 48
      ETC records, obtaining, 83
      fingerprint registry (universal), advocating, 43
      gunshot detection and location device, 120
      highways, video surveillance images, 113
      lot numbers and serial numbers, using, 76
      outdoor video camera surveillance, 105
      positional information from cellular telephones, 84
      video surveillance, lack of deterrence, 116
      VINs, using, 77
      wiretapping, using for surveillance, 230
      discrediting witnesses with medical records, 129
      names, right to use, 181
      pharmacy records, sale of, 173
legislation on privacy, fighting for new, 174
Lexis-Nexis, P-TRAK database service, 10
license plate readers, 84
      genetic information (Iceland), 193
      names of individuals, use of, 182
lie detectors, 234
life insurance, preexisting conditions and, 141
likeness piracy, 62
Lincoln, President Abraham, assassination of, 217
local governments, uses for satellite images, 100
Lockheed Martin, EOSAT satellites, 100
Long, Senator Edward V., 118
loss prevention, use of implantable tags, 78
lot numbers, 75
      law enforcement, using, 76
Lotus Development Corporation, Lotus Marketplace product, 9

#LINK<M[ Top ]>#
machine-readable tags (RFID), 78
magazines, selling subscription lists, 173
mail, intercepting, 229
Mail Preference Service, 169
Mann, Steve
      likeness piracy concept, 62
      wearable video camera, 114
Mannvernd (Association of Icelanders for Ethics in Science and Medicine), 194
man-to-machine interfaces (MTM), 236
      advertising, increasing levels of, 163
      children, targeting, 161-163
            process of, 164-168
            taking action against, 170-175
      intelligent agents, modeling individuals, 252
      lists, removal from, 169
      medical record information, using, 128, 160
      privacy issues, 11, 155-175
      (see also telemarketing)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (see MIT)
Massachusetts Public Interest Research Group (MASSPIRG), study on MIB, 138
Massachusetts Turnpike Authority (MTA), privacy issues for ETC systems, 83
matcher (computer), 45
MCA Studios, using Argent watermarking, 201
McClaughry, Major R. W., advocating strong identity for social control, 40
McKinley, President William, assassination attempt, 217
Medical Information Bureau (MIB), consumer ignorance of, 136-139
medical insurance, state-sponsored, 152
medical patients, unique identifiers, 8
medical records
      abuse of confidentiality, 11
      adopted people, denying right to, 143-147
      computerized, 147-151
      consumer information, excluding from, 262
      encryption, problems with, 151
      insurance companies, not responsible for privacy, 133-135
      marketing, uses for, 160
      patients' right to access, 141
      privacy issues, 125-153, 261
medical research (unauthorized) on human tissue, 189
Message Understanding Conference (MUC), 249
      change of address information, selling, 164
      medical information, marketing, 128
      (see also Experian)
MGonz computer program, 244
MIB (Medical Information Bureau), consumer ignorance of, 136-139
Micro Design ASA (electronic toll system), 82
Microsoft TerraServer, 102
military (U.S.), DNA identification of soldiers, 48, 54
Minnesota Department of Resources, use of satellite imagery, 101
minutiae (fingerprints), 45
      Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, 243
            START project, 250
      Media Laboratory, intelligent agents development, 248
      video surveillance policy, 104
Moore, John, property rights to cells, 186
motor vehicle registration records
      California policy on releasing, 73
      selling to marketing companies, 157
MovieFone company, 205
      analytical market information, 205
      copying with videocassettes, 197
MRI scans, mapping brain with, 235
MTM (man-to-machine interfaces), 236
MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) games, using robots, 245
music, copying with audiocassettes, 197
mutations (genes), privacy rights and, 184
mutual consent registries, 145

#LINK<N[ Top ]>#
Nagel, Dr. Denise, patient rights coalition, 130
names (individuals), ownership rights, 178-184
National Change of Address Program, marketing address information, 164
National Coalition for Patient Rights, 130
National Council For Adoption (NCFA), 144
National Data Center, 13-15
National Data Corporation, selling prescription information, 161
national governments, sponsoring terrorism, 215
national image databanks
      businesses, developing their own, 62
      photo ID database, 61
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 94
National Research Council (NRC) Committee on DNA in Forensic Science, 51
NEC Technologies, biometric identification systems, 47
nerve gas poisoning in Tokyo subway, 122
NEST (Nuclear Emergency Search Team), 219
New Mover file, 164
NFCA (National Council For Adoption), 144
NOAA, weather satellite surveillance, 94
NRC Committee on DNA in Forensic Science, 51
nuclear terrorism, 217-220
      nuclear power plants, bombing, 219
      radioactive material, scattering, 218
nuclear weapons testing, monitoring for, 121
nucleic acid base pairs (DNA), 48
numbers, tracking products with, 75
NYNEX (see Bell Atlantic Caller ID)

#LINK<O[ Top ]>#
Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), bringing back, 265
Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act (1968),
restricting electronic eavesdropping, 118
online information sources, trading in personal information, 87
opt-out lists, 169
      FCC failure to mandate nationwide, 174
Oswald, Lee Harvey, 217
overseas telemarketing calls, blocking unwanted, 175
      of consumer information, 205
      of personal information, 177-207
      privacy, protecting with, 206
      of published materials, 196-205

#LINK<P[ Top ]>#
Packard, Vance, privacy advocate, 14
palm print as biometric identifier, 56
Pan American Flight 103, bombing of, 210
paternity testing, DNA identification, 48
patient access to medical records, 141
patient confidentiality, healthcare workers' responsibility for, 131-133
patient identification numbers, using SSN as, 21
Patient Select medical database, 128
people vs. bodies, identifying, 65
performance as biometric identifier, 59
personal information
      cryptography, using to protect, 267
      Experian, selling (types of), 165-167
      intelligent agents, scanning for, 252
      Internet, providing, 84
      Internet sites, collecting from children, 161
      marketers, using to refine approach, 156
      ownership rights, 177-207
      preventing accumulation of, 91, 253
      protecting, 172
      selling as commodity, 4, 11
      telemarketing scams, using, 168
      transactions, combining with, 206
Phantom Dialer, computer network attacks, 225
      consumer information, exploiting, 206
      medical records privacy and, 128
      records, using for marketing, 161
phishing (identity theft scams), 30
photocopying published materials, 196
      driver's licenses, sale by states, 61
      identification, uses in, 55
      national image databanks, 62
      national photo ID database, 61
physicians, lying to protect patient confidentiality, 139-141
Polk, R.L. Company
      buying driver's license databases, 83
      selling motor vehicle registration records, 157
polygraphs, 234
pornography marketing, fighting against, 174
positional information, cellular telephones, 84
Positron Emission Tomography (PET), mapping brains with, 235
PowerVox IV, audio surveillance device, 119
preexisting conditions, insurance for, 141
privacy, 3-5
      acoustical surveillance, violating, 118
      advocates on radical fringe, 268
      AI, effects of, 244
      audio surveillance of public places, impact on, 121
      business opposition to regulation attempts, 34
      buying your own, 266
      computerized medical records, problems, 149-152
      databases, organization and access control, 82
      ETC systems, implications of, 83
      federal government committee, creating, 260
      fighting against incursions, 9
      government agenda for, 21st century, 260-266
      government role in protecting, 6-8
      insurance companies and, 133-135
      intelligent agents, effects of, 252
      laws, making use of, 174
      marketing companies, invading, 155-175
      medical records, handling of, 125-153
      ownership of personal information, 206
      protecting, 257-271
      protection of sensitive data, 89-92
      public support for governmental controls (U.S.), 261
      technology, effects on, 258
      threats to, 10-12
      universal healthcare identification number and, 148
Privacy International, 106
      Simon Davies testimony on video surveillance, 116
Privacy Journal, 127, 138
Private Citizen, Inc., 175
private individuals, adopting surveillance technology, 108-114
Processor Serial Number (PSN), 78
product registration cards, use in direct marketing, 165
profiling humans with intelligent agents, 252
      distribution in U.S., 227
      Zumabot computer program, disseminating, 244
protecting privacy, 257-271
psychological records, confidentiality of, 130
P-TRAK database, 10
public places, surveillance of, 93-123
public service careers, privacy issues, 4
public statements (cyberspace), 87-88
public telephones, microphone monitoring of, 121
publicizing misuse of personal information, 172
published materials, ownership of, 196-205
punch cards, development of, 17

#LINK<R[ Top ]>#
radical privacy activists, emergence of, 268
Radio Frequency Identification Device Systems (RFID), 78, 80
radioactive material, scattering, 218
radionucleotide monitoring network, 121
rape cases, discrediting witnesses with medical records, 129
rapists, identifying with DNA testing, 53
Reagan, President Ronald, assassination attempt, 217
real estate transactions as public records, 156
receipts, digitally signed, 201
Redwood City, CA, gunshot detecting device, 120
religious cults, terrorism, 220
remote viewing, 234
Retail Credit (see Equifax)
retina print as biometric identifier, 56
Richardson, Elliot (HEW secretary), 7
rights management systems, 202
      digital signatures, 204
Ringley, Jennifer, viewing on Web, 111
Robinson, Tommy, Arkansas Governor's race, 128
robots, using in MUD games, 245
Roosevelt, President Franklin D., 18
Rosenberg, Jerry, privacy advocate, 14
Ross, Nancy and Steven, credit problems from inaccurate IRS records, 25-29
Rotenberg, Marc, extraction of self, 252
Rothfeder, Jeffrey (privacy advocate), 268
royalties, paying for name use, 183

#LINK<S[ Top ]>#
Saab Combitech (ETC system), 82
Safety 1st Day 'N Night TV Monitor System, 108
Salmonella poisonings (Oregon, 1984), 220
satellite surveillance, 94-104
Schaeffer, Rebecca, information released by CA Motor Vehicles, 73
schizophrenia and bipolar disorder gene research (Ashkenazi Jews), 191
scientific evidence, standard for admitting in court, 51
scientific instruments for surveillance, 121-123
security (computers), importance of, 264
seeded names, 173
seismic networks, monitoring for nuclear explosions, 121
semen, testing for DNA match, 53
serial numbers, 76
sex offenders (convicted), DNA registry for, 53
Shaw, Stephen, identity theft case, 30
Sheppard, Dr. Sam, DNA testing to prove innocence, 53
shutter control (satellite imagery), 101
      as biometric identifier, 56
      digital, 201, 204
      UPS, scanning and storing, 63
silhouette identification as biometric identifier, 58
simulating human intelligence, 243
smart cards
      ETC systems, use to protect privacy, 91
      identity cards, using as, 63
smart machines, active databank creation, 89
Smith, Robert Ellis, 127
      MIB codes, information on, 138
social control
      strong identification, role in oppression, 44
      video camera surveillance and, 116
Social Security
      Social Security Act (1935), 18
      Social Security Administration
            employees selling information to fraud rings, 29
            taxpayer history information, publishing, 10
      Social Security number (see SSN)
software programs
      copy protection, disabling, 203
      masquerading as humans, 241-256
      piracy of, Internet facilitating, 198
      unauthorized copying, 197
Space Imaging (surveillance satellites), 100
speed, tracking with ETC systems, 82
Speeter, Thomas, biometric identifiers, 59
SPOT satellites, 97
      Eaglevision base station, 99
      intelligence agencies, use of, 98
spy satellites, 96
      commercial (SPOT), 97
      IRS-1C (India), 100
SSN, 18
      credit bureaus, using, 21-25
      driver's licenses, displaying on, 8
      problems with use, 20
      P-TRAK database, publishing, 10
      as universal identifier, 20
      uses today, 32
Stapleton, Ross, personal information from email, 84
START project, MIT AI Lab, 250
state governments
      identification photos, selling, 61
      information, making available, 83
      patients, granting right to view medical records, 142
      satellite images, uses for, 100
statistical technique in DNA testing, 51
Stefansson, Dr. Kari, genetic research in Iceland, 193
stores, use of surveillance cameras, 104
student IDs
      biometric identifiers in universities, 60
      SSN, using as, 21
subscription lists, selling, 167, 173
supermarkets, uses of customer information, 158, 206
surrogate medical diagnoses, 140
      alternative methods to combat terrorism, 238
      anti terrorist efforts, abuse of, 12
      biological weapons, ineffectiveness with, 237
      ground surveillance technologies, 104-108
      private individuals, performing, 108, 113-114
      public places, 11, 93-123
      satellites, using, 94-104
      scientific instruments for, 121-123
      sound vs. light, 117
      stores, video camera use, 61

#LINK<T[ Top ]>#
Tabulating Machine Company, 18
      (see also CTR)
tabulating machine, development of, 17
      assessment agency (OTA), bringing back, 265
      everyday events, recording, 11
      privacy, effect on, 5, 258
      automatic call units, outlawing, 174
      overseas calls, need to block unwanted, 175
      removal from lists, 169
      scams, using personal information, 168
      (see also marketing)
telephone calls, records of, 15, 69
Telephone Preference Service, 169
TerraServer (Microsoft), high-resolution satellite imagery, 102
terrorism, 209
      alternatives to surveillance for combatting, 238
      biological agents, unique dangers of, 237
      bombing of Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, 217
      chemical-biological, 220-224
            food poisoning, 220
            nerve gas poisoning in Tokyo subway, 215
      extralegal methods, using against, 237
      increasing numbers of terrorists, 214
      information warfare, 224-226
      law enforcement using as excuse to attack civil liberties, 239
      mass-murder actions, 217
      motives, changes in, 210
      nuclear, 122, 217-220
            nuclear power plants, bombing, 219
      privacy rights activists, 270
      surveillance for, 4, 12
The Dalles, Oregon, food poisoning outbreak, 220-222
third-party payers, medical privacy and, 128
torture, ethical conflicts about using, 236
tracking numbers, 75
tracking use of personal information, 173
traffic conditions, displaying on webcam, 112
Trans Union, 24, 27
Trans World Airlines (TWA) Flight 800, 209
      history, value of, 206
      information, uses of, 160 travel
      Hong Kong, shutting down ETC system, 91
      privacy issues and, 83
      (see also air travel)
triangulation, identifying human tissue through, 190
Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority (TBTA)
      E-ZPass toll system, 82
      records, turning over to police, 83
Trilon Technology, gunshot detection device, 120
Trovan, RFID systems, 80
trusted software, 202
truth serums, 235
TRW, 23, 27
Turing, Alan, 245
Turkey, Armenian massacre in, 244
Twain, Mark, 41

#LINK<U[ Top ]>#
Unabomber (see Kaczynski, Ted)
uniqueness (DNA), problems with, 48
United Kingdom
      outdoor video surveillance, 105
            discrimination in, 115
United Parcel Service (UPS), biometric piracy, 63
universal healthcare identification number, 148
university students, biometric identifiers, 60
unstable individuals, terrorist acts by, 214, 216
U.S. Bureau of Investigation, 226
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), tracking cattle electronically, 81
U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (see DEA)
U.S. National Office of Vital Statistics, 20
U.S. Postal Service
      selling changes of address, 157
      terrorism prevention measures, 210
U.S. presidents
      assassinations and assassination attempts, 217
      lack of support for privacy protection, 8
U.S. Secret Service, national photo ID database, 61
U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, 122
Usenet postings
      personal information, revealing, 84
      public statements, 87-88

#LINK<V[ Top ]>#
Vance, Cyrus (Secretary of State), 252
Vehicle Identification Numbers (see VINs)
Velázquez, Representative Nydia, medical records release, 126
video camera surveillance
      credit card users, recording identity of, 62
      highways, 112-115
      individuals vs. business, 115
      individuals, using, 108-114
      public places, 104-108
      regulation and control of, 117
      sound vs., 117
      stores, using in, 61
      testimony on results of (U.K.), 116
video cameras
      digital images on Internet, 110-112
      digital signals, 108
      wearable, 114
Video Privacy Protection Act (1988), 90
video recordings, watermarking, 199
videocassette recorders, copying movies with, 197
VINs, 76
      bar codes, adding, 78
Vivid Technologies baggage screening systems, 214
voice print
      as biometric identifier, 56
      using with locks, 59
voyeurism in public surveillance of women, 116

#LINK<W[ Top ]>#
Walt Disney Company, collecting information on children, 162
warez (pirated software), 198
wartime organizations suppressing civil liberties, 227
Washington State DOT, highway surveillance, 113
watermarking, 198
      documents and images, downloaded, 202
wearcam (wearable video cameras), 114
weather satellites, surveillance with, 94
web pages, world's largest database, 84
webcam, 110-112
Westin, Alan
      data shadow, 70
      testimony on credit record abuses, 22
Whitehead Institute Center for Genome Research, 52
Williams, James, credit report error analysis, 28
Wiretap Report (1999), 231
      counterespionage, approval for, 230
      and electronic surveillance (U.S.), 229-234
      human brains, 234-236
witnesses, discrediting with medical records, 129
Wobblies, 227
women, voyeuristic surveillance of, 116
workplace surveillance, 2
World Trade Center bombing, 217
World Wide Web, 84
      copyright problems, 198
WorldSat (satellite images), 94
writing style as biometric identifier, 59

#LINK<X[ Top ]>#
Xerox Corporation, 196
X-rays, digitizing for computer storage, 148

#LINK<Y[ Top ]>#
Yeshiva University, Cardozo School of Law, Innocence Project, 52

#LINK<Z[ Top ]>#
Zero-Knowledge Systems (Freedom system), 266

Product Details

The Death of Privacy in the 21st Century
Russell, Deborah
O'Reilly Media
United states
Social aspects
Political science
Civil Rights
Information technology
Computer security
Privacy, right of
Political aspects
Intelligence service
Information society
Technology and society.
Current Affairs
Right of privacy
Political And Civil Rights
Politics - Current Events
Database Nation;computer security;privacy
General Computers
Edition Number:
1st ed.
Edition Description:
Print PDF
Series Volume:
Publication Date:
9 x 6 x 0.93 in 1.53 lb

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Related Subjects

Computers and Internet » Computers Reference » General
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Database Nation: the Death of Privacy in the 21ST Century Used Trade Paper
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Product details 319 pages O'Reilly Media - English 9781565926530 Reviews:
"Synopsis" by ,
More than 50 years ago, George Orwell imagined a future in which privacy was vanquished by a totalitarian state that used video surveillance, spies, and media to control the people. Has that time arrived? In this starkly real look at today's computer generation, Garfinkel's philosophy will appeal to anyone interested in protecting themselves and others from these threats.
"Synopsis" by , As the 21st century dawns, advances in technology endanger our privacy in ways never before imagined. Direct marketers and retailers track our every purchase; surveillance cameras observe our movements; mobile phones will soon report our location to those who want to track us; government eavesdroppers listen in on private communications; misused medical records turn our bodies and our histories against us; and linked databases assemble detailed consumer profiles used to predict and influence our behavior. Privacy — the most basic of our civil rights — is in grave peril.

Simson Garfinkel — journalist, entrepreneur, and international authority on computer security — has spent his career testing new technologies and warning about their implications. Database Nation is his compelling account of how invasive technologies will affect our lives in the coming years. It's a timely, far-reaching, entertaining, and thought-provoking look at the serious threats to privacy facing us today. The book poses a disturbing question: how can we protect our basic rights to privacy, identity, and autonomy when technology is making invasion and control easier than ever before?

Garfinkel's captivating blend of journalism, storytelling, and futurism is a call to arms. It will frighten, entertain, and ultimately convince us that we must take action now to protect our privacy and identity before it's too late.


Fifty years ago, in 1984, George Orwell imagined a future in which privacy was demolished by a totalitarian state that used spies, video surveillance, historical revisionism, and control over the media to maintain its power. Those who worry about personal privacy and identity--especially in this day of technologies that encroach upon these rights-- still use Orwell's Big Brother language to discuss privacy issues. But the reality is that the age of a monolithic Big Brother is over. And yet the threats are perhaps even more likely to destroy the rights we've assumed were ours.

Today's threats to privacy are more widely distributed than they were in Orwell's state, and they represent both public and private interests. Over the next fifty years, we'll see new kinds of threats to privacy that don't find their roots in totalitarianism but in capitalism, the free market, advances in technology, and the unbridled exchange of electronic information.

Today's Threats to Privacy

The End of Due Process. Governments and businesses went on a computer-buying spree in the second half of the 20th century, replacing billions of paper files with electronic data-processing systems. But the new computers lacked some very important qualities of the manual systems that they replaced: flexibility, compassion, and understanding. Today, humans often are completely absent from digital decision-making. As a result, we've created a world in which the smallest clerical errors can have devastating effects on a person's life. It's a world where comput- ers are assumed to be correct, and people wrong. The Fallibility of Biometrics. Fingerprints, iris scans, and genetic sequences are widely regarded as infallible techniques for identifying human beings. They are so good, in fact, that fifty years from now identification cards and passports will probably not exist. Instead, a global data network will allow anyone on the planet to be instantly identified from the unique markings of their own body. Will it be impossible for people to conceal their identity from the federal government, and if so, is that a good thing? What about concealing your identity from the local drug store? And who controls the databank, anyway? Would they ever need to create false identities? The Systematic Capture of Everyday Events. We are entering a new world in which every purchase we make, every place we travel, every word we say, and everything we read is routinely recorded and made available for later analysis. But while the technology exists to capture this data, we lack the wisdom to figure out how to treat it fairly and justly. Nevertheless, more and more raw data of every kind is being recorded every day, largely out of fear that if the information is thrown away, it might be needed at some point in the future. The result is an unprecedented amount of data surveillance, the effect of which we have just begun to grasp. The Bugging of the Outside World. Orwell thought that the ultimate threat to privacy would be the bugging of bedrooms and offices. Today, it's clear that an equally large threat to freedom is the systematic monitoring of public places. Right or wrong, we have come to expect privacy in public. Microphones, video cameras, and other remote sensing devices, combined with information processing technology, are taking that privacy away. The Misuse of Medical Records and the Perversion of Insurance. Traditionally, medical records have been society's most tightly-held personal records. The obligation to maintain patient confidentiality is widely regarded as one of the most basic responsibilities of medical professionals. But patient confidentiality is expensive and inefficient--two factors at odds with healthcare reform. Meanwhile, the core assumptions of healthcare insurance--pooled risk and shared costs--are under attack by companies who wish to insure only the healthy. Runaway Marketing. Junk mail, junk faxes, junk e-mail, and telemarketing calls during dinner are just the beginning of the 21st century's runaway marketing campaigns. Marketers increasingly will use personal information to create solicitations that are continual and virtually indistinguishable from news articles, personal letters, and other kinds of non-commercial communications. Where will we as a society draw the line between the right to free speech and the right to be free from intrusion? Will we ever be able to regulate marketers' attempts to convince people to do things that they wouldn't otherwise wish to do? Should we? The Commodific

"Synopsis" by , As the 21st century dawns, advances in technology endanger our privacy in ways never before imagined. Direct marketers and retailers track our every purchase; surveillance cameras observe our movements; mobile phones will soon report our location to those who want to track us; government eavesdroppers listen in on private communications; misused medical records turn our bodies and our histories against us; and linked databases assemble detailed consumer profiles used to predict and influence our behavior. Privacy--the most basic of our civil rights--is in grave peril. Simson Garfinkel--journalist, entrepreneur, and international authority on computer security--has spent his career testing new technologies and warning about their implications. Database Nation is his compelling account of how invasive technologies will affect our lives in the coming years. It's a timely, far-reaching, entertaining, and thought-provoking look at the serious threats to privacy facing us today. The book poses a disturbing question: how can we protect our basic rights to privacy, identity, and autonomy when technology is making invasion and control easier than ever before? Garfinkel's captivating blend of journalism, storytelling, and futurism is a call to arms. It will frighten, entertain, and ultimately convince us that we must take action now to protect our privacy and identity before it's too late.
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