John P. McKay
(Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) is professor emeritus at the University of Illinois. He has written or edited numerous works, including the Herbert Baxter Adams Prize-winning book Pioneers for Profit: Foreign Entrepreneurship and Russian Industrialization, 1885-1913
and Tramways and Trolleys: The Rise of Urban Mass Transport in Europe
Bennett D. Hill (Ph.D., Princeton), late of the University of Illinois, published English Cistercian Monasteries and Their Patrons in the Twelfth Century, Church and State in the Middle Ages, and numerous articles and reviews, and was one of the contributing editors to The Encyclopedia of World History. A Benedictine monk of St. Anselm's Abbey in Washington, D.C., he was also a visiting professor at Georgetown University.
John Buckler (Ph.D., Harvard University) taught history at the University of Illinois. His published books include Theban Hegemony, 371-362 B.C., Philip II and the Sacred War, and Aegean Greece in the Fourth Century B.C.. With Hans Beck, he most recently published Central Greece and the Politics of Power in the Fourth Century. Patricia B. Ebrey (Ph.D., Columbia University), Professor of History at the University of Washington in Seattle, specializes in China. She has published numerous journal articles and The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, as well as numerous monographs. In 2010 she won the Shimada Prize for outstanding work of East Asian Art History for Accumulating Culture: The Collections of Emperor Huizong. Roger B. Beck (Ph.D., Indiana University) is Distinguished Professor of African and twentieth-century world history at Eastern Illinois University. His publications include The History of South Africa, a translation of P. J. van der Merwe's The Migrant Farmer in the History of the Cape Colony, 1657-1842, and more than seventy-five articles, book chapters, and reviews. He is a former treasurer and Executive Council member of the World History Association. Clare Haru Crowston (Ph.D., Cornell University) teaches at the University of Illinois, where she is currently associate professor of history. She is the author of Fabricating Women: The Seamstresses of Old Regime France, 1675-1791, which won the Berkshire and Hagley Prizes. She edited two special issues of the Journal of Women's History, has published numerous journal articles and reviews, and is a past president of the Society for French Historical Studies.
Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison) taught first at Augustana College in Illinois, and since 1985 at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where she is currently UWM Distinguished Professor in the department of history. She is the coeditor of the Sixteenth Century Journal and the author or editor of more than twenty books, most recently The Marvelous Hairy Girls: The Gonzales Sisters and Their Worlds and Gender in History. She is the former Chief Reader for Advanced Placement World History.
Note: All chapters close with Connections and a Chapter Review section 1. The Earliest Human Societies, to 2500 b.c.e. Evolution and Migration Understanding the Early Human Past Hominid Evolution Homo Sapiens, "Thinking Humans" Migration and Differentiation Paleolithic Society, 250,000-9000 b.c.e. Foraging for Food Family and Kinship Relationships Cultural Creations and Spirituality The Development of Agriculture in the Neolithic Era, ca. 9000 b.c.e. The Development of Horticulture Animal Domestication and the Rise of Pastoralism Plow Agriculture Neolithic Society Social Hierarchies and Slavery Gender Hierarchies and Inheritance Trade and Cross-Cultural Connections Viewpoints Stone Age Houses in Chile and China Listening to the Past Paleolithic Venus Figures Individuals in Society The Iceman 2. The Rise of the State in Southwest Asia and the Nile Valley, 3200-500 b.c.e. Writing, Cities, and States Written Sources and the Human Past Cites and the Idea of Civilization The Rise of States, Laws, and Social Hierarchies Mesopotamia from Sumeria to Babylon Environmental Challenges, Irrigation, and Religion Sumerian Politics and Society The Invention of Writing and Other Intellectual Advances The Triumph of Babylon and the Spread of Mesopotamian Civilization Hammurabi's Code and Its Social Consequences The Egyptians and Their Pharaohs The Nile and the God-King Social Divisions and Work in Ancient Egypt Migrations and Political Revivals New Political and Economic Powers The Hebrews The Hebrew State The Jewish Religion The Family and Jewish Life The Assyrians and Persians Assyria, the Military Monarchy The Rise and Expansion of the Persian Empire The Religion of Zoroaster Listening to the Past Gilgamesh's Quest for Immortality Individuals in Society Hatshepsut and Nefertiti Global Trade Iron Viewpoints Rulers and Divine Favor: Cyrus the Great in the Cyrus Cylinder and Hebrew Scripture 3. The Foundation of Indian Society, to 300 c.e. The Land and Its First Settlers, ca. 3000-1500 b.c.e. The Aryans During the Vedic Age, ca. 1500-500 b.c.e. Aryan Dominance in North India Life in Early India Brahmanism India's Great Religions Jainism Siddhartha Gautama and Buddhism Hinduism Western Contact and the Mauryan Unification of North India, ca. 513-185 b.c.e. Encounters with the West Chandragupta and the Founding of the Mauryan Empire The Reign of Ashoka, ca. 269-232 b.c.e. Small States and Trading Networks, 185 b.c.e.-300 c.e. Listening to the Past Conversations Between Rama and Sita from the Ramayana Individuals in Society Gosala Viewpoints On Enemies from The Laws of Manu and The Arthashastra 4. China's Classical Age, to 221 b.c.e. The Emergence of Civilization in China The Impact of Geography Early Agricultural Societies of the Neolithic Age The Shang Dynasty, ca. 1500-1050 b.c.e. Shang Society Bronze Metalworking The Development of Writing The Early Zhou Dynasty, ca. 1050-400 b.c.e. Zhou Politics Life During the Zhou Dynasty The Warring States Period, 400-221 b.c.e. New Technologies for War The Victorious States Confucius and His Followers Confucius The Spread of Confucian Ideas Daoism, Legalism, and Other Schools of Thought Daoism Legalism Yin and Yang Individuals in Society Lord Mengchang Listening to the Past The Book of Mencius Viewpoints Mozi and Xunzi on Divine Response 5. The Greek Experience, 3500-100 b.c.e. Hellas: The Land and the Polis, ca. 3500-ca. 800 b.c.e. The Minoans and Mycenaeans The Development of the Polis Population and Politics in the Archaic Age, ca. 800-500 b.c.e. Greece's Overseas Expansion The Growth of Sparta The Evolution of Athens Thought and Culture in the Classical Period, 500-338 b.c.e. The Deadly Conflicts, 499-404 b.c.e. Athenian Arts in the Age of Pericles Daily Life and Social Conditions in Athens Greek Religion in the Classical Period The Flowering of Philosophy Hellenistic Society, 336-100 b.c.e. From Polis to Monarchy, 404-200 b.c.e. Building a Shared Society The Growth of Trade and Commerce Hellenistic Religion, Philosophy, and Science Religion in the Hellenistic World Philosophy and Its Guidance for Life Hellenistic Science and Medicine Viewpoints Two Opinions About Athenian Democracy Listening to the Past Aristotle, On the Family and On Slavery, from The Politics Individuals in Society Archimedes, Scientist and Inventor 6. The World of Rome, 750 b.c.e.-400 c.e. The Romans in Italy The Etruscans and Rome The Roman Conquest of Italy The Distribution of Power in the Roman Republic Social Conflict in Rome Roman Expansion and Its Repercussions Overseas Conquests and the Punic Wars, 264-133 b.c.e. New Influences and Old Values in Roman Culture The Late Republic and the Rise of Augustus, 133-27 b.c.e. The Successes of Augustus The Pax Romana Political and Military Changes in the Empire Life in Rome Prosperity in the Roman Provinces Eastward Expansion and Contacts Between Rome and China The Coming of Christianity Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity The Life and Teachings of Jesus The Spread of Christianity The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of Christianity Turmoil and Reform Diocletian's Reforms Economic Hardship and Its Consequences Constantine, Christianity, and the Rise of Constantinople Viewpoints On Roman Wives from a Tombstone Inscription and JuvenalÕs Sixth Satire Individuals in Society Queen Cleopatra Listening to the Past Cicero and the Plot to Kill Caesar Global Trade Pottery 7. East Asia and the Spread of Buddhism, 221 b.c.e.-800 c.e. The Age of Empire in China: The Qin and Han Dynasties The Qin Unification, 221-206 b.c.e. The Han Dynasty, 206 b.c.e.-220 c.e. Han Intellectual and Cultural Life Inner Asia and the Silk Road Life in Han China China and Rome The Fall of the Han and the Age of Division The Spread of Buddhism Out of India Buddhism's Path Through Central Asia The Appeal and Impact of Buddhism in China The Chinese Empire Re-created: Sui (581-618) and Tang (618-907) The Sui Dynasty, 581-618 The Tang Dynasty, 618-907 Tang Culture The East Asian Cultural Sphere Vietnam Korea Japan Global Trade Silk Individuals in Society The Ban Family Listening to the Past Sixth-Century Biographies of Buddhist Nuns Viewpoints Chinese and Japanese Principles of Good Government, ca. 650 8. Continuity and Change in Europe and Western Asia, 200-850 The Byzantine Empire Sources of Byzantine Strength The Sassanid Empire and Conflicts with Byzantium The Law Code of Justinian Byzantine Intellectual Life Life in Constantinople The Growth of the Christian Church The Evolution of Church Leadership and Orthodoxy The Western Church and the Eastern Church The Iconoclastic Controversy Christian Monasticism Christian Ideas and Practices Christian Beliefs and the Greco-Roman Tradition Saint Augustine Missionary Activity Conversion and Assimilation Migrating Peoples Social and Economic Structures Chiefs, Warriors, and Laws Migrations and Political Change The Frankish Kingdom Charlemagne Individuals in Society Theodora of Constantinople Viewpoints Roman and Byzantine Views of Barbarians Listening to the Past Gregory of Tours, The Conversion of Clovis 9. The Islamic World, 600-1400 The Origins of Islam Arabian Social and Economic Structure Muhammad's Rise As a Religious Leader The Tenets of Islam Islamic States and Their Expansion Islam's Spread Beyond Arabia Reasons for the Spread of Islam The Caliphate and the Split Between Shi'a and Sunni Alliances The Abbasid Caliphate Administration of the Islamic Territories Fragmentation and Military Challenges, 900-1400 Breakaway Territories and Shi'a Gains The Ascendancy of the Turks The Mongol Invasions Muslim Society: The Life of the People The Social Hierarchy Slavery Women in Classical Islamic Society Trade and Commerce Cultural Developments The Cultural Centers of Baghdad and Cordoba Education and Intellectual Life The Mystical Tradition of Sufism Muslim-Christian Encounters Viewpoints Jews in Muslim Lands Listening to the Past Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali, The Etiquette of Marriage Individuals in Society Ibn Battuta 10. African Societies and Kingdoms, 1000 b.c.e.-1500 c.e. The Land and Peoples of Africa Africa's Geographical and Human Diversity Egypt, Race, and Being African Early African Societies Settled Agriculture and Its Impact Bantu Migrations Life in the Kingdoms of the Western Sudan, ca. 1000 b.c.e.-800 c.e. The Trans-Saharan Trade The Berbers of North Africa Effects of Trade on West African Society The Spread of Islam in Africa African Kingdoms and Empires, ca. 800-1500 The Kingdom of Ghana, ca. 900-1100 The Kingdom of Mali, ca. 1200-1450 Ethiopia: The Christian Kingdom of Aksum The East African City-States Southern Africa and Great Zimbabwe Individuals in Society Amda Siyon Viewpoints Early Descriptions of Africa Listening to the Past A Tenth-Century Muslim Traveler Describes Parts of the East African Coast 11. The Americas, 2500 b.c.e.-1500 c.e. The First Peoples of the Americas Describing the Americas and Their Peoples Settling the Americas The Development of Agriculture Early Societies Mounds, Towns, and Trade in North and South America Olmec Agriculture, Technology, and Religion Classical Era Mesoamerica and North America, 300-900 c.e. Maya Agriculture and Trade Maya Science and Religion Growth and Assimilation of the Teotihuacan and Toltec Cultures Hohokam, Hopewell, and Mississippian Societies The Aztecs Religion and War in Aztec Society Social Distinctions Among the Aztecs The City of Tenochtitlan The Incas Earlier Peruvian Cultures Inca Imperialism and Its Religious Basis The Clan-Based Structure of Inca Society Viewpoints Creation in the Popul Vuh and in Okanogan Tradition Individuals in Society TlacaŽlel Listening to the Past Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, The First New Chronicle and Good Government 12. Cultural Exchange in Central and Southern Asia, to 1400 Central Asian Nomads Nomadic Society The Turks The Mongols Mongol Daily Life Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Empire The Chinggis Kahn Chinggis's Successors The Mongols as Rulers East-West Communication During the Mongol Era The Movement of Peoples The Spread of Disease, Goods, and Ideas India, Islam, and the Development of Regional Cultures, 300-1400 The Gupta Empire, ca. 320-480 India's Medieval Age and the First Encounter with Islam The Delhi Sultanate Life in Medieval India Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Growth of Maritime Trade State Formation and Indian Influences The Srivijaya Maritime Trade Empire The Spread of Indian Culture in Comparative Perspective The Settlement of the Pacific Islands Listening to the Past The Abduction of Women in The Secret History of the Mongols Viewpoints Chinese Accounts About the Mongol Army Individuals in Society Bhaskara the Teacher Global Trade Spices 13. States and Cultures in East Asia, 800-1400 The Medieval Chinese Economic Revolution, 800-1100 China During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, 960-1368 The Song Dynasty The Scholar-Officials and Neo-Confucianism Women's Lives in Song Times China Under Mongol Rule Korea Under the Koryo Dynasty, 935-1392 Japan's Heian Period, 794-1185 Fujiwara Rule Aristocratic Culture The Samurai and the Kamakura Shogunate, 1185-1333 Military Rule Cultural Trends Global Trade Tea Individuals in Society Shen Gua Viewpoints Zhu Xi and Yuan Cai on Family Management Listening to the Past The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon 14. Europe in the Middle Ages, 800-1450 Political Developments Invasions and Migrations Feudalism and Manorialism The Restoration of Order Law and Justice The Christian Church Papal Reforms Monastic Life Popular Religion The Expansion of Christianity The Crusades Background and Motives The Course of the Crusades Consequences of the Crusades The Life of the People The Life and Work of Peasants The Life and Work of Nobles Towns, Cities, and the Growth of Commercial Interests The Expansion of Trade and the Commercial Revolution Learning and Culture Universities and Scholasticism Cathedrals and a New Architectural Style Troubadour Poetry Crises of the Later Middle Ages The Great Famine and the Black Death The Hundred Years' War Challenges to the Church Peasant and Urban Revolts Individuals in Society Hildegard of Bingen Listening to the Past An Arab View of the Crusades Viewpoints Italian and English Views of the Plague 15. Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation, 1350-1600 Renaissance Culture Wealth and Power in Renaissance Italy The Rise of Humanism Christian Humanism Printing and Its Social Impact Art and the Artist Social Hierarchies Race and Slavery Wealth and the Nobility Gender Roles Politics and the State in the Renaissance, ca. 1450-1521 France England Spain The Habsburgs The Protestant Reformation Criticism of the Church Martin Luther Protestant Thought and Its Appeal The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants' War Marriage and Women's Roles The Reformation and German Politics England's Shift Toward Protestantism Calvinism and Its Moral Standards The Catholic Reformation Papal Reforms and the Council of Trent New Religious Orders Religious Violence French Religious Wars Civil Wars in the Netherlands The Great European Witch-Hunt Viewpoints Lauro Quirini and Cassandra Fedele: Women and Humanist Learning Individuals in Society Leonardo da Vinci Listening to the Past Martin Luther, On Christian Liberty 16. The Acceleration of Global Contact, 1450-1600 The Afroeurasian Trade World Before Columbus The Trade World of the Indian Ocean Peoples and Cultures of the Indian Ocean Trade with Africa and the Middle East Genoese and Venetian Middlemen The European Voyages of Discovery Causes of European Expansion Technology and the Rise of Exploration The Expanding Portuguese Empire Christopher Columbus's Voyages to the Americas Later Explorers Spanish Conquest in the New World The Impact of Conquest Colonial Administration The Impact of European Settlement on the Lives of Indigenous Peoples The Columbian Exchange Sugar and Early Transatlantic Slavery The Birth of the Global Economy Changing Values and Beliefs New Ideas About Race Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity William Shakespeare and His Influence Religious Conversion in the New World Individuals in Society Zheng HeListening to the Past Columbus Describes His First Voyage Global Trade Silver Viewpoints Christian Conversion in New Spain 17. European Power and Expansion, 1500-1750 Seventeenth-Century Crisis and Rebuilding Crises Among Peasants and the Urban Poor The Return of Serfdom in Eastern Europe The Thirty Years' War Achievements in State Building Absolutism in France and Spain The Foundations of Absolutism Louis XIV and Absolutism Life at Versailles French Finances Louis XIV's Wars The Decline of Absolutist Spain Absolutism in Austria, Prussia, and Russia The Austrian Habsburgs Prussia in the Seventeenth Century The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow The Tsar and His People The Reforms of Peter the Great Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic Absolutist Claims in England Religious Divides and Civil War The Puritan Protectorate Restoration of the English Monarchy Constitutional Monarchy The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century Colonialism in the Americas Colonial Expansion of Northern European Powers Mercantilism and Colonial Wars Life in the Colonies Listening to the Past A German Account of Russian Life Viewpoints The Debate over the Extent of Royal Power in England Individuals in Society Gluckel of Hameln 18. New Worldviews and Ways of Life, 1540-1790 The Scientific Revolution Scientific Thought Through the Early 1500s Origins of the Scientific Revolution Copernican Hypothesis Proving Copernicus Right Newton's Synthesis Bacon, Descartes, and the Scientific Method Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry Science and Society The Enlightenment The Emergence of the Enlightenment The Influence of the Philosophes Enlightenment Across Europe Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere Late Enlightenment Enlightened Absolutism Reforms in Prussia, Russia, and Austria Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism The Growth of Consumerism and the Atlantic World A Revolution in Consumption and Daily Life The Atlantic Economy Identities and Communities of the Atlantic World Race and the Enlightenment Individuals in Society Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment Viewpoints Malachy Postlethwayt and Olaudah Equiano on the Abolition of Slavery Listening to the Past Denis Diderot's "Supplement to Bougainville's Voyage" 19. Africa and the World, 1400-1800 West Africa in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries The West Coast: Senegambia and Benin The Sudan: Songhai, Kanem-Bornu, and Hausaland The Lives of the People of West Africa Trade and Industry Cross-Cultural Encounters Along the East African Coast Muslim and European Incursions in Ethiopia, ca. 1500-1630 The Swahili City-States and the Arrival of the Portuguese, ca. 1500-1600 The African Slave Trade The Institution of Slavery in Africa The Transatlantic Slave Trade Impact on African Societies Viewpoints European Descriptions of Timbuktu and Jenne Listening to the Past Duarte Barbosa on the Swahili City-States Global Trade Slaves Individuals in Society Olaudah Equiano 20. The Islamic World Powers, 1300-1800 The Turkish Ruling Houses: The Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals The Ottoman Turkish Empire's Expansion The Ottoman Empire's Use of Slaves The Safavid Empire in Persia The Mughal Empire in India Cultural Flowering The Arts City and Palace Building Gardens Intellectual Advances and Religious Trends Coffeehouses and Their Social Impact Non-Muslims Under Muslim Rule Shifting Trade Routes and European Penetration European Rivalry for Trade in the Indian Ocean Merchant Networks in the Islamic Empires From the British East India Company to the British Empire in India Political Decline Individuals in Society Hurrem Viewpoints Ottoman Travelers in Mughal and Safavid Lands Listening to the Past Katib Chelebi on Tobacco 21. Continuity and Change in East Asia, 1400-1800 Ming China, 1368Ð1644 The Rise of Zhu Yuanzhang and the Founding of the Ming Dynasty Problems with the Imperial Institution The Mongols and the Great Wall The Examination Life Everyday Life in Ming China Ming Decline The Manchus and Qing China, to 1800 The Rise of the Manchus Competent and Long-Lived Emperors Imperial Expansion Japan's Middle Ages, ca. 1400-1600 Muromachi Culture Civil War The Victors: Nobunaga and Hideyoshi The Tokugawa Shogunate, to 1800 Tokugawa Government Commercialization and the Growth of Towns The Life of the People in the Edo Period Maritime Trade, Piracy, and the Entry of Europe into the Asian Maritime Sphere Zheng He's Voyages Piracy and Japan's Overseas Adventures Europeans Enter the Scene Christian Missionaries Learning from the West The Shifting International Environment in the Eighteenth Century Individuals in Society Tan Yunxian, Woman Doctor Viewpoints Chinese and Japanese Financial Advice Listening to the Past Keinen's Poetic Diary of the Korea Campaign 22. Revolutions in the Atlantic World, 1775-1815 Background to Revolution Social Change Growing Demands for Liberty and Equality The Seven Years' War The American Revolutionary Era, 1775-1789 The Origins of the Revolution Independence from Britain Framing the Constitution Revolution in France, 1789-1791 Breakdown of the Old Order The Formation of the National Assembly Popular Uprising and the Rights of Man A Constitutional Monarchy and Its Challenges World War and Republican France, 1791-1799 The International Response The Second Revolution and the New Republic Total War and the Terror The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory Napoleon's Europe, 1799-1815 Napoleon's Rule of France Napoleon's Expansion in Europe The Grand Empire and Its End The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804 Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue The Outbreak of Revolt The War of Haitian Independence Listening to the Past Abbe de Sieyes, "What Is the Third Estate?"Viewpoints The Question of Jewish Citizenship in France Individuals in Society Toussaint L'Ouverture 23. The Revolution in Energy and Industry, 1760-1850 The Industrial Revolution in Britain Origins of the British Industrial Revolution The First Factories The Steam Engine Breakthrough The Coming of the Railroads Industry and Population Industrialization Beyond Britain National and International Variations The Challenge of Industrialization in Continental Europe Agents of Industrialization Government Support and Corporate Banking The Situation Outside of Europe Relations Between Capital and Labor The New Class of Factory Owners The New Factory Workers Work in Early Factories Working Families and Children The Sexual Division of Labor The Early Labor Movement in Britain The Impact of Slavery Individuals in Society Josiah Wedgwood Viewpoints Women's Role in Industrialized Europe Listening to the Past The Testimony of Young Mine Workers 24. Ideologies of Change in Europe, 1815-1914 A Conservative Peace Gives Way to Radical Ideas The European Balance of Power Coerced Conservatism after 1815 Liberalism and the Middle Class The Growing Appeal of Nationalism The Birth of Socialism Reforms and Revolutions, 1815-1850 Liberal Reform in Great Britain Revolutions in France The Revolutions of 1848 in Central Europe Nation Building in Italy, Germany, and Russia Cavour, Garibaldi, and the Unification of Italy Bismarck and German Unification The Modernization of Russia Life in the Emerging Urban Society Taming the City New Social Hierarchies and the Middle Classes The People and Occupations of the Working Classes The Changing Family Science for the Masses Cultural Shifts Nationalism and Socialism, 1871-1914 Trends in Suffrage The German Empire Republican France Great Britain and the Austro-Hungarian Empire Jewish Emancipation and Modern Anti-Semitism The Socialist Movement Individuals in Society Giuseppe Garibaldi Listening to the Past Mrs. Beeton's Guide for Running a Victorian Household Viewpoints Socialist and Anti-Socialist Perspectives 25. Africa, Southwest Asia, and the New Imperialism, 1800-1914 Africa: From the Slave Trade to European Colonial Rule Trade and Social Change Islamic Revival and Expansion in Africa The Scramble for Africa, 1880-1914 Southern Africa in the Nineteenth Century Colonialism's Impact After 1900 The New Imperialism, 1880-1914 Causes of the New Imperialism A "Civilizing Mission" Critics of Imperialism African and Asian Resistance The Islamic Heartland Under Pressure Decline and Reform in the Ottoman Empire Egypt: From Reform to British Occupation The Expanding World Economy The Rise of Global Inequality The World Market The Great Global Migration Viewpoints The Congo Free State Listening to the Past A French Leader Defends Imperialism Individuals in Society Muhammad Ali Global Trade Indigo 26. Asia in the Era of Imperialism, 1800-1914 India and the British Empire in Asia The Evolution of British Rule The Socioeconomic Effects of British Rule The British and the Indian Educated Elite Competition for Southeast Asia The Dutch East Indies Mainland Southeast Asia The Philippines China Under Pressure The Opium War Internal Problems The Self-Strengthening Movement Republican Revolution Japan's Rapid Transformation The "Opening" of Japan The Meiji Restoration Industrialization Japan as an Imperial Power The Movement of Peoples Westerners to Asia Asian Emigration The Countries of Asia in Comparative Perspective Viewpoints Rammohun Roy and Thomas Babington Macauley on Education for Indians Individuals in Society Jose Rizal Listening to the Past Fukuzawa Yukichi, Escape from Asia 27. Nation Building in the Americas and Australia, 1770-1914 Latin America, 1800-1914 The Origins of the Revolutions Against Colonial Powers Resistance, Rebellion, and Independence The Aftermath of Independence Neocolonialism and Its Socioeconomic Effects The Impact of Immigrants from Europe, Asia, and the Middle East The United States, 1789-1914 Manifest Destiny and Its Consequences for Native American Women's Roles in White Settlements Black Slavery in the South The Civil War and Its Impact Industrialization and the Formation of Large Corporations Immigrants and Their Reception Canada, from French Colony to Nation Australia, from Penal Colony to Nation A Distant Land Turned Penal Colony An Economy Built on Wool, Gold, and Immigrant Labor The Shaping of a Government and a National Identity The New Countries from a Comparative Perspective Viewpoints Mexican and American Perspectives on the U.S.-Mexican War Listening to the Past Mary Seacole on Her Early Life Individuals in Society Henry Meiggs, Promoter and Speculator 28. World War and Revolution, 1914-1929 The First World War, 1914-1918 The Bismarckian System of Alliances The Outbreak of War Stalemate and Slaughter The War Becomes Global The Home Front Mobilizing for Total War The Social Impact Growing Political Tensions The Russian Revolution The Fall of Imperial Russia The Provisional Government Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution Dictatorship and Civil War The War's Consequences The End of the War The Treaty of Versailles American Rejection of the Versailles Treaty The Search for Peace and Political Stability, 1919-1929 Germany and the Western Powers Hope in Foreign Affairs Hope in Democratic Government The Age of Anxiety Uncertainty in Philosophy and Religion The New Physics Freudian Psychology Twentieth-Century Literature Modern Architecture, Art, and Music Movies and Radio Viewpoints Poetry of the Great War Listening to the Past The Experience of War Individuals in Society Vera Brittain 29. Nationalism in Asia, 1914-1939 The First World War's Impact on Nationalist Trends Asian Reaction to the War in Europe The Mandates System Nationalism's Appeal Nationalist Movements in the Middle East The Arab Revolt The Turkish Revolution Modernization Efforts in Persia and Afghanistan Gradual Independence in the Arab States Arab-Jewish Tensions in Palestine Toward Self-Rule in India British Promises and Repression The Roots of Militant Nonviolence Gandhi's Resistance Campaign in India Nationalist Struggles in East and Southeast Asia The Rise of Nationalist China China's Intellectual Revolution From Liberalism to Ultranationalism in Japan Japan Against China Striving for Independence in Southeast Asia Listening to the Past Resolution of the General Syrian Congress at Damascus Viewpoints Gandhi and Mao on Revolutionary Means Individuals in Society Ning Lao, a Chinese Working Woman 30. The Great Depression and World War II, 1929-1945 The Great Depression, 1929-1939 The Economic Crisis Mass Unemployment The New Deal in the United States The European Response to the Depression Worldwide Effects Authoritarian States Conservative Authoritarianism Radical Totalitarian Dictatorships Stalin's Soviet Union From Lenin to Stalin The Five-Year Plans Life and Culture in Soviet Society Stalinist Terror and the Great Purges Mussolini and Fascism in Italy The Seizure of Power The Regime in Action Hitler and Nazism in Germany The Roots of Nazism Hitler's Road to Power The Nazi State and Society Hitler's Popularity Aggression and Appeasement, 1933-1939 The Second World War, 1939-1945 Hitler's Empire in Europe, 1939-1942 The Holocaust Japan's Asian Empire The Grand Alliance The War in Europe, 1942-1945 The War in the Pacific, 1942-1945 Viewpoints Hitler, Mussolini, and the Great War Individuals in Society Primo Levi Listening to the Past Ultranationalist Pamphlet for Japanese Students 31. Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers, 1945 to the Present The Division of Europe The Origins of the Cold War West Versus East Renaissance and Crisis in Western Europe The Postwar Challenge Building Europe and Decolonization The Changing Class Structure and Social Reform Economic and Social Dislocation, 1970-1990 Recovery and Reform in Soviet Eastern Europe, 1945-1991 Stalin's Last Years Limited De-Stalinization and Stagnation The Impact of Reform on Everyday Life The Gorbachev Era The Revolutions of 1989 The End of the Cold War and Soviet Disintegration The United States: Confrontation and Transformation America's Economic Boom and Civil Rights Revolution Youth and the Counterculture The Vietnam War Detente and a Return to Cold War Tensions Japan's Resurgence as a World Power Japan's American Revolution "Japan, Inc." Japan in the PostÐCold War World The Post-Cold War Era in Europe Common Patterns and Problems Recasting Russia Without Communism Postcommunist Reconstruction in Eastern Europe Unity and Identity in Western Europe Viewpoints The Cold War Begins Global Trade Oil Listening to the Past A Solidarity Leader Speaks from Prison Individuals in Society Vaclav Havel 32. Independence, Progress, and Conflict in Asia and the Middle East, 1945 to the Present The Resurgence of East Asia The Communist Victory in China Mao's China The Limits of Reform The Asian "Economic Tigers" Political and Economic Progress in Southeast Asia The Reunification of Vietnam New Nations and Old Rivalries in South Asia The End of British India Pakistan and the Creation of Bangladesh India Since Independence Secularism and Religion at War in the Middle East The Arab-Israeli Conflict The Palestinian Quest for Independence Egypt: Arab World Leader A Fractured Lebanon Challenges to Turkey's Secularism Revolution and War in Iran and Iraq Individuals in Society Liu Xiaobo Listening to the Past Aung San Suu Kyi, "Freedom from Fear" Viewpoints Ho Chi Minh, Lyndon Johnson, and the Vietnam War 33. The Global South: Latin America and Africa, 1945 to the Present Latin America: Moving Toward Democracy Economic Nationalism in Mexico and Brazil Communist Revolution in Cuba From Authoritarianism to Democracy in Latin America PanÐLatin American Unity Nationalism in Sub-Saharan Africa The Growth of African Nationalism Achieving Independence with New Leaders Ghana Shows the Way French-Speaking Regions Sub-Saharan Africa Since 1960 Striving for National Unity Nigeria, Africa's Giant The Struggle in Southern Africa Political Reform in Africa Since 1990 Interpreting the Experiences of the Emerging World Individuals in Society Evita Peron Viewpoints Ghanaian and South African Leaders on Black Nationalism Listening to the Past Nelson Mandela, The Struggle for Freedom in South Africa 34. A New Era in World History Global Unity or Continued Division? The United Nations Preemptive War in Iraq Complexity and Violence in a Multipolar World The Terrorist Threat Weapons of Mass Destruction Global Interdependence Multinational Corporations Industrialization and Modernization Agriculture and the Green Revolution The Economics and Politics of Globalization The Growth of Cities Rapid Urbanization Overcrowding and Shantytowns Rich and Poor Urban Migration and the Family Urbanization and Agriculture Science and Technology: Changes and Challenges The Medical Revolution Population Change: Balancing the Numbers Global Epidemics Environmentalism Mass Communication Social Reform and Progress Women: The Right to Equality Children: The Right to Childhood Listening to the Past The United Nations Millennium Project Report Viewpoints George W. Bush, Osama bin Laden, and the 9/11 Attacks Global Trade Arms Individuals in Society The Dalai Lama Index Timeline A History of World Societies: An Overview