Synopses & Reviews
Rapid thermal and integrated processing is an emerging single-wafer technology in ULSI semiconductor manufacturing, electrical engineering, applied physics and materials science. Here, the physics and engineering of this technology are discussed at the graduate level. Three interrelated areas are covered. First, the thermophysics of photon-induced annealing of semiconductor and related materials, including fundamental pyrometry and emissivity issues, the modelling of reactor designs and processes, and their relation to temperature uniformity. Second, process integration, treating the advances in basic equipment design, scale-up, integrated cluster-tool equipment, including wafer cleaning and integrated processing. Third, the deposition and processing of thin epitaxial, dielectric and metal films, covering selective deposition and epitaxy, integrated processing of layer stacks, and new areas of potential application, such as the processing of III-V semiconductor structures and thin- film head processing for high-density magnetic data storage.
Table of Contents
Introduction: History and Perspectives of Rapid Thermal Processing; F. Roozeboom. 2.
The Thermal Radiative Properties of Semiconductors; P.J. Timans. 3.
Wafer Temperature Measurement in RTP; C. Schietinger. 4.
Wafer Emissivity in RTP; C. Schietinger. 5.
Temperature and Process Control in Rapid Thermal Processing; J.-M. Dilhac. 6.
Single-Wafer Process Integration and Process Control Techniques; M.M. Moslehi, et al. 7.
Rapid Thermal O2
-Oxidation and N2
-Oxynitridation; M.L. Green. 8.
Integrated Pre-Gate Dielectric Cleaning and Surface Preparation; Y. Ma, M.L. Green. 9.
Dielectric Photoformation on Si and SiGe; I.W. Boyd. 10.
Modeling Strategies for Rapid Thermal Processing: Finite Element and Monte Carlo Methods; K.F Jensen, et al. 11.
Modeling Approaches for Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition: Combining Transport Phenomena with Chemical Kinetics; K.F. Jensen, et al. 12.
Silicidation and Metallization Issues Using Rapid Thermal Processing; K. Maex. 13.
Rapid Thermal Multiprocessing for a Programmable Factory for Manufacturing of ICs; K.C. Saraswat. 14.
RTCVD Integrated Processing for Photovoltaic Application; E. Conrad, et al. 15.
Equipment Design, Cluster Tools and Scale-up Issues; L. Deutschmann, et al. 16.
Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapour Deposition of Epitaxial Si and SiGe: Low Temperature Epitaxy in Production; W.B. de Boer. 17.
The Evolving Role of Rapid Thermal Processing for Deep Submicron Devices; B. Lojek. 18.
Rapid Thermal Processing of Contacts and Buffer Layers for Compound Semiconductor Device Technology; A. Christou, et al. 19.
Rapid Thermal Processing of Magnetic Thin Films for Data Storage Devices; F. Roozeboom.
Appendix. Subject Index.