Synopses & Reviews
For over 25 years, primatologists have speculated that intelligence, at least in monkeys and apes, evolved as an adaptation to the complicated social milieu of hard-won friendships and bitterlycontested rivalries. Yet the Balkanization of animal research has prevented us from studying the same problem in other large-brained, long-lived animals, such as hyenas and elephants, bats and sperm whales. Social complexity turns outto be widespread indeed. For example, in many animal societies one individual's innovation, such as tool use or a hunting technique, may spread within the group, thus creating a distinct culture. As this collection of studies on a widerange of species shows, animals develop a great variety of traditions, which in turn affect fitness and survival.
The editors argue that future research into complex animal societies and intelligencewill change the perception of animals as gene machines, programmed to act in particular ways and perhaps elevate them to a status much closer to our own. At a time when humans are perceived more biologically than ever before, andanimals as more cultural, are we about to witness the dawn of a truly unified social science, one with a distinctly cross-specific perspective?
This book...is the latest contribution to the debate over what animals understand about their social environments and how this influences their behavior and organisation. It comprises 18 papers and several casestudies by 52 prominent scientists or promising young researchers. The topics covered range from life history and cognitive evolution in primates, laughter and smiling in mammals, and vocal communication in wild parrots, to questions ofemotional recognition in chimpanzees and the possibility of culture in killer whales. The volume's most notable contribution is that it brings together a collection of studies on a wide range of species and topics in an effort toprovide the groundwork for future synthetic work on the organising principles underlying complex animal societies...Credit is due to De Waal and Tyack for putting together this book...It should be of interest to anyone curious aboutanimal behavior.
This book...is the latest contribution to the debate over what animalsunderstand about their social environments and how this influences their behavior andorganisation. It comprises 18 papers and several case studies by 52 prominent scientists orpromising young researchers. The topics covered range from life history and cognitive evolutionin primates, laughter and smiling in mammals, and vocal communication in wild parrots, toquestions of emotional recognition in chimpanzees and the possibility of culture in killerwhales. The volume's most notable contribution is that it brings together a collection ofstudies on a wide range of species and topics in an effort to provide the groundwork for futuresynthetic work on the organising principles underlying complex animal societies...Credit is dueto De Waal and Tyack for putting together this book...It should be of interest to anyone curiousabout animal behavior.
This excellent collection is the outcome of a conference held in 2000 under the auspices of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. Judging by the published results, the conference itself must have been a rich occasion. Itmust be a rare gathering that draws together for any purpose behavioural scientists specializing in such vastly different animal groups...In this case, the exercise brings a remarkably wide comparative perspective to bear on animalsocial complexity. Consequently, the reader is given a wealth of fine descriptive detail, but is also encouraged to step back from the detail and reflect in broader evolutionary terms on the relationship between intelligence, culture,and the cognitive demands of social relationships in individualized societies.
[An] interesting and readable study, Cuban notes other innovations that were to have transformed American education: film, radio, and TV.
About the Author
Frans B. M. de Waal
is C. H. Candler Professor of Primate Behavior in the Psychology Department and Director of <>LivingLinks, part of the Yerkes Primate Center, <>Emory University.Peter L. Tyack
is Senior Scientist, <>Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.<>William McGrew
is Professor of Anthropology and Zoology at Miami University (Ohio)
.Carel van Schaik
is Professor and Director of the Anthropological Institute and Museum, <>University ofZanduuml;rich.
Table of Contents
Part I. Life History and Brain Evolution
1. Life History and Cognitive Evolutionin Primates
Carel P. van Schaik and Robert O. Deaner
Case Study 1A. Sociality and Disease Risk: A Comparative Study of Leukocyte Counts inPrimates
Charles L. Nunn
2. Dolphin Social Complexity: Lessons from Long-Term Study and Life History
Randall S. Wells
3. Sources of Social Complexity in the Three Elephant Species
Part II. Evolution of Cooperative Strategies
4. Complex Cooperation among Ta Chimpanzees
Case Study 4A. Coalitionary Aggression in White-Faced Capuchins
Case Study 4B. Levels and Patterns in Dolphin Alliance Formation
Richard C. Connor and MichaelKranduuml;tzen
5. The Social Complexity of Spotted Hyenas
Christine M. Drea and Laurence G. Frank
Case Study 5A. Maternal Rank "Inheritance" in the Spotted Hyena
Anne Engh and Kay E. Holekamp
6. Is SocialStress a Consequence of Subordination or a Cost of Dominance?
Scott Creel and Jennifer L. Sands
Case Study 6A. Sperm Whale Social Structure:Why It Takes a Village to Raise a Child
Sarah L. Mesnick, Karen Evans, Barbara L. Taylor, John Hyde, Sergio Escorza-Treviandntilde;o, and Andrew E. Dizon
Part III. Social Cognition
7. Equivalence Classification as an Approach to Social Knowledge: From Sea Lions to Simians
Ronald J. Schusterman, Colleen Reichmuth Kastak, and David Kastak
8. The Structure of Social Knowledge in Monkeys
Robert M. Seyfarth and Dorothy L. Cheney
9. Social Syntax: The If-Then Structure of Social Problem Solving
Frans B.M. de Waal
Case Study 9A. Conflict Resolution in the Spotted Hyena
Sofia A. Wahaj and Kay E. Holekamp
Part IV. Communication
10. Laughter and Smiling: The Intertwining of Nature and Culture
JanA. R. A. M. van Hooff and Signe Preuschoft
Case Study 10A. Emotional Recognition by Chimpanzees
Lisa A. Parr
11. Vocal Communication in Wild Parrots
Jack W. Bradbury
Case Study 11A. Representational Vocal Signaling in theChimpanzee
Karen I. Hallberg, Douglas A. Nelson, and Sarah T. Boysen
12. Social and Vocal Complexity in Bats
Gerald S. Wilkinson
13. Dolphins Communicate about Individual-Specific Social Relationships
Case Study 13A. Natural Semanticity in Wild Primates
Part V. Cultural Transmission
14. Koshima Monkeys and Bossou Chimpanzees: Long-Term Research on Culture in NonhumanPrimates
Case Study 14A. Movement Imitation in Monkeys
Bernhard Voelkl and LudwigHuber
15. Individuality and Flexibility of Cultural Behavior Patterns in Chimpanzees
Case Study 15A. Sex Differences in Termite Fishing among Gombe Chimpanzees
Stephanie S. Pandolfi, Carel P. van Schaik, and Anne E. Pusey
16. Ten Dispatches from the Chimpanzee Culture Wars
W. C. McGrew
Case Study 16A. Spontaneous Use of Tools bySemifree-ranging Capuchin Monkeys
Eduardo B. Ottoni and Massimo Mannu
17. Society and Culture in the Deep and Open Ocean: The Sperm Whale andOther Cetaceans
Case Study 17A. Do Killer Whales Have Culture?
18. Discovering Culture in Birds: The Role of Learning and Development
Meredith J. West, Andrew P. King, and David J.White