Professor James Coakley received his degrees in Physics: B.S. (1968) UCLA, and MA (1970) and PhD (1972) Berkeley. He entered the atmospheric sciences in 1972 as a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Advanced Study Program at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and stayed at NCAR in various staff scientist positions until moving to Oregon State University in 1988 where he is currently a Professor of Atmospheric Sciences in the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences. His research focuses on the problem of climate change and in particular on the remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties from satellites, and the effects of aerosols and clouds on the Earth's energy budget and climate. Dr. Coakley is a Fellow of the American Meteorological Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has served on editorial advisory board for Tellus, as an Associate Editor for the Journal of Geophysical Research, and as Editor for the Journal of Climate. He has also served on various panels for the National Research Council and as a member for two of the Council's standing committees: Meteorological Analysis, Prediction, and Research and Climate Research.
Professor Ping Yang received the B.S. (theoretical physics) and M.S. (atmospheric physics) degrees from Lanzhou, China, in 1985 and 1988, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in meteorology from the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA, in 1995. He is currently a professor and the holder of the David Bullock Harris Chair in Geosciences, the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA. His research interests cover the areas of remote sensing and radiative transfer. He has been actively conducting research in the modeling of the optical and radiative properties of clouds and aerosols, in particular, cirrus clouds, and their applications to space-borne and ground-based remote sensing. He has co-authored more than 160 peer-reviewed publications. He received a best paper award from the Climate and Radiation Branch, NASA Goddard Space Center in 2000, the U.S. National Science Foundation CAREER award in 2003, and the Dean's Distinguished Achievement Award for Faculty Research, College of Geosciences, Texas A&M University in 2004. He is a member of the MODIS Science Team and. He currently serves as an associate editor for the Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer, and the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology.
Preface IX
1 The Earth’s Energy Budget and Climate Change 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Radiative Heating of the Atmosphere 2
1.3 Global Energy Budget 3
1.4 TheWindow-Gray Approximation and the Greenhouse Effect 6
1.5 Climate Sensitivity and Climate Feedbacks 8
1.6 Radiative Time Constant 12
1.7 Composition of the Earth’s Atmosphere 14
1.8 Radiation and the Earth’s Mean Temperature Profile 19
1.9 The Spatial Distribution of Radiative Heating and Circulation 32
1.10 Summary and Outlook 35
References 39
2 Radiation and Its Sources 41
2.1 Light as an ElectromagneticWave 41
2.2 Radiation from an Oscillating Dipole, Radiance, and Radiative Flux 42
2.3 Radiometry 47
2.4 Blackbody Radiation: Light as a Photon 50
2.5 Incident Sunlight 57
References 63
3 Transfer of Radiation in the Earth’s Atmosphere 65
3.1 Cross Sections 65
3.2 Scattering Cross Section and Scattering Phase Function 68
3.3 Elementary Principles of Light Scattering 71
3.4 Equation of Radiative Transfer 77
3.5 Radiative Transfer Equations for Solar and Terrestrial Radiation 80
References 82
4 Solutions to the Equation of Radiative Transfer 85
4.1 Introduction 85
4.2 Formal Solution to the Equation of Radiative Transfer 86
4.3 Solution for Thermal Emission 88
4.4 Infrared Fluxes and Heating Rates 93
4.5 Formal Solution for Scattering and Absorption 102
4.6 Single Scattering Approximation 103
4.7 Fourier Decomposition of the Radiative Transfer Equation 110
4.8 The Legendre Series Representation and the Eddington Approximation 112
4.9 Adding Layers in the Eddington Approximation 121
4.10 Adding a Surface with a Nonzero Albedo in the Eddington Approximation 123
4.11 Clouds in theThermal Infrared 124
4.12 Optional Separation of Direct and Diffuse Radiances 126
4.13 Optional Separating the Diffusely Scattered Light from the Direct Beam in the Eddington and Two-Stream Approximations 127
4.14 Optional The 𝛿-Eddington Approximation 130
4.15 Optional The Discrete OrdinateMethod and DISORT 135
4.16 Optional Adding-DoublingMethod 138
4.17 Optional Monte Carlo Simulations 140
References 146
5 Treatment of Molecular Absorption in the Atmosphere 149
5.1 Spectrally Averaged Transmissions 149
5.2 Molecular Absorption Spectra 151
5.3 Positions and Strengths of Absorption Lines within Vibration-Rotation Bands 155
5.4 Shapes of Absorption Lines 159
5.5 Doppler Broadening and the Voigt Line Shape 162
5.6 Average Absorptivity for a Single, Weak Absorption Line 163
5.7 Average Absorptivity for a Single, Strong, Pressure-Broadened Absorption Line 164
5.8 Treatment of Inhomogeneous Atmospheric Paths 166
5.9 Average Transmissivities for Bands of Nonoverlapping Absorption Lines 169
5.10 Approximate Treatments of Average Transmissivities for Overlapping Lines 171
5.11 Exponential Sum-Fit and Correlated k-Distribution Methods 177
5.12 Treatment of Overlapping Molecular Absorption Bands 182
References 184
6 Absorption of Solar Radiation by the Earth’s Atmosphere and Surface 185
6.1 Introduction 185
6.2 Absorption of UV and Visible Sunlight by Ozone 186
6.3 Absorption of Sunlight byWater Vapor 191
References 201
7 Simplified Estimates of Emission 203
7.1 Introduction 203
7.2 Emission in the 15 μmBand of CO2 203
7.3 Change in Emitted Flux due to Doubling of CO2 209
7.4 Changes in Stratospheric Emission and Temperature Caused by a Doubling of CO2 213
7.5 Afterthoughts 215
References 217
Appendix A Useful Physical and Geophysical Constants 219
Appendix B Solving Differential Equations 221
B.1 Simple Integration 221
B.2 Integration Factor 221
B.3 Second Order Differential Equations 223
Appendix C Integrals of the Planck Function 225
Appendix D RandomModel Summations of Absorption Line Parameters for the Infrared Bands of Carbon Dioxide 227
Reference 229
Appendix E Ultraviolet and Visible Absorption Cross Sections of Ozone 231
References 231
Index 233