Synopses & Reviews
Protests from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park have brought the crisis of public space to the forefront of our attention: Where can the public congregate? How can city planning, design, and policies support First Amendment rights to public assembly and free speech? Forty experts in social science, planning, design, civil liberties, urban affairs, and the arts use the Occupy movement as a springboard for original, multidisciplinary essays that address these exigent questions. This foundational book puts issues of democracy and civic engagement back into the center of dialogue about the built environment.
"In this essay collection, the Occupy Wall Street movement (OWS) presents the catalyst for a multitude of writers to discuss public space, private space, and civic demonstration and assemblage in the gray areas that arise in between. Essays on recent sites of protest, from Zuccotti Park to Tahrir Square, lead off the book's five sections, advocating 'for a more reliable guarantee of the public's access' to these locations. A systematic breakdown of City Planning regulations illustrates the Ã¢Â€Â˜privately owned public space' loophole that allowed OWS to take over Zuccotti Park. The fourth section, 'Public Space Over Time,' traces the value of public space in community all the way back to the Ancient Greek agora. In concluding essays about the future of civic demonstration, a central question arises: 'n this era of the greatest expansion of the urban realm since the beginning of human civilization...what are the most profound functions to be considered when planning for human congregation?' The editors have assembled a chorus of voices into a fascinating if somewhat disjointed dialogue on the occupation of public space. (Oct.)" Publishers Weekly Copyright PWxyz, LLC. All rights reserved.
What was it about Zuccotti Park, and other public spaces around the world, that helps explain its success? And how can we preserve and strengthen such spaces as places of protest? This book, like Zuccotti itself, is a site of vigorous conversation, hard thinking, and bold proposals on such issues.”
Mike Wallace, coauthor of the Pulitzer Prize-winning Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898
Beyond Zuccotti Park is an insightful and relevant book that challenges us to think differently about the role of public space for civic engagement. If you believe in the First Amendment's right to freedom of assembly, then this is the book to read.”
Mitchell Silver, AICP, President, American Planning Association
"A free and open public discussion is well understood to be fundamental to a democracy. Beyond Zuccotti Park confirms how important accessible open space is to that public discussion and illuminates the policy issues raised by the Occupy Wall Street movement. This diverse collection of voices raises important questions about how to define a genuine public space."
Roberta Brandes Gratz, author of The Battle For Gotham: New York in the Shadow of Robert Moses and Jane Jacobs
"The editors have assembled a chorus of voices into a fascinating... dialogue on the occupation of public space."
"A timely perspective on public protest... The books general premise is unarguable: 'We need to be vigilant to assure that both the availability of public space and the policies that govern its use in no way impede the right to assemble.'"
Sam Roberts, New York Times Metro
"The essays are as eclectic as the writers viewpoints, making them rich and provocative. The common thread, which is so clearly stated in the books acknowledgements, is their 'commitment to the important role that public space, universal access, equity, and design can play to enhance democracy and promote freedom of expression.' The concepts of public commons and the agora became part of the conversation not only within the context of cultural citizenship but also in the vital role design plays in forming the public sector."
Maxinne Rhea Leighton, e-Oculus
"By launching a riveting discourse about the role and impact of public spaces, Beyond Zuccotti Park not only encourages us to reflect upon the rights we have as citizens of a democracy, but to also get on our feet and seize the opportunity to fully the embrace these rights in order to create positive change in our communities."
Janey Lee, This Big City
"Beyond Zucotti Park is a fine collection of thoughts and articles on the [Occupy] movement and the change it has made in ways that have not been expected in social planning and other elements of society, highly recommended."
Midwest Book Review
"The books essays survey the importance of public space as a forum for citizen expression granted by the US Constitution and how it has been compromised by the powers-that-be. At issue is no less than essence of democracy, so state Lance Jay Brown and Ron Shiffman, activist academics among the distinguished editors, in a forceful introduction."
Sam Hall Kaplan, Planetizen
"As the title indicates, the collection of essays is not about OWS [Occupy Wall Street]; it's about the impact of OWS and the thinking about assembly and public space that it has sparked.... [The contributors'] takes on public space and assembly could be read as recipes for making urban open spaces amenable for exercising democratic rights."
A Daily Dose of Architecture
"Pick it [Beyond Zuccotti Park] up and you, too, will find yourself swept away in the moment. You might also, as I did, begin to raise questions about the form of this protest and its relationship to meaningful social and political change."
—Adele Oltman, eJournal of Public Affairs
In the wake of the Occupy movement, leading planners and social scientists examine public space today and freedom to assemble.
The Occupy Wall Street movement has challenged the physical manifestation of the First Amendment rights to freedom of assembly. Where and how can people congregate today? Forty social scientists, planners, architects, and civil liberties experts explore the definition, use, role, and importance of public space for the exercise of our democratic rights to free expression. The book also discusses whose voice is heard and what factors limit the participation of minorities in Occupy activities. This foundational work puts issues of democracy and civic engagement back into the center of dialogue about the built environment.
Beyond Zuccotti Park is a collaborative effort of Pratt Graduate Center for Planning and the Environment, City College of New York School of Architecture, New Village Press and its parent organization, Architects/Designers/Planners for Social Responsibility. The book is part of an open civic inquiry on the part of these organizations. The project was seeded by a series of free public forums--Freedom of Assembly: Public Space Today--held at the Center for Architecture in response to the forced clearance of Occupy activities from Zuccotti Park and public plazas throughout the country. The first two recorded programs took place on December 17, 2011 and February 4, 2012.
About the Author
is faculty fellow at the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University, and directs the Initiative for Regional and Community Transformation (IRCT). He is the coeditor of Resilience and Opportunity: Lessons from the U.S. Gulf Coast after Katrina and Rita
(2011) and Katrina's Imprint: Race and Vulnerability in America
(2010), and the author of Promoting Sustainable Local and Community Economic Development
Caron Atlas is a Brooklyn-based consultant working to support and stimulate arts and culture as an integral part of social change. She directs the Arts and Democracy Project of State Voices and also leads the Arts and Community Change Initiative and Place + Displaced, a community mapping project of Fractured Atlas.
Thomas Balsley is the principal designer of Thomas Balsley Associates. Among a number of local and international works, his notable projects include Leeum Museum in Seoul, Gate City Park in Tokyo, Pacific Design Center in Los Angeles, and Gantry Park, Riverside Park South, and Chelsea Waterside Park in New York City.
Rick Bell is executive director of the New York Chapter of the American Institute of Architects (AIA). He was instrumental in the creation of AIAs New York New Visions design and planning coalition.
Marshall Berman is distinguished professor of political science at the City College of New York. His books include The Politics of Authenticity: Radical Individualism and the Emergence of Modern Society (2009), On the Town: One Hundred Years of Spectacle in Times Square (2009), and the groundbreaking All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity (1988).
Julian Brash is assistant professor of cultural anthropology, geography, and interdisciplinary urban studies at Montclair State University. He is the author of Bloomberg's New York: Class and Governance in the Luxury City (2011). His work has been published in Urban Anthropology, Critique of Anthropology, Social Text, and Antipode.
Wendy Brawer is a designer, social innovator, consultant, and public educator. Based in New York and focused on sustainable design since 1989, Wendy has led the development of the nonprofit Green Map System, now active in over 700 diverse cities in 55 countries.
Paul Broches is a partner of Mitchell-Giurgola, an architectural firm in New York that focuses on developing solutions that minimize the use of non-renewable energy sources, reduce the production of pollution, and conserve energy expenditures. He is active on AIAs Committee on Architecture for Education and Committee on Urban Design, as well as a member of the Board of Advisors of the Architects/Designers/Planners for Social Responsibility.
Lance Jay Brown is distinguished professor in the Bernard and Anne Spitzer School of Architecture at the City College of New York and was elected inaugural chancellor of the College of Distinguished Professors of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA) in 2011. His publications include Urban Design for a New Century: Placemaking for People (2009).
David Burney is the first architect to hold the title of commissioner of the New York City Department of Design and Construction (DDC). At Mayor Bloombergs direction, Burney launched a Design and Construction Excellence Initiative with the goal of raising the quality of design and construction of public works throughout New York City. Prior to joining DDC, Burney was director of design and capital improvement at the New York City Housing Authority.
Susan Chin is executive director of the Design Trust for Public Space. Prior to this, she served as the assistant commissioner of Capital Projects at the NYC Department of Cultural Affairs for twenty-three years. She is an American Institute of Architects Public Architects award recipient, and the current chair of the AIA Gold Medal Award advisory committee. She is a current regional director of the American Institute of Architects (AIA) Washington, DC, Chapter and a former president of the AIA New York Chapter.
Alex Cooper is a founding partner of the New York City architecture and design firm Cooper, Robertson and Partners. Coopers major urban design and planning projects include Battery Park City, New York Citys Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project, the expansion of the Museum of Modern Art, the International Trade Center, and Yale Universitys Framework for Campus Planning. He has designed numerous prominent buildings including Columbia University School of Social Work, Stuyvesant High School in lower Manhattan, Duke University Medical Centers Clinic, and Fisher College of Business at Ohio State University. He is also the architect of Zuccotti Park in New York City.
Arthur Eisenberg is the legal director of the New York Civil Liberties Union where he has worked for more than thirty-five years. During this time, he has litigated extensively around issues of free speech and voting rights and has been involved in more than twenty cases that were presented to the United States Supreme Court. He is the coauthor of The Rights of Candidates and Voters (1980).
Lynne Elizabeth is founder and director of New Village Press. She is the past president of Architects/Designers/Planners for Social Responsibility (ADPSR), a public-benefit educational organization working for peace, environmental protection, and social justice. She is the coeditor of What We See: Advancing the Investigations of Jane Jacobs (2010).
Karen Franck is a professor in the New Jersey School of Architecture and the Department of Humanities at New Jersey Institute of Technology. She is coauthor of Design through Dialogue: A Guide for Architects and Clients (2010), Architecture from the Inside Out: From the Body, the Senses, the Site and the Community (2007), and Loose Space: Possibility and Diversity in Urban Life (2006).
Mindy Fullilove is professor of clinical sociomedical sciences and professor of clinical psychiatry at Columbia University. Previous books include Root Shock: How Tearing Up City Neighborhoods Hurts America and What We Can Do About It (2004) and House of Joshua: Meditations on Family and Place (2002).
Jeffrey Hou is associate professor of landscape architecture at the University of Washington. He is a recipient of 2011 CELA Award for Excellence in Service-Learning Education and the 2010 Great Places Book Award. Hou is the editor of Insurgent Public Space: Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities (2010) and coauthor of Greening Cities, Growing Communities: Learning from Urban Community Gardens in Seattle (2009).
Te-Sheng Huang is a PhD student and teaching assistant at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. After completing his masters degree in 2005, he worked as a designer in an architectural firm for more than three years, becoming a licensed architect in Taiwan in 2009.
Lisa Keller is associate professor of history at Purchase College, State University of New York. She is the author of Triumph of Order: Democracy and Public Space in New York and London (2010) and a coeditor of the Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed. 2010).
Elizabeth Kennedy is principal of Elizabeth Kennedy Landscape Architects. She has worked extensively with community development organizations in open space planning and design, including the Abyssinian Development Corporation in Manhattan, New Direction Local Development Corporation in Queens, and the tenants' rights organization of the Diego Beekman Houses in the Bronx. Her design work has been published in Architectural Record and Landscape Architecture.
Michael Kimmelman is chief architecture critic of The New York Times and a contributor to The New York Review of Books. He is author of The Accidental Masterpiece: On the Art of Life and Vice Versa (2006) and Portraits: Talking with Artists at the Met, the Modern, the Louvre and Elsewhere (1999). He was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in 2000.
Brad Lander was elected to the New York City Council in 2009 and has spent his career standing up for affordable, livable, and sustainable communities in Brooklyn and throughout New York City.
Holly Leicht is the executive director of New Yorkers for Parks, a NYC civic organization dedicated to parks and recreation, supporting the creation, protection, and improvement of public parks throughout the five boroughs.
Peter Marcuse is professor emeritus of urban planning at Columbia University, author of Searching for the Just City (2011), and coauthor of Cities for People, Not for Profit: Critical Urban Theory and the Right to the City (with Neil Brenner and Margit Mayer, 2011) and New York for Sale: Community Planning Confronts Global Real Estate (with Tom Angotti, 2008).
Jonathan Marvel is a principal at Rogers Marvel Architects. He is a registered architect in New York and NCARB. Marvel has taught design studios for fifteen years at Columbia, Harvard, and currently teaches at Parsons New School for Design. He is a former Board member of the New York Chapter of the AIA and currently serves on the preservation committee of the Municipal Art Society and on the streetscape committee for the New York City Design Commission.
Michael Pyatok is the principal of Pyatok Architects, Inc. Pyatok has served as a professor of architecture and design at the University of Washington, Harvard University, and Arizona State University. Since starting his practice in 1984, he has designed more than 35,000 units of affordable housing in California, Washington, and Arizona, as well as master planning communities in Hawaii, the Philippines, and Malaysia.
Michael Rios is associate professor in the Department of Environmental Design at the University of California at Davis. He has contributed numerous publications on the topics of placemaking, marginality, and the ethics of practice, including Diálogos: Placemaking in Latino Communities (2012), coedited with Leonardo Vazquez.
Jonathan Rose is president and founder of Jonathan Rose Companies LLC, a multi-disciplinary real estate development, planning, consulting, and investment firm, which has now established itself as a leading green urban solutions provider.
Janette Sadik-Khan is commissioner of the New York City Department of Transportation. For her extraordinary efforts at improving traffic flow, fostering sustainable transportation, and increasing New Yorkers' access to open public spaces, she was awarded the 2011 Jane Jacobs Medal for New Ideas and Activism by the Rockefeller Foundation.
Saskia Sassen is Robert S. Lynd professor of sociology at Columbia University and visiting professor at the London School of Economics. Her publications include Cities in a World Economy (4th ed. 2011), Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblage (2008), and A Sociology of Globalization (2007).
Ron Shiffman is an esteemed community activist, cofounder of the Pratt Institute Center for Community and Environmental Development [PICCED], and professor at Pratt Intitute's Graduate Center for Planning and the Environment.
Paula Segal is an urban lawyer, advocate, and founder of 596 Acres. She is a member of the National Lawyers Guild NYC Chapter, a founding member of the NYC NLG Street Law Team, and a part of the Brooklyn Food Coalition Policy Working Group.
Greg Smithsimon is assistant professor of sociology at Brooklyn College, the City University of New York. His works include September 12: Community and Neighborhood Recovery at Ground Zero (2011) and The Beach Beneath the Streets: Exclusion, Control, and Play in Public Space (with Benjamin Shepard, 2011) .
Michael Sorkin is distinguished professor of architecture and director of the Graduate Program in Urban Design at the City College of New York. His books include All Over the Map: Writing on Buildings and Cities (2011), Twenty Minutes in Manhattan (2009), and the bestselling Variations on a Theme Park (1992).
Maya Wiley is the founder and executive director of the Center for Social Inclusion. She has worked for the American Civil Liberties Union National Legal Department, the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Human Rights Watch, and the Council on Foreign Relations, among others. She currently serves on the Tides Network Board. Wiley was a contributing author to the National Urban League's 2006 State of Black America.
Table of Contents
RICK BELL, LANCE JAY BROWN, LYNNE ELIZABETH and RON SHIFFMAN
2. HISTORY OF PLACE
2.1 Gathering Place
2.2 Freedom of Assembly
Public Space and Assembly: The Historical Context
2.3 Public Place
The Romance of Public Space
Public Space and Its Disconnects
2.4 Issues of Equity and Social Justice
The Impact of Spatial and Demographic Trends on the Formation of Voice: The Limited Participation of People of Color in the Occupy Movements Across the Country
ROLAND V. ANGLIN
Placemaking and Minorities
2.5 Territory and Powerlessness
3. TYPOLOGY OF PLACE
3.1 Psychological Space
MINDY FULLILOVE, MD
3.2 Constitutional Space
ARTHUR EISENBERG, NYCLU / ACLU
3.3 Political Space
Insurgent Public Space
Occupying Public Space, 2011: From Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park
KAREN A. FRANCK and TE-SHENG HUANG
3.4 Sanitized Space
Politics Out of Place: Occupy Wall Street, Filth,” and the Contemporary City
3.5 Civic Space
Room to Grow Something
PAULA Z. SEGAL
Occupy Wall Street and the Struggle for the Commons
The Public Realm of Streets
3.6 Artistic Space
Arts Animating Democracy
Spaces Add Stories
3.7 Green Space
WENDY BRAWER and BRENNAN CAVANAUGH
4. ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITY A NEW AGENDA AND NEW GUIDELINES
4.1 Public Policy and the Use of Place/Space
Occupy and the Provision of Public Space: The City's Responsibilities
Is Public Space” Possible?
4.2 Inclusionary Participation
MAYA WILEY interviewed by RON SHIFFMAN
4.3 The Development Community
JONATHAN ROSE interviewed by RON SHIFFMAN
CARLTON BROWN and BRUCE LINCOLN interviewed by RON SHIFFMAN
Blurring the Boundaries of Public Space
When Domestic Space Meets Civic Space: The Unexpected Consequences of Merging the Everyday with the Not-So-Everyday
The Sidewalks of New York
Public Space and Public Buildings
4.5 Landscape Architects
Designed to be Occupied
4.6 POPS (Privately Owned Public Space)
Bonus Protests on Bonus Plazas: Occupy Wall Street and Privately Owned Public Space
The Social Benefit of POPS: A Comparative Study
4.7 Public Officials / Decision Makers
Making Places (and Governing Them) for Democracy
BRAD LANDER and MICHAEL FREEDMAN-SCHNAPP
RICK BELL, LANCE JAY BROWN, LYNNE ELIZABETH and RON SHIFFMAN