Synopses & Reviews
Creeks and Southerners examines the families created by the hundreds of intermarriages between Creek Indian women and European American men in the southeastern United States during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Called “Indian countrymen” at the time, these intermarried white men moved into their wives villages in what is now Florida, Georgia, and Alabama. By doing so, they obtained new homes, familial obligations, occupations, and identities. At the same time, however, they maintained many of their ties to white American society and as a result entered the historical record in large numbers. Creeks and Southerners studies the ways in which many children of these relationships lived both as Creek Indians and white Southerners. By carefully altering their physical appearances, choosing appropriate clothing, learning multiple languages, embracing maternal and paternal kinsmen and kinswomen, and balancing their loyalties, the children of intermarriages found ways to bridge what seemed to be an unbridgeable divide. Many became prominent Creek political leaders and warriors, played central roles in the lucrative deerskin trade, built inns and taverns to cater to the needs of European American travelers, frequently moved between colonial American and Native communities, and served both European American and Creek officials as interpreters, assistants, and travel escorts. The fortunes of these bicultural children reflect the changing nature of Creek-white relations, which became less flexible and increasingly contentious throughout the nineteenth century as both Creeks and Americans accepted a more rigid biological concept of race, forcing their bicultural children to choose between identities.
“While Frank skillfully contextualizes his story within Creek and colonial history, his focus is on the people who, like Cornell, were Creeks and white southerners. . . . Elegantly written, impeccably organized, and deeply researched in English and Spanish sources, Creeks and Southerners is a welcome addition to the booming field of pre-removal Creek history.”—Kathleen DuVal, Western Historical Quarterly
"Frank has significantly expanded our knowledge about how the endurance of clan and village life in one southeastern Indian society shaped intercultural relations over a long span of time."—Daniel H. Usner, Jr., American Historical Review
"An interesting source for studying the effects of early biculturalism."—Denver Westerners Roundup
"Creeks and Southerners is a sophisticated, well-written account of Creek society in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Frank draws on . . . many fascinating frontier characters [relating them] to the larger forces forging a new social landscape around them."—Gregory A. Waselkov, Alabama Review
"Creeks and Southerners provides useful insight into the formation of Creek identity. It would be useful to historians studying European-Native American relations or Creek history. . . . Frank's story offers a good deal of insight into the various conflicts and increasing tensions that ended with forced Indian removal."—Jeremy Pressgrove, Southern Historian
“Serious studies of race and identity in the American South are forced to confront a highly charged and complex history that continues to haunt us today. As a new attempt to see through those dark waters, Andrew K. Franks Creeks and Southerners
is a welcome and courageous work of scholarship. . . . [It] is a valuable effort to gain insight into a neglected area of southern scholarship.”—William L. Ramsey, Journal of American History
Commonly known as Custer's Last Stand, the Battle of Little Bighorn may be the best recognized violent conflict between the indigenous peoples of North America and the government of the United States. Incorporating the voices of Native Americans, soldiers, scouts, and women, Tim Lehman's concise, compelling narrative will forever change the way we think about this familiar event in American history.
On June 25, 1876, General George Armstrong Custer led the United States Army's Seventh Cavalry in an attack on a massive encampment of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians on the bank of the Little Bighorn River. What was supposed to be a large-scale military operation to force U.S. sovereignty over the tribes instead turned into a quick, brutal rout of the attackers when Custer's troops fell upon the Indians ahead of the main infantry force. By the end of the fight, the Sioux and Cheyenne had killed Custer and 210 of his men. The victory fueled hopes of freedom and encouraged further resistance among the Native Americans. For the U.S. military, the lost battle prompted a series of vicious retaliatory strikes that ultimately forced the Sioux and Cheyenne into submission and the long nightmare of reservation life.
This briskly paced, vivid account puts the battle's details and characters into a rich historical context. Grounded in the most recent research, attentive to Native American perspectives, and featuring a colorful cast of characters, Bloodshed at Little Bighorn elucidates the key lessons of the conflict and draws out the less visible ones. This may not be the last book you read on Little Bighorn, but it should be the first.
About the Author
Andrew K. Frank is the Allen Morris Associate Professor of History at Florida State University. He is the author or editor of eight books, including The Routledge Historical Atlas of the American South.