Synopses & Reviews
The Annual Editions series is designed to provide convenient, inexpensive access to a wide range of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Annual Editions are updated on a regular basis through a continuous monitoring of over 300 periodical sources. The articles selected are authored by prominent scholars, researchers, and commentators writing for a general audience. The Annual Editions volumes have a number of common organizational features designed to make them particularly useful in the classroom: a general introduction; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites; and a brief overview for each section. Each volume also offers an online Instructor's Resource Guide with testing materials. Using Annual Editions in the Classroom is a general guide that provides a number of interesting and functional ideas for using Annual Editions readers in the classroom. Visit www.mhhe.com/annualeditions for more details.
Available to help instruct students in solving all assignment material. Each chapter also contains one set of papers that can be used for either the A or B problem sets.
Table of Contents
Preliminary Table of Contents
ANNUAL EDITIONS: Child Growth and Development 11/12
UNIT 1: Conception to Birth
1. New Calculator Factors Chances for Very Premature Infants, Denise Grady, The New York Times, April 17, 2008
Researchers have developed a statistical tool to determine the chance of a premature baby's survival and the likelihood of birth defects. Gender and birth weight are key factors in helping babies born as early as 22 to 25 weeks survive. The calculations influence medical decisions that are to be taken for the care of these premature infants.
2. Genes in Context: Gene-Environment Interplay and the Origins of Individual Differences in Behavior, Frances A. Champagne and Rahia Mashoodh, Current Directions in Psychological Science, June 2009
The old-fashioned nature-nurture debate is giving way to more sophisticated approaches, such as epigenetics, to unravel how genes and experience interact to shape development. Environment can determine which genes can "turn on" or stay silent.
3. Effects of Prenatal Social Stress on Offspring Development: Pathology or Adaptation?, Sylvia Kaiser and Norbert Sachser, Current Directions in Psychological Science, April 2009
This article describes how prenatal stress can affect development in humans and animals. Social instability and stress can cause hormonal changes for the fetus that may lead to masculinized effects in daughters and decreased masculinization in sons.
UNIT 2: Cognition, Language, and Learning
Part A. Early Cognition and Physical Development
4. Infants' Differential Processing of Female and Male Faces, Jennifer L. Ramsey-Rennels and Judith H. Langlois, Current Directions in Psychological Science, April 2006
This article about infants' processing of faces discusses infants' difficulty in forming a male prototype and also the fact that infants preferred female faces to male faces. This is explained in terms of environmental experiences with female faces and evolutionary dispositions.
5. The Other-Race Effect Develops during Infancy, David J. Kelly et al., Psychological Science, December 2007
Additional support for environmental influences on face processing is presented in this article. Infants learn to discriminate faces in their own race from other races by 9 months of age, a form of "perceptual narrowing," which may facilitate the development of the other-race effect seen in adults.
6. New Advances in Understanding Sensitive Periods in Brain Development, Michael S. C. Thomas and Mark H. Johnson, Current Directions in Psychological Science, January 2008
The human brain is marked by plasticity early in life but also is susceptible to the power of experiences at different ages. Sensitive periods occur when the brain seems optimally prepared to learn certain skills and knowledge, such as imprinting and attachment and even second languages.
7. Contributions of Neuroscience to Our Understanding of Cognitive Development, Adele Diamond and Dima Amso, Current Directions in Psychological Science, February 2008
Neuroscience has shown that biology is not destiny—that experience affects the growing brain. Authors Diamond and Amso describe recent neuroscience research in several areas, including infant imitation and mirror neurons, neurotransmitters, maternal touch and infant stress, and the intergenerational transmission of biological and behavioral characteristics.
8. It's Fun, but Does It Make You Smarter?, Erika Packard, APA Monitor on Psychology, November 2007
Children's Internet usage has increased greatly in recent years, but how does it affect their learning? Research suggests that because of the heavy text-based material online, Internet usage may improve children's reading performance. Children need to learn skills that are necessary for self-directed online learning for it to be productive.
9. Language and Children's Understanding of Mental States, Paul L. Harris, Marc de Rosnay, and Francisco Pons, Current Directions in Psychological Science, February 2005
Normal children develop a theory of mind—they learn to understand other people's feelings and points of view. The scientists discuss research on the crucial role of maternal conversation and language interventions to promote children's understanding of mental states.
10. Developmental Narratives of the Experiencing Child, K. Nelson, Child Development Perspectives, Vol. 4(1).
In contrast to most theories that analyze the child as an object, this paper describes childhood development by emphasizing the child's personal experiential perspective. The child's meaning of life is shaped by language, memory, and shared experience in different contexts of interactive encounters.
11. Social Cognitive Development: A New Look, Kristina R. Olson and Carol S. Dweck, Child Development Perspectives, April 2009
The field of social cognitive development uses methods to study how children's thinking about other people and social relationships develops. This research is illuminating how children think about people's good and bad actions and understand people who are similar or different.
12. Future Thinking in Young Children, Cristina M. Atance, Current Directions in Psychological Science, April 2008
The ability to "mentally time travel" may be uniquely human, but when can children mentally project themselves into the future? Using experimental evidence, Atance shows that this skill emerges during the preschool years and may be involved in planning future behaviors and delaying gratification.
13. Talking About Science in Museums, C. A. Haden, Child Development Perspectives, Vol. 4 (1).
Parent-child conversation is a major influence on children's development. This article examines such communication, specifically about science topics, in an interesting setting: museums. Children's knowledge is enhanced by parents' use of elaborative conversation with many questions and expansions on children's comments.
Part B. Learning in School
14. When Should a Kid Start Kindergarten?, Elizabeth Weil, The New York Times Magazine, June 3, 2007
This article presents multiple perspectives on when a child should begin school. The phenomenon of "redshirting," or opting to hold a child back, is explored, especially in terms of academic achievement. School readiness and family dynamics are also discussed.
15. Should Learning Be Its Own Reward?, Daniel T. Willingham, American Educator, Winter 2007–2008
The author uses recent initiatives by several schools in several states to pay students for performance on high-stakes standardized tests as a way to examine the use of and impact of rewards on student learning. He summarizes the arguments against the use of rewards into three categories and then suggests ways teachers can appropriately use rewards while avoiding their potentially detrimental effects.
16. Social Awareness + Emotional Skills = Successful Kids, Tori DeAngelis, APA Monitor on Psychology, April 2010
Although schools have emphasized academic intelligence, evidence is mounting to show that emotional intelligence matters, too. This article reviews research confirming that children who complete a social and emotional learning program score significantly higher on achievement tests and appear healthier on depression and anxiety.
UNIT 3: Social and Emotional Development
Part A. The Child's Feelings: Emotional Development
17. A Neurobiological Perspective on Early Human Deprivation, Charles A. Nelson, Child Development Perspectives, January 2007
Many children worldwide are raised in institutional settings, which have been shown to have deleterious effects on development. Early institutionalization causes reduced cortical activity in the brain and a disturbed neuroendocrine system that regulates social behavior. These findings help explain how institutional care leads to developmental problems.
18. Don't! The Secret of Self-Control, J. Lehrer, The New Yorker, May 18, 2009
Learning how to control one's emotions, desires, and actions is a crucial task of early childhood. The article describes fascinating research that tests when such skills develop, how they are related to children's behavior and brain maturity, and how self-control matters for long-term development.
19. Children's Capacity to Develop Resiliency, Deirdre Breslin, Young Children, January 2005
Some children show resiliency, the ability to develop normally and thrive despite the presence of risk factors in their lives. This article describes factors that are common in resilient children, including heightened sensory awareness and high expectations from others.
20. Emotions and the Development of Childhood Depression: Bridging the Gap, Pamela M. Cole, Joan Luby, and Margaret W. Sullivan, Child Development Perspectives, December 2008
Our understanding of typical or normal emotional development can help us understand children who have emotional problems, and vice versa. The authors describe emotional development and childhood depression, identifying risk factors for the disorder and the roles of negative emotions and positive emotions in early development.
Part B. Entry into the Social World: Peers, Play, and Popularity
21. Children's Social and Moral Reasoning about Exclusion, Melanie Killen, Current Directions in Psychological Science, February 2007
How do children develop morality? Today researchers are looking at different forms of social and moral reasoning present in children. Using social domain theory, the article frames how prejudice and stereotypes form and how children reason about exclusion.
22. A Profile of Bullying at School, Dan Olweus, Educational Leadership, March 2003
Bullying involves the repeated exposure of negative actions by one or more peers toward an individual. In the past two decades, a 50 percent increase in the occurrence of bullying has been documented. Leading expert Dan Olweus outlines the typical process involved with bullying and gives supporting data for a prevention program that he has developed over the past 20 years.
23. When Girls and Boys Play: What Research Tells Us, Jeanetta G. Riley and Rose B. Jones, Childhood Education, Fall 2007
Play has many benefits for all children, but research shows that girls and boys often play in different ways. The authors review research on gender patterns in social interactions, physical play, and language usage. Implications for educators and parents are also discussed.
24. Playtime in Peril, Lea Winerman, APA Monitor on Psychology, September 2009
Recess and free play time are diminishing in children's lives, replaced by electronic media and "edutainment" toys. This article argues for the valuable role pretense and play have in children's cognitive and academic growth.
25. The Role of Neurobiological Deficits in Childhood Antisocial Behavior, Stephanie H. M. van Goozen, Graeme Fairchild, and Gordon T. Harold, Current Directions in Psychological Science, March 2008
Some children early in childhood engage in antisocial behavior. There are biological and social influences on these problem behaviors. This article describes the interplay between children's adverse early environments and certain neurobiological deficits that lead to antisocial behavior later in childhood.
UNIT 4: Parenting and Family Issues
26. Children of Lesbian and Gay Parents, Charlotte J. Patterson, Current Directions in Psychological Science, October 2006
Does parental sexual orientation affect child development? After years of research, there is little difference between the children of heterosexual and homosexual parents. In fact, the quality of relationships in the family seems to matter more than parents' sexual orientation.
27. Evidence of Infants' Internal Working Models of Attachment, Susan C. Johnson, Carol S. Dweck, and Frances S. Chen, Psychological Science, June 2007
Internal working models of attachment underlie the instinctual behaviors children display in their attachment relationships. The authors use an ingenious visual habituation technique to measure infants' internal working models of attachment, showing that infants' personal attachment experiences are reflected in their abstract mental representations of social interactions.
28. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment, Jennifer E. Lansford, Perspectives on Psychological Science, March 2009
This article reviews the research evidence on how divorce affects children's short- and long-term development in areas such as academics, social relationships, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Other potential mitigating factors are considered, such as family income, child well-being prior to divorce, and the timing of divorce.
29. Within-Family Differences in Parent–Child Relations across the Life Course, J. Jill Suitor et al., Current Directions in Psychological Science, May 2008
In the same family, parents often treat their children very differently. Such differential treatment and sometimes favoritism are expressed in different levels of closeness, support, and control of siblings.
30. The Messy Room Dilemma: When to Ignore Behavior, When to Change It, Alan E. Kazdin and Carlo Rotella, slate.com, March 27, 2009
One of the most challenging tasks for parents is discipline, knowing if and when to use punishment, spanking, or positive reinforcement. This article asks parents to consider carefully which misbehaviors they will focus on and for which they will "draw the line."
31. The Role of Parental Control in Children's Development in Western and East Asian Countries, Eva M. Pomerantz and Qian Wang, Current Directions in Psychological Science, October 2009
Parental control over their children is a crucial dimension of parenting and discipline, yet too much control can have negative effects on children. This article examines how parental control is situated in different cultures and may affect children differently in the U.S. and East Asian countries.
32. Forgotten Baby Syndrome, Gene Weingarten, The Week, April 3, 2009
Each year, children die as a result of being left in an overheated vehicle. Is this neglect and should these parents be punished? Gene Weingarten writes about this horrific occurrence and asks readers to consider whether it could happen to them.
33. Mechanisms of Sibling Socialization in Normative Family Development, Shawn D. Whiteman, Julia M. Becerra, and Sarah E. Killoren, in L. Kramer and K. J. Conger (Eds.), Siblings as Agents of Socialization. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, Winter 2009
Siblings are important influences on children's development. This article emphasizes two major processes by which such influence occurs—sibling deidentification and social learning—to explain sibling differences and similarities.
UNIT 5: Cultural and Societal Influences
Part A. Social and Cultural Issues
34. Goodbye to Girlhood, Stacy Weiner, The Washington Post, February 20, 2007
This article describes the troubling trend in the way women and girls are depicted by the media. Pop culture images are targeting younger girls, and the psychological damage as a result may include eating disorders, lower self-esteem, and depression.
35. Trials for Parents Who Chose Faith over Medicine, Dirk Johnson, The New York Times, January 21, 2009
A child is seriously ill, but the parents' religious beliefs forbid any standard medical treatment. What are the child's and parents' rights here, and whose should be legally protected? Johnson describes some recent real-life American families that are struggling with these challenges.
Part B. Special Challenges
36. Childhood's End, Christopher Hitchens, Vanity Fair, January 2006
In an ongoing tragedy, children in Uganda have been victimized in many ways, from being murdered to raped; many children are enslaved as soldiers who kill and maim other children. Terrible political and economic conditions contribute to this nightmare.
37. How to Win the Weight Battle, Deborah Kotz, U.S. News & World Report, September 10, 2007
Many experts now believe that the emphasis on dropping weight rather than adding healthy nutrients and exercise is doing more harm than good. This article discusses various approaches that schools are adopting to address child obesity in America, such as Planet Health and CATCH.
38. The Epidemic That Wasn't, Susan Okie, The New York Times, January 27, 2009
In the 1980s, increased use of crack cocaine was seized by the media to fan the flames of fears of a generation of "crack babies." However, the data show that while cocaine exposure is certainly dangerous for the fetus, the developments of former crack babies are often more positive than originally predicted on outcomes such as IQ, attention, and executive function.
39. The Positives of Caregiving: Mothers' Experiences Caregiving for a Child with Autism, Michael K. Corman, Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, Vol. 90, No. 4, 2009
Although much research on autism focuses on stress and coping, the study reported in this article addresses resilience exhibited by mothers providing care to an autistic child. Mothers identify experiences that are appraised in a positive, even joyous, light. Practical implications are included.
40. Three Reasons Not to Believe in an Autism Epidemic, Morton Ann Gernsbacher, Michelle Dawson, and H. Hill Goldsmith, Current Directions in Psychological Science, February 2005
According to conventional wisdom, there is a surge in the number of children with autism. These scientists challenge such claims, arguing that these public perceptions are actually due to changes in diagnostic criteria for autism as well as sloppy analysis of the data.
41. Getting Back to the Great Outdoors, Amy Novotney, APA Monitor on Psychology, March 2008
This article examines children's physical well-being and also includes concepts such as increased cognitive ability and increased resilience against stress and adversity. Psychologists are helping children reconnect with nature through varied efforts, such as conducting research, incorporating the outdoors in clinical interventions, and educating parents on the benefits associated with outdoor experiences.
42. Treatment and Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Reactions in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Disasters and Terrorism: What Is the Evidence?, Annette La Greca and Wendy K. Silverman, Child Development Perspectives, April 2009
Many children are exposed to traumatic experiences, from terrorism to natural disasters. La Greca and Silverman review various treatment methods for helping children and youth with posttraumatic stress. Some treatments have no data to confirm their efficacy but others do.
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