Synopses & Reviews
CNC Programming: Principles and Applications sets machinists and machine operators on a systematic path to mastering G- and M-code programming, guiding them from initial planning through programming of an actual NC machining job. The first section of the book lays the foundation by introducing readers to the fundamentals of CNC machine tools, manufacturing processes, and necessary technical mathematics. The next four chapters of the book explain concepts of NC part programming, and the final section features advanced programming concepts and techniques for the milling center and lathe. Readers who have acquired some conventional machining experience, yet have little or no formal academic training, will find this how-to and reference book to be particularly well-suited to their needs.
A proven guide to computer-aided machining, CNC Programming: Principles and Applications has been revised to give readers the most up-to-date information on G- and M- code programming available today. This edition retains the book's comprehensive yet concise approach, offering an overview of the entire manufacturing process, from planning through code writing and setup. is the new edition includes expanded coverage of tooling, manufacturing processes, print reading, quality control, and precision measurement. Designed to meet the needs of both beginning machinists and seasoned machinists making the transition to the abstract realm of CNC, this book is a valuable resource that will be referred to again and again.
About the Author
Michael W. Mattson is Michael W. Mattson is chairman of the Department of Manufacturing Technology at Clackamas Community College, Oregon City, Oregon. He is actively involved in training high school teachers in CNC programming and has completed the summer training intensive with Project Lead the Way.
Table of Contents
COMPUTER NUMERCIAL CONTROL OF MACHINE TOOLS. Chapter1: AUTOMATICALLY CONTROLLING THE MOVEMENTS OF A MACHINE TOOL. COMMON TYPES OF CNC MACHINE TOOLS. Milling Machines. Lathes. Grinders. SYSTEMS VIEW OF CNC. Control System. Dive System. Feedback System. The CNC System. A STANDARDIZED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Chapter2: THE NC PROGRAMMING PROCESS. WRITING A NC PART PROGRAM. OFFLINE PROGRAMMING ON A DESKTOP PC. TESTING AND DEBUGGING. TRANSFERRING THE PROGRAM TO THE MACHINE TOOL. PROVING THE NC PROGRAM ON THE MACHINE TOOL. Steps in Program Proving. Testing Modes. The First Cut. Program and Setup Checklist. CNC SAFETY. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Chapter3: NC TOOLING AND MACHINING PROCESSES. CNC AND MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. THE BASIC MACHINING OPERATIONS. Milling. Turning. Drilling and Reaming. Boring. Tapping. CUTTING TOOLS. Cutting Tool Materials. Insert Identification. Exotic Tool Materials. Tool Coatings. CUTTING TOOLS FOR MILLING. End Mills. Insert-Tooth Cutting Tools. Spindle Style. Spindle Tooling. CUTTING TOOLS FOR TURNING. OD Turning Tools. Boring Bars. Tool Holding Methods for Turning. CUTTING TOOLS FOR HOLE-MAKING. Drills and Reamers. Boring Head. WORKHOLDING TOOLING. The Milling Vise. Clamping Devices. Fixturing. Workholding for the CNC Lathe. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Chapter4: TOOL AND WORKPIECE SETUP. THE CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM. Coordinate System on the Workpiece. The Role of Coordinates in NC Programming. ABSOLUTE VS. INCREMENTAL COORDINATES. POLAR COORDINATES AND ROTARY AXES. WORKPIECE AND MACHINE OFFSETS. THE Z-OFFSET AND TOOL LENGTHS. TOOL PRESETTING. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Chapter5: PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS AND JOB PLANNING. PROGRAMMING WITH G&M-CODES. STRUCTURE OF A NC PART PROGRAM. WORDS, ADDRESSES AND NUMBERS. MODAL AND NON-MODAL CODES. PROGRAMMING GRAMMAR. Grammar and Readability. MORE ON THE SAFE LINE. Safety Resets. Setup Parameters. PROGRAM ANNOTATION AND SETUP SHEETS. PLANNING A CNC MATCHING JOB. Study the Workpiece Drawing. Plan the Operations Setups. WORKHOLDING AND LOCATING PRINCIPLES. The 3-2-1 Locating Principle in Theory. The 3-2-1 Principle in Practice. SELECTING THE WORK ZERO. PLANNING THE TOOLPATH. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Chapter6:CODES FOR POSITIONING AND MILLING. CONVENTIONS. PREPARATORY CODES. G00-RAPID TRAVERSE. G01-CUTTING STRAIGHT LINES. G02 and G03-CUTTING CIRCULAR ARCS. Specifying the Arc Center with I and J. Specifying the Arc Center with R. Using Circular Interpolation. Using Circular Interpolation with a Radius Value. Programming Arcs in Incremental Coordinates. LEAD IN AND LEAD OUT. G28-RETURN TO MACHINE HOME POSITION. PROGRAM EXAMPLES. Programming Example One. Programming Example Two. Programming Example Three. Programming Example Four. Programming Example Five. Programming Example Six (06199-97). CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Chapter7: BASIC CODES TO CONTROL MACHINE FUNCTIONS. UNDERSTANDING M-CODES. M06-TOOL CHANGES. M03, M04 and M05-TURNING THE SPINDLE ON OR OFF. M07, M08, and M09-COOLANT CONTROL. M30 and M02-ENDING A PROGRAM. M00 and M01-INTERRUPTING THE PROGRAM EXECUTION. /BLOCK DELETE. MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS. M19-Oriented Spindle Stop. M97, M98, and M99-Subprogram Control. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Chapter8: HOLE MAKING CYCLES. INTRODUCING THE CANNED CYCLE. DRILLING AND REAMING CYCLES. G81-Standard Drilling Cycle. Initial Plane (G98) v. Retract Plane (G99). Cannned Cycles and Incremental Programming. Point Depth vs. Full Diameter Depth. G82-Drilling with Dwell. G83-Peck Drilling. G73-Chip Breaker. TAPPING CYCLES. G84-Standard Tapping Cycle. G74-Left-handed Tapping Cycle. BORING CYCLES. G85-Standard Boring Cycle. Boring Cycle Variations. LOOPING. PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES USING CANNED CYCLES. Programming Example One. Programming Example Two. Programming Example Three. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Chapter9: TOOL RADIUS COMPENSATION. WHAT IS TOOL RADIUS COMPENSATION? REFERENCE LOCATIONS. TOOL LOCATION ON ANGULAR TOOLPATHS. TOOL LOCATION ON INTERSECTING ARCS AND ANGLES. TOOL LOCATION ON RADIUS TOOLPATHS. AUTOMATIC TOOL RADIUS COMPENSATION. Adjusting the Diameter Offset. Lead In and Out with Tool Radius Compensation. Error Conditions and Limitations of Automatic Compensation. PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES. Programming Example One-Toolpath Programmed on Centerline. Programming Example Two-Toolpath Programmed with Cutter Compensation. Programming Example Three. Programming Example Four. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Chapter10: ADVANCED PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS. SPECIFYING AN NEW WORK ZERO WITH G92. Using G92. Programming Example Using G92 Work Shift. AUTOMATION WITH SUB-PROGRAMS (M98) AND SUB-ROUTINES (M97). Programming Example Using Sub-Programs-One. Programming Example Using Sub-Programs-Two. PROGRAMMING WITH A ROTARY AXIS. 4th-Axis Programming Example-One. 4th-Axis Programming Example-Two. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Chapter11: LATHE PROGRAMMING. INTRODUCTION TO THE CNC TURNING CENTER. Programming Standards. Lathe Axes Designation. Programming on the Diameter or Radius? Spindle Rotation. TURNING TOOL SETUP. Tool Edge or Tool Center. Limitations of Tool Tip Programming. BASIC TURNING OPERATIONS. OD Turning and Facing. Taper Turnming. ID Boring. Circular Arcs. Tool Nose Radius Compensation. Tool Orientation. COMMON CANNED CYCLES. Threading. Drilling. Grooving. Auto Turning Canned Cycles. SUMMARY OF TURNING CODES. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Chapter12: CAD/CAM. COMPUTER-AIDED ANYTHING (CAA). WHAT IS CAD/CAM SOFTWARE? DESCRIPTION OF CAD/CAM COMPONENTS AND FUNCTIONS. CAD Module. CAM Module. Geometry v. Toolpath. Tool and Material Libraries. Verification. Post Processor. Portability. SOFTWARE ISSUES AND TRENDS. Other Classes of Software. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Chapter13: MATHEMATICS FOR NC PROGRAMMING. INTRODUCTION. BASIC CONCEPTS: SPEAKING THE LANGUAGE. Equalities and Equations. Order of Operations. Exponents and Radicals. Operations with Exponents. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION. ESSENTIAL ALGEBRA. UNIT CONVERSIONS. GEOMETRY. Properties of Intersecting Lines. Tangency. TRIGONOMETRY. The Pythagorean Theorem-The Precursor to Trigonometry. Right Triangle Trigonometry. Oblique Triangle Trigonometry. The Law of Sine. The Law of Cosines. Solving an Oblique Triangle. ILLUSTRATED APPLICATIONS. Speeds and Feeds. Coolant to Add to a Tank. Surface Finish Conversions. Inspecting an Angle. Center Distance for Holes on an Angle. CHAPTER SUMMARY. CHAPTER QUESTIONS. Appendix A: G and M-CODES REFERENCE. Appendix B. REFERENCE INFORMATION. SPEEDS AND FEEDS. Speed and Feed Formulas. MATCHING DATA. UNITS AND CONVERSIONS FACTORS. MATHEMATICS. Pythagorean Theorem. Law of Sines. Law Of Cosines. ENGINEERING MATERIALS. DOCUMENTATION TOOLS. Manufacturing Operations. Setup Sheet. Programming Manuscript. GLOSSARY.