Synopses & Reviews
'Trust' is used in a variety of ways in computing literature, and social trust is emerging as an important computational problem. In open, distributed systems, like the web, people and organizations can be anonymous and trust and reputation become important. Researchers from many subfields of computer science have produced results in this space, with applications such as security, recommender systems, and knowledge management. However, this wide interest also means that research is published in diverse venues, and thus results published in one area can go unnoticed by researchers in a different area. For scientists beginning to work in the area, discovering the relevant literature and developing a comprehensive understanding of the state of the art is difficult for similar reasons. The goal of this book is to bring together a collection of important work in computing social trust from computer science and related disciplines, and give readers a full view of the subject. It will be divided into three major sections. The first will address theory, behaviour, and trust management. This will cover social analyses of how people develop trust, the dynamics of trust relationships, and systems for trust management. The second section will describe algorithms and methods for computing trust in social contexts. Social networks, profile similarity, and participation in online communities are all potential sources from which trust can be computed. The final section will contain applications that use trust, such as recommender systems, website access control, and email filtering.
From the reviews: "Social trust is becoming fundamental in computer science (CS), distributed systems, multiagent systems, e-commerce, and communication. This book provides a survey of the computational trust field. ... This is a commendable effort by the editor to consolidate the growing literature on computational trust in a single volume. ... it is a useful reference for both theorists and practitioners in the field of computational trust." (Haris Aziz, ACM Computing Reviews, May, 2009)
From the reviews:
"Social trust is becoming fundamental in computer science (CS), distributed systems, multiagent systems, e-commerce, and communication. This book provides a survey of the computational trust field. ... This is a commendable effort by the editor to consolidate the growing literature on computational trust in a single volume. ... it is a useful reference for both theorists and practitioners in the field of computational trust." (Haris Aziz, ACM Computing Reviews, May, 2009)
As open, distributed systems like the Web continue to grow, and more and more content created by users becomes available, the question of whom and what can be trusted becomes increasingly important. This book looks at one solution - social trust relationships - and examines the challenging research problems raised by computing with social trust. In bringing together important research in computing social trust from both computer science and related disciplines, this book provides an invaluable overview of the area. Divided into three parts, the first - Models of Social Trust - addresses theory, behaviour and trust management, analysing how trust is developed, the dynamics of trust relationships, and systems for trust management. Part Two - Propagation of Trust - describes algorithms and methods for computing trust in social contexts. Social networks, profile similarity, and participation in online communities are all sources from which trust can be computed. The final part - Applications of Trust - contains applications such as recommender systems, website access control, and email filtering, where trust can improve functionality. With contributions from leading researchers in the area of social trust, this book will be welcomed by researchers and graduate students in computer science and information systems, as well as those working in related disciplines where trust may be an issue (such as communications and psychology).
Table of Contents
Table of Contents Introduction to Computing with Social Trust Jennifer Golbeck The Need for Social Trust Challenges to Computing with Social Trust Future Questions Conclusions References Part I Models of Social Trust Examining Trust, Forgiveness and Regret as Computational Concepts Stephen Marsh and Pamela Briggs Introduction Why is Trust Important? Why a Formalization? A Parable of The Modern Age A Brief Sojourn to 'Human Factors': Why Not Call it Trust After All Trust as Was What Can't Trust Give Us? Trust As Is, Part Zero: The Dark Side Distrust Mistrust Untrust Ignorance is The Continuum, Revisited Continuing a Difficult Relationship Regret What Regret Is The Many Faces of Regret Modeling Regret Trust as Is, Part One: Building Regret into Trust Forgiveness and The Blind and Toothless What Forgiveness Is A Model of Forgiveness Trust As Is, Part Two: The Incorporation of Forgiveness The Trust Continuum, Revised: The Limits of Forgiveness Applications: Revisiting the Parable and Imagining the Future The Parable at Work Regret Management Related Work Trust as Will Be: Future Work and Conclusions References A non-reductionist approach to trust Cristiano Castelfranchi, Rino Falcone, and Emiliano Lorini Introduction Desiderata for a logical model of social trust A logic for trust reasoning Syntax and semantics Axiomatization Possibility orders over formulas Execution preconditions for action execution A formal ontology of Trust Core trust Distrust, lack of trust and mistrust Delegation and decision to trust Comparative trust Conclusion References Social Trust of Virtual Identities Jean-Marc Seigneur Introduction Identity Terminology Computational Trust Terminology Flawed Trust Computation due to Simplistic Identity Approach Computational Trust under Identity Usurpation and Multiplicity Attacks Remaining ASUP Issues due to Identity Shortcomings Entification: Bridging Trust and Virtual Identities Recognition rather than Authentication End-to-End Trust Means for Recognition Adaptation Encouraging Privacy and Still Supporting Trust Accuracy and Attack-Resistance of the Trust Values Entification Framework Evaluation Trust Transfer Applied to the Email Domain ASUP Evaluation Conclusion References Part II Propagation of Trust Attack resistant trust metrics Raph Levien Introduction Attack resistance Redundant certification paths 3 Group trust metric Proof of attack resistance Implementation in Advogato Eigenvector trust metrics Stochastic model of PageRank Attack resistance of PageRank Advogato's eigenvector metric References On Propagating Interpersonal Trust in Social Networks Cai-Nicolas Ziegler Introduction Trust in Social Networks Classification of Trust Metrics Semantic Web Trust Local Group Trust Metrics Outline of Advogato Maxflow Appleseed Trust Metric Comparison of Advogato and Appleseed Parameterization and Experiments Implementation and Extensions Testbed for Local Group Trust Metrics Distrust Semantics of Distrust Incorporating Distrust into Appleseed Discussion Acknowledgements References The Ripple Effect: Change in Trust and Its Impact over a Social Network Jennifer Golbeck and Ugur Kuter Introduction Trust Inference Algorithms Local vs Global Central Authority vs. Group vs. Individual Computation Methods Algorithms Studied Inference Algorithms Based on Matrix Arithmetic Network-Path Inference Algorithms Experimental Setup Results Number and Distance of Changes The Magnitude of Change Influence of the Network Structure Other Changes in Trust Inference Discussion and Conclusions References Part III Applications of Trust Eliciting Informative Feedback: The Peer-Prediction Method Nolan Miller and Paul Resnick and Richard Zeckhauser Introduction A Mechanism for Eliciting Honest Feedback The Base Case Eliciting Effort and Deterring Bribes Voluntary Participation and Budget Balance Extensions Sequential Interaction Continuous Signals Issues in Practical Application Risk Aversion Choosing a Scoring Rule Estimating Types, Priors, and Signal Distributions Taste Differences Among Raters Non-Common Priors and Other Private Information Other Potential Limitations Conclusion References Proofs Eliciting Effort References Capturing Trust in Social Web Applications John O'Donovan Introduction Research on Trust in the Social Web Trust Sources on the Social Web Source 1: Modeling Trust from Ratings in ACF Recommender Systems Combining Trust in ACF Capturing Profile-Level & Item-Level Trust Trust-Based Recommendation Evaluation Building Trust Recommendation Error Discussion Source 2: Extracting Trust From Online Auction Feedback Comments The AuctionRules Algorithm Evaluation Setup Comparing AuctionRules With Machine Learning Techniques Coverage and Distribution Experiments Discussion Source 3: Extracting Trust through an Interactive Interface Fair Representation of Genre Information Visualising Trust Relations in PeerChooser Implementation Evaluation Experimental Data Rating Distributions Procedure Recommendation Accuracy Comparison of different Trust Sources Conclusions References Trust Metrics in Recommender Systems Paolo Massa and Paolo Avesani Introduction Motivations Our proposal: Trust-aware Recommender Systems Trust networks and trust metrics An Architecture of Trust-aware Recommender Systems How trust alleviates RS weaknesses Related work Empirical validation Dataset used in experiments: Epinions New evaluation measures Results of the experiments Discussion of results Conclusions References Trust and Online Reputation Systems Ming Kwan and Deepak Ramachandran Introduction What is trust? The Complex World of Online Trust Learning to gauge intention Evaluating and Validating Competence Web 1.0 vs. Web 2.0 How can it help me? The New Model of Online Trust Reputation Trouble in Paradise - the SAP Developer Network When to use reputation as the basis for trust Relationship Social Networking Opening up APIs Exploiting the value of social networks iLike...to share...and lend Sponsored Groups When to use relationship as the basis for trust Process Caught in the act - reinforcing process So What? When to use process as the basis for trust A recipe for online trust based on three ingredients References Internet Based Community Networks: Finding the Social in Social Networks K. Faith Lawrence Introduction Defining Community in the Age of Social Networks Visualising Community Communities, Groups and Networks Community Trust Conclusion References