Preface.Preface to the Second Edition.
Preface to the First Edition.
List of Symbols.
1 Fundamental Principles.
1.1 Mass Conservation.
1.2 Force Balances (Momentum Equations).
1.3 First Law of Thermodynamics.
1.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics.
1.5 Rules of Scale Analysis.
1.6 Heatlines for Visualizing Convection.
References.
Problems.
2 Laminar Boundary Layer Flow.
2.1 Fundamental Problem in Convective Heat Transfer.
2.2 Concept of Boundary Layer.
2.3 Velocity and Thermal Boundary Layers.
2.4 Integral Solutions.
2.5 Similiarity Solutions.
2.5.1 Method.
2.5.2 Flow Solution.
2.5.3 Heat Transfer Solution.
2.6 Other Wall Heating Conditions.
2.6.1 Unheated Starting Length.
2.6.2 Arbitrary Wall Temperature.
2.6.3 Uniform Heat Flux.
2.6.4 Film Temperature.
2.7 Effect of Longitudinal Pressure Gradient: Flow Past a Wedge and Stagnation Flow.
2.8 Effect of Flow through the Wall: Blowing and Suction.
2.9 Effect of Conduction across a Solid Coating Deposited on a Wall.
2.10 Entropy Generation Minimization in Laminar Boundary Layer Flow.
2.11 Heatlines in Laminar Boundary Layer Flow.
References.
Problems.
3 Laminar Duct Flow.
3.1 Hydrodynamic Entrance Length.
3.2 Fully Developed Flow.
3.3 Hydraulic Diameter and Pressure Drop.
3.4 Heat Transfer to Fully Developed Duct Flow.
3.4.1 Mean Temperature.
3.4.2 Fully Developed Temperature Profile.
3.4.3 Uniform Wall Heat Flux.
3.4.4 Uniform Wall Temperature.
3.4.5 Tube Surrounded by Isothermal Fluid.
3.5 Heat Transfer to Developing Flow.
3.5.1 Scale Analysis.
3.5.2 Thermally Developed Uniform (Slug) Flow.
3.5.3 Thermally Developing Hagen–Poiseuille Flow.
3.5.4 Thermally and Hydraulically Developing Flow.
3.6 Optimal Cooling of a Stack of Parallel Heat-Generating Plates
3.7 Heatlines in Fully Developed Duct Flow.
3.8 Optimal Duct Shape for Minimum Flow Resistance.
3.9 Optimization of Duct Layout: Tree-Shaped Networks.
References.
Problems.
4 External Natural Convection.
4.1 Natural Convection as a Heat Engine in Motion.
4.2 Laminar Boundary Layer Equations.
4.3 Scale Analysis.
4.3.1 High-Pr Fluids.
4.3.2 Low-Pr Fluids.
4.3.3 Observations.
4.4 Integral Solution.
4.4.1 High-Pr Fluids.
4.4.2 Low-Pr Fluids.
4.5 Similarity Solution.
4.6 Uniform Wall Heat Flux.
4.7 Effect of Thermal Stratification.
4.8 Conjugate Boundary Layers.
4.9 Vertical Channel Flow.
4.10 Combined Natural and Forced Convection (Mixed Convection).
4.11 Heat Transfer Results Including the Effect of Turbulence.
4.11.1 Vertical Walls.
4.11.2 Inclined Walls.
4.11.3 Horizontal Walls.
4.11.4 Horizontal Cylinder.
4.11.5 Sphere.
4.11.6 Vertical Cylinder.
4.11.7 Other Immersed Bodies.
4.12 Optimal Cooling of a Stack of Vertical Heat-Generating Plates.
References.
Problems.
5 Internal Natural Convection.
5.1 Transient Heating from the Side.
5.1.1 Scale Analysis.
5.1.2 Criterion for Distinct Vertical Layers.
5.1.3 Criterion for Distinct Horizontal Jets.
5.2 Boundary Layer Regime.
5.3 Shallow Enclosure Limit.
5.4 Summary of Results for Heating from the Side.
5.4.1 Isothermal Side Walls.
5.4.2 Sidewalls with Uniform Heat Flux.
5.4.3 Partially Divided Enclosures.
5.4.4 Triangular Enclosures.
5.5 Enclosures Heated from Below.
5.5.1 Heat Transfer Results.
5.5.2 Scaling Theory of the Turbulent Regime.
5.5.3 Constructal Theory of Béard Convection.
5.6 Inclined Enclosures.
5.7 Annular Space between Horizontal Cylinders.
5.8 Annular Space between Concentric Spheres.
5.9 Enclosures for Thermal Insulation and Mechanical Strength.
References.
Problems.
6 Transition to Turbulence.
6.1 Empirical Transition Data.
6.2 Scaling Laws of Transition.
6.3 Buckling of Inviscid Streams.
6.4 Local Reynolds Number Criterion for Transition.
6.5 Instability of Inviscid Flow.
6.6 Transition in Natural Convection on a Vertical Wall.
References.
Problems.
7 Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow.
7.1 Large-Scale Structure.
7.2 Time-Averaged Equations.
7.3 Boundary Layer Equations.
7.4 Mixing-Length Model.
7.5 Velocity Distribution.
7.6 Wall Friction in Boundary Layer Flow.
7.7 Heat Transfer in Boundary Layer Flow.
7.8 Theory of Heat Transfer in Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow.
7.9 Other External Flows.
7.9.1 Single Cylinder in Cross Flow.
7.9.2 Sphere.
7.9.3 Other Body Shapes.
7.9.4 Arrays of Cylinders in Cross Flow.
7.10 Natural Convection Along Vertical Walls.
References.
Problems.
8 Turbulent Duct Flow.
8.1 Velocity Distribution.
8.2 Friction Factor and Pressure Drop.
8.3 Heat Transfer Coefficient.
8.4 Total Heat Transfer Rate.
8.4.1 Isothermal Wall.
8.4.2 Uniform Wall Heating.
8.5 More Refined Turbulence Models.
8.6 Heatlines in Turbulent Flow near a Wall.
8.7 Optimal Channel Spacings for Turbulent Flow.
References.
Problems.
9 Free Turbulent Flows.
9.1 Free Shear Layers.
9.1.1 Features of the Free Turbulent Flow Model.
9.1.2 Velocity Distribution.
9.1.3 Structure of Free Turbulent Flows.
9.1.4 Temperature Distribution.
9.2 Jets.
9.2.1 Two-Dimensional Jets.
9.2.2 Round Jets.
9.2.3 Jet in Density-Stratified Reservoir.
9.3 Plumes.
9.3.1 Round Plume and the Entrainment Hypothesis.
9.3.2 Pulsating Frequency of Pool Fires.
9.3.3 Geometric Similarity of Free Turbulent Flows.
9.4 Thermal Wakes behind Concentrated Sources.
References.
Problems.
10 Convection with Change of Phase.
10.1 Condensation.
10.1.1 Laminar Film on a Vertical Surface.
10.1.2 Turbulent Film on a Vertical Surface.
10.1.3 Film Condensation in Other Configurations.
10.1.4 Drop Condensation.
10.2 Boiling.
10.2.1 Pool Boiling Regimes.
10.2.2 Nucleate Boiling and Peak Heat Flux.
10.2.3 Film Boiling and Minimum Heat Flux.
10.2.4 Flow Boiling.
10.3 Contact Melting and Lubrication.
10.3.1 Plane Surfaces with Relative Motion.
10.3.2 Other Contact Melting Configurations.
10.3.3 Scale Analysis and Correlation.
10.3.4 Melting Due to Viscous Heating in the Liquid Film.
10.4 Melting by Natural Convection.
10.4.1 Transition from the Conduction Regime to the Convection Regime.
10.4.2 Quasisteady Convection Regime.
10.4.3 Horizontal Spreading of the Melt Layer.
References.
Problems.
11 Mass Transfer.
11.1 Properties of Mixtures.
11.2 Mass Conservation.
11.3 Mass Diffusivities.
11.4 Boundary Conditions.
11.5 Laminar Forced Convection.
11.6 Impermeable Surface Model.
11.7 Other External Forced-Convection Configurations.
11.8 Internal Forced Convection.
11.9 Natural Convection.
11.9.1 Mass-Transfer-Driven Flow.
11.9.2 Heat-Transfer-Driven Flow.
11.10 Turbulent Flow.
11.10.1 Time-Averaged Concentration Equation.
11.10.2 Forced Convection Results.
11.10.3 Contaminant Removal from a Ventilated Enclosure.
11.11 Massfunction and Masslines.
11.12 Effect of Chemical Reaction.
References.
Problems.
12 Convection in Porous Media.
12.1 Mass Conservation.
12.2 Darcy Flow Model and the Forchheimer Modification.
12.3 First Law of Thermodynamics.
12.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics.
12.5 Forced Convection.
12.5.1 Boundary Layers.
12.5.2 Concentrated Heat Sources.
12.5.3 Sphere and Cylinder in Cross Flow.
12.5.4 Channel Filled with Porous Medium.
12.6 Natural Convection Boundary Layers.
12.6.1 Boundary Layer Equations: Vertical Wall.
12.6.2 Uniform Wall Temperature.
12.6.3 Uniform Wall Heat Flux.
12.6.4 Optimal Spacings for Channels Filled with Porous Structures.
12.6.5 Conjugate Boundary Layers.
12.6.6 Thermal Stratification.
12.6.7 Sphere and Horizontal Cylinder.
12.6.8 Horizontal Walls.
12.6.9 Concentrated Heat Sources.
12.7 Enclosed Porous Media Heated from the Side.
12.7.1 Four Heat Transfer Regimes.
12.7.2 Convection Results.
12.8 Penetrative Convection.
12.8.1 Lateral Penetration.
12.8.2 Vertical Penetration.
12.9 Enclosed Porous Media Heated from Below.
12.9.1 Onset of Convection.
12.9.2 Darcy Flow.
12.9.3 Forchheimer Flow.
12.10 Multiple Flow Scales Distributed Nonuniformly.
12.10.1 Heat Transfer.
12.10.2 Fluid Friction.
12.10.3 Heat Transfer Rate Density: The Smallest Scale for Convection.
12.11 Constructal Design.
References.
Problems.
Appendixes.
A. Constants and Conversion Factors.
B. Properties of Solids.
C. Properties of Liquids.
D. Properties of Gases.
E. Mathematical Formulas.
Author Index.
Subject Index.