Synopses & Reviews
WITH MORE THAN 100 BLACK-AND-WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS THROUGHOUT
Who are “the Jews”? Scattered over much of the world throughout most of their three-thousand-year-old history, are they one people or many? How do they resemble and how do they differ from Jews in other places and times? What have their relationships been to the cultures of their neighbors?
To address these and similar questions, twenty-three of the finest scholars of our day—archaeologists, cultural historians, literary critics, art historians , folklorists, and historians of relation, all affiliated with major academic institutions in the United States, Israel, and France—have contributed their insight to Cultures of the Jews. The premise of their endeavor is that although Jews have always had their own autonomous traditions, Jewish identity cannot be considered immutable, the fixed product of either ancient ethnic or religious origins. Rather, it has shifted and assumed new forms in response to the cultural environment in which the Jews have lived.
Building their essays on specific cultural artifacts—a poem, a letter, a traveler’s account, a physical object of everyday or ritual use—that were made in the period and locale they study, the contributors describe the cultural interactions among different Jews—from rabbis and scholars to non-elite groups, including women—as well as between Jews and the surrounding non-Jewish world.
Part One, “Mediterranean Origins,” describes the concept of the “People” or “Nation” of Israel that emerges in the Hebrew Bible and the culture of the Israelites in relation to that of the Canaanite groups. It goes on to discuss Jewish cultures in the Greco-Roman world, Palestine during the Byzantine period, Babylonia, and Arabia during the formative years of Islam.
Part Two, “Diversities of Diaspora,” illuminates Judeo-Arabic culture in the Golden Age of Islam, Sephardic culture as it bloomed first if the Iberian Peninsula and later in Amsterdam, the Jewish-Christian symbiosis in Ashkenazic Europe and in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the culture of the Italian Jews of the Renaissance period, and the many strands of folklore, magic, and material culture that run through diaspora Jewish history.
Part Three, “Modern Encounters,” examines communities, ways of life, and both high and fold culture in Western, Central, and Eastern Europe, the Ladino Diaspora, North Africa and the Middle East, Ethiopia, Zionist Palestine and the State of Israel, and, finally, the United States.
Cultures of the Jews is a landmark, representing the fruits of the present generation of scholars in Jewish studies and offering a new foundation upon which all future research into Jewish history will be based. Its unprecedented interdisciplinary approach will resonate widely among general readers and the scholarly community, both Jewish and non-Jewish, and it will change the terms of the never-ending debate over what constitutes Jewish identity.
In three chronological sections -- Mediterranean Origins, Diversities of Diaspora, and Modem Encounters -- comprised of essays by twenty-three internationally renowned scholars, this landmark work considers many of the Jewish cultures that developed in communities around the world from the epoch of the Bible through the twentieth century, and addresses the fundamental question of the identity of the Jews in virtually every period and locale of their history. An artifact of Jewish life from a specific era and place -- an object of everyday or ritual use, a piece of writing, a work of art -- is each contributor's point of departure. The range and scope of this approach is rich and diverse -- incorporating social, religious, and intellectual history as well as literary criticism, archaeology, folklore, and art history -- but individually and taken together these essays describe a people whose own culture assumed new forms as their communities interacted with the non-Jewish cultures that surrounded them.
Cultures of the Jews, a milestone of scholarship, is the new foundation upon which all future research into Jewish history will be based.
About the Author
David Biale is the Emanuel Ringelblum Professor of Jewish History at the University of California, Davis. He is the author of Gershom Scholem: Kabbalah and Counter-History, Power and Powerlessness in Jewish History, and Eros and the Jews. He is also the editor of Insider/Outsider: American Jews and Multiculturalism. He lives in Berkeley, California.