Preface Part One
Critical Thinking and Writing
1 Critical Thinking
Thinking about Drivers Licenses and Photographic Identification
Thinking About Another Issue Concerning Drivers Licenses: Imagination, Analysis, Evaluation
*Thinking about Student Evaluations of their Professors
*Idea Prompt: Visualizing Pros and Cons
Writing as a Way of Thinking
*Idea Prompt: Understanding Classical Topics
A Checklist for Critical Thinking A Short Essay Illustrating Critical Thinking
*Harlan Coben, The Undercover Parent
*Letters of Response by Carol Weston, Jan Brotman, and Marissa IsaakA Checklist for Evaluating Letters of Response
A Checklist for Examining Assumptions*Peter Cave, Should We Save the Jerboa?
Five Exercises in Critical Thinking
2 Critical Reading: Getting StartedActive Reading
Summarizing and Paraphrasing
A Note about Paraphrase and Plagiarism
Last Words (Almost) about SummarizingSusan Jacoby, A First Amendment Junkie
Summarizing Jacoby, Paragraph by ParagraphA Checklist for Getting Started*Anya Kamenetz, Youre 16, Youre Beautiful and Youre a Voter
*Exercise: Examining Paragraphs
*Letters of Response by Betty Agard, Robert Epstein, Delia McQuade Emmons, and Amanda Bergson-ShilcockGwen Wilde (student essay), Why the Pledge of Allegiance Should Be RevisedA Casebook for Critical Reading: Should Some Kinds of Speech be Censored?
Susan Brownmiller, Lets Put Pornography Back in the Closet
Charles R. Lawrence III, On Racist Speech
Derek Bok, Protecting Freedom of Expression on the Campus
*Andrew Keen, Douse the Online Flamers
*Thinking Further about Freedom of Expression, Cyberbullying, and Facebook
Exercise: Letter to the Editor
3 Critical Reading: Getting Deeper into Arguments
Persuasion, Argument, Dispute
Reason versus Rationalization
Some Procedures in Argument
*Idea Prompt: Ways to Give Definitions
A Checklist for Evaluation Statistical Evidence
Does All Writing Contain Arguments?
A Checklist for Analyzing an Argument An Example: An Argument and a Look at the Writers Strategies
George F. Will, Being Green at Ben and Jerrys
George F. Wills Strategies Arguments for Analysis
*Stanley Fish, When “Identity” Politics is Rational
*James Carroll, If Poison Gas Can Go, Why Not Nukes?
Gloria Jiménez (student essay), Against the Odds, and Against the Common Good
Anna Lisa Raya (student essay), Its Hard Enough Being Me
Ronald Takaki, The Harmful Myth of Asian Superiority
James Q. Wilson, Just Take Away Their Guns
Sally Satel, Deaths Waiting List
Letters of Response by Dorothy H. Hayes, Charles B. Fruit, and Michelle Goodwin
*Heather Rogers, Hiding in Plain Sight
4 Visual Rhetoric: Images as Arguments Some Uses of Images
Appeals to the Eye
Are Some Images not Fit to be Shown?
*Politics and Pictures
Exercises: Thinking about Images
A Checklist for Analyzing Images (Especially Advertisements)
Writing about a Political Cartoon
*Idea Prompt: Analysis of a Political Cartoon
A Checklist for Analyzing Political CartoonsJackson Smith (student essay), Pledging Nothing?Visuals as Aids to Clarity: Maps, Graphs, Tables, and Pie Charts
A Checklist for Charts and Graphs
A Note on Using Visuals in Your Own Paper
A Note on Formatting Your Paper: Document DesignAdditional Images for Analysis
Nora Ephron, The Boston Photographs
5 Writing an Analysis of an Argument Analyzing an Argument
*Idea Prompt: Drawing Conclusions and Implying Proof
An Argument, Its Elements, and a Students Analysis of the Argument Nicholas D. Kristof, For Environmental Balance, Pick Up a Rifle
Betsy Swinton (student essay), Tracking Kristof
An Analysis of the Students AnalysisA Checklist for Writing an Analysis of an ArgumentArguments for Analysis
Jeff Jacoby, Bring Back Flogging
Gerald Jones, Violent Media Is Good for Kids
Sunaura Taylor and Alexander Taylor, Is It Possible To Be a Conscientious Meat Eater?
Peter Singer, Animal Liberation
Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
6 Developing an Argument of Your Own Planning, Drafting, and Revising an Argument
A Checklist for a Thesis Statement
A Checklist for Imagining an Audience
*Idea Prompt: Using Transitions in Argument
A Checklist for Attending to the Needs of the Audience
A Peer Review Checklist for a Draft of an ArgumentA Students Essay, from Rough Notes to Final Version
Emily Andrews, Why I Dont Spare “Spare Change”
The Essay AnalyzedExercise 7 Using Sources Why Use Sources?
Choosing a Topic
Finding Quality Information on the Web
A Word about Wikipedia
Finding Articles Using Library Databases
Interviewing Peers and Local Authorities
Evaluating Your Sources
A Checklist for Evaluating Print Sources
A Checklist for Evaluating Electronic Sources
A Note on Plagiarizing, Paraphrasing, and Using Common Knowledge
A Checklist for Avoiding Plagiarism
Compiling an Annotated Bibliography
Writing the Paper
Quoting from Sources
*Incorporating Your Reading into Your Thinking: The Art and Science of Synthesis
The Use and Abuse of Quotations
How to Quote
A Checklist for Using Quotations Rather than Summaries
*Idea Prompt: Signal Phrases
A Note on Footnotes (and Endnotes)
MLA Format: Citations within the Text
MLA Format: The List of Works Cited
APA Format: Citations within the Text
APA Format: The List of References
A Checklist for Papers Using Sources An Annotated Student Research Paper in MLA Format
Theresa Washington, Why Trials Should Not Be Televised An Annotated Student Research Paper in APA Format
Laura Deveau, The Role of Spirituality and Religion in Mental Health Part Three
Further Views on Argument
8 A Philosophers View: The Toulmin Model The Claim
Rebuttals A Model Analysis Using the Toulmin MethodA Checklist for Using the Toulmin Method Putting the Toulmin Method to Work: Responding to an ArgumentMichael S. Dukakis and Daniel J. B. Mitchell, Raise Wages, Not WallsThinking with Toulmins Method
9 A Logicians View: Deduction, Induction, Fallacies Deduction
Fallacies of Ambiguity
Fallacies of Presumption
Fallacies of RelevanceA Checklist for Evaluating an Argument from a Logical Point of View Exercise: Fallacies--Or Not?Max Shulman, Love Is a Fallacy 10 A Moralists View: Ways of Thinking Ethically Amoral Reasoning
Moral Reasoning: A Closer Look
Criteria for Moral Rules
A Checklist for Moral ReasoningPeter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality
Garret Hardin, Lifeboat Ethics: The Case against Helping the Poor
Randy Cohen, Three Letters (to an Ethicist)
11 A Lawyers View: Steps toward Civic Literacy Civil and Criminal Cases
Trial and Appeal
Decision and Opinion
Majority, Concurring, and Dissenting Opinions
Facts and Law
A Word of Caution A Checklist for Analyzing Legal Arguments A Casebook on the Law and Society: What Rights do the Constitution and the Bill of Rights Protect?
Byron R. White and John Paul Stevens, New Jersey v. T.L.O.
Harry Blackmun and William H. Rehnquist, Roe v. Wade 12 A Psychologists View: Rogerian Argument Rogerian Argument: An IntroductionCarl R. Rogers, Communication: Its Blocking and Its Facilitation A Checklist for Analyzing Rogerian Argument *Edward O. Wilson, Letter to a Southern Baptist Minister
13 A Literary Critics View: Arguing about Literature Interpreting
Judging (or Evaluating)
A Checklist for an Argument about Literature Examples: Two Students Interpret Robert Frosts “Mending Wall”
Robert Frost, Mending Wall
Jonathan Deutsch, The Deluded Speaker in Frosts “Mending Wall”
Felicia Alonso, The Debate in Robert Frosts “Mending Wall” Exercises: Reading a Poem and a Story
Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress
Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour
Thinking about the Effects of Literature
Plato, “The Greater Part of the Stories Current Today We Shall Have to Reject” Thinking about Government Funding for the Arts
14 A Debaters View: Individual Oral Presentations and Debate *Classroom Individual Oral Presentations
*Forms of Delivery
*The Language of the Talk
*Pace of Speaking
* A Checklist for an Oral PresentationFormal Debates
Standard Debate Format
A Checklist for Preparing for a Debate
Current Issues: Occasions for DebateDebates as an Aid to Thinking
A Checklist for Analyzing a Debate
*15 The Equal Rights Amendment: Is It Still Needed?
*Idella Moore, Yes
*Analyzing a Visual: The Equal Rights Amendment
*Phyllis Schlafly, No
*16 Genetic Modification of Human Beings: Is It Acceptable?
*Ronald M. Green, Building Babies from the Genes Up
*Analyzing a Visual: Human Genetic Modification
*Richard Hayes, Genetically Modified Humans? No Thanks17 Obesity: Who Is Responsible for Our Weight?
Radley Balko, Are You Responsible for Your Own Weight? Pro
Analyzing a Visual: Obesity
Kelly Brownell and Marion Nestle, Are You Responsible for Your Own Weight? Con
*18 Racial Profiling: Should Airports Use It to Screen Passengers?
*Clifford S. Fishman, Yes, Racial Profiling Is Sometimes Acceptable
*Analyzing a Visual: Airport Racial Profiling
*Jean Abinader, No, Racial Profiling Is Unacceptable
*19 Romantic Relationships between Faculty and Students: Should Colleges Prohibit Them?
*Paul R. Abramson, The Right to Romance: Why Universities Shouldnt Prohibit Relations Between Teachers and Students
*Analyzing a Visual: Teacher-Student Relationships
*Duke University, Duke Universitys Policy on Consensual Relationships 20 Single-Sex Classrooms: Do They Offer Advantages?
*Rosalind C. Barnett and Caryl Rivers, Differences Should Not Drive a Curriculum
*Analyzing a Visual: Single-Sex Classrooms
*Sally Reed, Girls and Boys Thrive in Separate Classrooms
Current Issues: Casebooks
21 College Education: What Is Its Purpose?
Stanley Fish, Why We Built the Ivory Tower
David Brooks, “Moral Suicide,” À la Wolfe”
Letters of Response by Scott Bradley, Barry Oshry, Paul Cutrone, and Rebecca Chopp
Patrick Allitt, Should Undergraduates Specialize?
Letters of Response by Carol Geary Schneider and Ellis M. West
*Marty Nemko, Americas Most Overrated Product: The Bachelors Degree
*Charles Murray, Should the Obama Generation Drop Out?
*Letters of Response by Charles Axilbund, Jacques Jimenez, Jeff Adler, Lillian Hoodes, Larry Hoffner Sandra Sherman, and Michel Dedina,
Louis Menand, Re-imagining Liberal Education
22 The Death Penalty: Is It Ever Justified?
Edward I. Koch, Death and Justice: How Capital Punishment Affirms Life
David Bruck, The Death Penalty
George Ryan, Speech Announcing Commutation of All Illinois Prisoners Death Sentences
Gary Wills, The Dramaturgy of Death
Potter Stewart, Gregg v. Georgia
Harry Blackmun, Dissenting Opinion in Callins v. Collins
Helen Prejean, Executions Are Too Costly—Morally
Alex Kozinski and Sean Gallagher, For an Honest Death Penalty 23 Drugs: Should Their Sale and Use Be Legalized?
William J. Bennett, Drug Policy and the Intellectuals
James Q. Wilson, Against the Legalization of Drugs
Milton Friedman, Theres No Justice in the War on Drugs
Elliot Currie, Toward a Policy on Drugs *24 Going Green: What Must Be Done?
*Daniel Goleman and Gregory Norris, How Green Was My Bottle
*Craig D. Rose, Here Comes the Sun
*Aldo Leopold, Thinking Like a Mountain
*Paul Bloom, Natural Happiness
*Bill McKibben, Now or Never
*Edward Abbey, Eco-Defense25 Immigration: What Is To Be Done?
David Cole, Five Myths about Immigration
Barry R. Chiswick, The Worker Next Door
John Tierney, Angels in America
Victor David Hanson, Our Brave New World of Immigration
Cardinal Roger Mahony, Called by God to Help26 Sexual Harassment: Is There Any Doubt about What It Is?
Tufts University, What Is Sexual Harassment?
Ellen Goodman, The Reasonable Woman Standard
Ellen Frankel Paul, Bared Buttocks and Federal Cases
Sarah J. McCarthy, Cultural Fascism 27 Marriage: What Is Its Future?
Thomas B. Stoddard, Gay Marriages: Make Them Legal
Lisa Schiffren, Gay Marriage, an Oxymoron
Ellen Goodman, Backward Logic in the Courts
*Jeff Jacoby, Lawful Incest May Be on Its Way
Marriage: A Portfolio of Cartoons
Diane Medved, The Case against Divorce
*Wendy Kaminer, Why Is Polygamy Illegal?
B. Aisha Lemu, In Defense of Polygamy *28 Reproductive Rights: What Are the Limits?
Rush H. Limbaugh III, Condoms: the New Diploma
Analyzing a Visual: Sex Education
Anna Quindlen, A Pyrrhic Victory
Ellen Willis, Putting Women Back into the Abortion Debate 514
Randall A. Terry, The Abortion Clinic Shootings: Why? 521*Sperm Harvesting: Is It Acceptable?
*Kathleen Nolan, Live Sperm, Dead Bodies
*Cappy Miles Rothman, Commentary
*Judith Wilson Ross, Commentary
*29 Service: A Duty? A Benefit? Or Both, or Perhaps Neither?
*Barack Obama, Commencement Address
*Peter Levine, The Case for “Service”
*Andrew J. Bacevich, The Failure of an All-Volunteer Military
*Anonymous, Rejecting the Draft
Letters of Response by Richard Roth, Christian Danielsen, Norman daniels, Samuel Z. Klausner, Per Halvorsen, and Jerry Wallingford
Dave Eggers, Serve or Fail30 Testing: What Value Do Tests Have? Testing: What Values Do Tests Have?
Paul Goodman, A Proposal to Abolish Grading
Howard Gardner, Test for Aptitude, Not for Speed
Letters of Response by Thomas M. Johnson Jr., Garver Moore, Arnie Lichten, and Janet Rudolph
Diane Ravitch, In Defense of Testing
*Alfie Kohn, From Degrading to De-grading
Joy Alonso, Two Cheers for Examinations
31 Torture: Is It Ever Justifiable?
Michael Levin, The Case for Torture
Charles Krauthammer, The Truth about Torture
*Association for the Prevention of Torture, Defusing the Ticking Time Bomb Scenario
Enduring Questions: Essays, A Story, Poems, and a Play 32 What Is the Ideal Society?
Thomas More, From Utopia
Niccolo Machiavelli, From The Prince
Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Martin Luther King Jr., I Have a Dream
W. H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen
Langston Hughes, Let America Be America Again
Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas 33 How Free Is the Will of the Individual within Society?
Thoughts about Free Will
George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant
Walter T. Stace, Is Determinism Inconsistent with Free Will?
Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail
Stanley Milgram, The Perils of Obedience
*Peter Cave, Man or Sheep?
Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed
T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
Susan Glaspell, Trifles
Mitsuye Yamada, To the Lady 34 What Is Happiness?
Thoughts about Happiness, Ancient and Modern
*Daniel Gilbert, Does Fatherhood Make You Happy?
*Henry David Thoreau, Selections from Walden
Darrin M. McMahon, In Pursuit of Unhappiness
Epictetus, from The Handbook
Bertrand Russell, The Happy Life
The Dalai Lama and Howard C. Cutler, Inner Contentment
C. S. Lewis, We have No “Right to Happiness”
Danielle Crittenden, About Love
Judy Brady, I Want a Wife Index of Authors and Titles Index of Terms * new to this edition