Synopses & Reviews
It was a familiar sight at Yellowstone National Park: traffic backed up for miles as visitors fed bears from their cars. It may have been against the rules, but park officials were willing to turn a blind eye if it kept the public happy. But bear feeding eventually became too widespread and dangerous to everyone—including the bears—for the National Park Service (NPS) to allow it any longer.
As one of the park's most beloved and enduring symbols, the Yellowstone bears have long been a flashpoint for controversy. Alice Wondrak Biel traces the evolution of their complex relationship with humans—from the creation of the first staged wildlife viewing areas to the present—and situates that relationship within the broader context of American cultural history. Early on, park bears were largely thought of as performers or surrogate pets and were routinely fed handouts from cars, as well as hotel garbage dumped at park-sanctioned "lunch counters for bears." But as these activities led to ever-greater numbers of tourist injuries, and of bears killed as a result, and as ideas about conservation and the NPS mission changed, the agency refashioned the bear's image from cute circus performer to dangerous wild animal and, eventually, to keystone inhabitant of a fragile ecosystem.
Drawing on the history of recorded interactions with bears and providing telling photographs depicting the evolving bear-human relationship, Biel traces the reaction of park visitors to the NPS's efforts—from warnings by Yogi Bear (which few tourists took seriously) to the increasing promotion of key ecological issues and concerns. Ultimately, as the rules were enforced and tourist behavior dramatically shifted, the bears returned to a more natural state of existence.
Biel's entertaining and informative account tracks this gradual "renaturalization" while also providing a cautionary tale about the need for careful negotiation at the complex nexus of tourists, bears, and all things wild.
"While vigilant Smokey and food-crazed Yogi have been the most enduring images of the grizzly for most baby boomers, writer-historian Biel shows how they symbolize the long history of bears in Yellowstone National Park in a superb, complex narrative. '[T]he bear has served as a flash point for controversies related to the park's evolving wildlife policies and ideologies,' she writes. Beginning with Yellowstone's early years at the end of the 19th century, Biel shows how the tension between the 'maximization of tourist visits' and the 'preservation of primitive conditions' became the defining issue for Yellowstone bear life. 'Bear shows' in the 1910s, where tourists watched bears being fed, started a dangerous tradition of visitors' hand-feeding that lasted until the 1950s. Biel's work is rooted in solid research and provides a concise look at all major government policies toward the park through the 1990s. But Biel's look at the conflict between commerce and ecology throughout Yellowstone's history is also aided by her humorous insights, such as how a 1961 park pamphlet using Yogi Bear to discourage bear feeding was like 'Bart Simpson warning kids to respect their elders.' 14 photos." Publishers Weekly (Starred Review) (Copyright Reed Business Information, Inc.)
Table of Contents
1. Zoos, Feeding Grounds, and Roadsides: The Wild Yet Tame Bear
2. Admitting You Have a Problem: Making the Dangerous Bear
3. Funny Bears and TV Stars
4. Science Versus Scenery: The Wilderness Bear
5. The Politics of Peril
6. Today's Yellowstone Bear
7. Conclusion: The Post-Enlightenment Bear