In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in the observations of active crustal deformations that employ new measurement techniques like GPS and InSAR. Many in the field are using methods and codes to model their observations with only a limited understanding of the foundations for these methods. This is the first book to bring together the basic theory underpinning the modeling, and it will greatly impact the field.
"The book is the first to focus on the models used to relate subsurface fault and magma motion to surface deformation. Based on a course taught by the author at Stanford University at the upper undergraduate to graduate level, the book has been more than a decade in the making. For years, faculty at various institutions (myself included) have begged for incomplete drafts of the manuscript to use as a reference when teaching, so it is satisfying to see the complete work now available to all. It is clearly written and the content is logically presented, as one might expect from material that has been taught to hundreds of students by an excellent teacher. . . . In summary, this is a timely and well-written book that introduces the mathematical tools needed to interpret the onslaught of new surface-deformation data. To find the same material covered in this textbook, a scientist would have to dig through hundreds of scientific papers and books, and even then would not find the topics as clearly presented or accompanied by new advances in the field."--Nature Geoscience
"This excellent advanced textbook will most positively impact graduate education and basic and applied research into the science of crustal deformation."--Choice
The book is the first to focus on the models used to relate subsurface fault and magma motion to surface deformation. Based on a course taught by the author at Stanford University at the upper undergraduate to graduate level, the book has been more than a decade in the making. For years, faculty at various institutions (myself included) have begged for incomplete drafts of the manuscript to use as a reference when teaching, so it is satisfying to see the complete work now available to all. It is clearly written and the content is logically presented, as one might expect from material that has been taught to hundreds of students by an excellent teacher. . . . In summary, this is a timely and well-written book that introduces the mathematical tools needed to interpret the onslaught of new surface-deformation data. To find the same material covered in this textbook, a scientist would have to dig through hundreds of scientific papers and books, and even then would not find the topics as clearly presented or accompanied by new advances in the field. Nature Geoscience
This excellent advanced textbook will most positively impact graduate education and basic and applied research into the science of crustal deformation. Choice
Preface xi
Acknowledgments xv
Origins xvii
Chapter 1: Deformation, Stress, and Conservation Laws 1
1.1 Strain 2
1.1.1 Strains in Curvilinear Coordinates 7
1.2 Rotation 9
1.3 Stress 13
1.4 Coordinate Transformations 16
1.5 Principal Strains and Stresses 18
1.6 Compatibility Equations 21
1.7 Conservation Laws 21
1.7.1 Equilibrium Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates 24
1.8 Constitutive Laws 24
1.9 Reciprocal Theorem 27
1.10 Problems 28
1.11 References 30
Chapter 2: Dislocation Models of Strike-Slip Faults 32
2.1 Full-Space Solution 32
2.2 Half-Space Solution 37
2.2.1 Coseismic Faulting 38
2.2.2 Interseismic Deformation 39
2.2.3 Postseismic Slip 42
2.3 Distributed Slip 43
2.4 Application to the San Andreas and Other Strike-Slip Faults 44
2.5 Displacement at Depth 47
2.6 Summary and Perspective 49
2.7 Problems 50
2.8 References 50
Chapter 3: Dip-Slip Faults and Dislocations in Three Dimensions 51
3.1 Volterra's Formula 52
3.1.1 Body Force Equivalents andMoment Tensors 54
3.2 Screw Dislocations 59
3.3 Two-Dimensional Edge Dislocations 60
3.3.1 Dipping Fault 63
3.4 Coseismic Deformation Associated with Dipping Faults 67
3.5 Displacements and Stresses Due to Edge Dislocation at Depth 71
3.6 Dislocations in Three Dimensions 75
3.6.1 Full-Space Green's Functions 75
3.6.2 Half-Space Green's Functions 77
3.6.3 Point-Source Dislocations 78
3.6.4 Finite Rectangular Dislocations 80
3.6.5 Examples 82
3.6.6 Distributed Slip 84
3.7 Strain Energy Change Due to Faulting 86
3.8 Summary and Perspective 87
3.9 Problems 87
3.10 References 90
Chapter 4: Crack Models of Faults 92
4.1 Boundary Integral Method 92
4.1.1 Inversion of the Integral Equation 97
4.2 Displacement on the Earth's Surface 98
4.3 A Brief Introduction to Fracture Mechanics 99
4.4 Nonsingular Stress Distributions 105
4.5 Comparison of Slip Distributions and Surface Displacements 107
4.6 Boundary ElementMethods 110
4.7 Fourier TransformMethods 111
4.8 Some Three-Dimensional Crack Results 113
4.9 Summary and Perspective 114
4.10 Problems 115
4.11 References 117
Chapter 5: Elastic Heterogeneity 118
5.1 Long Strike-Slip Fault Bounding Two Media 118
5.2 Strike-Slip Fault within a Compliant Fault Zone 120
5.3 Strike-Slip Fault beneath a Layer 125
5.4 Strike-Slip within a Layer over Half-Space 129
5.5 Propagator Matrix Methods 131
5.5.1 The Propagator Matrix for Antiplane Deformation 135
5.5.2 Vertical Fault in a Homogeneous Half-Space 136
5.5.3 Vertical Fault within Half-Space beneath a Layer 138
5.5.4 Vertical Fault in Layer over Half-Space 139
5.5.5 General Solution for an Arbitrary Number of Layers 141
5.5.6 Displacements and Stresses at Depth 143
5.5.7 PropagatorMethods for Plane Strain 143
5.6 Propagator Solutions in Three Dimensions 150
5.7 Approximate Solutions for Arbitrary Variations in Properties 154
5.7.1 Variations in Shear Modulus 157
5.7.2 Screw Dislocation 158
5.7.3 Edge Dislocation 159
5.8 Summary and Perspective 159
5.9 Problems 162
5.10 References 164
Chapter 6: Postseismic Relaxation 166
6.1 Elastic Layer over Viscous Channel 169
6.2 Viscoelasticity 172
6.2.1 Correspondence Principle 175
6.3 Strike-Slip Fault in an Elastic Plate Overlying a Viscoelastic Half-Space 176
6.3.1 Stress in Plate and Half-Space 181
6.4 Strike-Slip Fault in Elastic Layer Overlying a Viscoelastic Channel 182
6.5 Dip-Slip Faulting 187
6.5.1 Examples 190
6.6 Three-Dimensional Calculations 191
6.7 Summary and Perspective 193
6.8 Problems 197
6.9 References 198
Chapter 7: Volcano Deformation 200
7.1 Spherical Magma Chamber 203
7.1.1 Center of Dilatation 208
7.1.2 Volume of the Uplift, Magma Chamber, and Magma 212
7.2 EllipsoidalMagma Chambers 214
7.3 Magmatic Pipes and Conduits 225
7.4 Dikes and Sills 229
7.4.1 Crack Models of Dikes and Sills 231
7.4.2 Surface Fracturing and Dike Intrusion 236
7.5 Other Magma Chamber Geometries 237
7.6 Viscoelastic Relaxation around Magma Chambers 240
7.7 Summary and Perspective 248
7.8 Problems 249
7.9 References 252
Chapter 8: Topography and Earth Curvature 255
8.1 Scaling Considerations 259
8.2 Implementation Considerations 260
8.3 Center of Dilatation beneath a Volcano 260
8.4 Earth's Sphericity 261
8.5 Summary and Perspective 263
8.6 Problems 265
8.7 References 265
Chapter 9: Gravitational Effects 267
9.1 Nondimensional Formof Equilibrium Equations 270
9.2 Inclusion in Propagator Matrix Formulation 273
9.3 Surface Gravity Approximation 275
9.4 Gravitational Effects in Viscoelastic Solutions 276
9.4.1 Incompressible Half-Space 277
9.4.2 No-Buoyancy Approximation 278
9.4.3 Wang Approach 279
9.4.4 Comparison of Different Viscoelastic Models 280
9.4.5 Relaxed Viscoelastic Response 282
9.5 Changes in Gravity Induced by Deformation 283
9.5.1 Gravity Changes and Volcano Deformation 289
9.5.2 An Example from Long Valley Caldera, California 292
9.6 Summary and Perspective 292
9.7 Problems 294
9.8 References 295
Chapter 10: Poroelastic Effects 297
10.1 Constitutive Laws 300
10.1.1 Macroscopic Description 300
10.1.2 Micromechanical Description 303
10.2 Field Equations 305
10.3 Analogy to Thermoelasticity 308
10.4 One-Dimensional Deformation 309
10.4.1 Step Load on the Free Surface 310
10.4.2 Time-Varying Fluid Load on the Free Surface 312
10.5 Dislocations in Two Dimensions 313
10.6 Inflating Magma Chamber in a Poroelastic Half-Plane 315
10.7 Cumulative Poroelastic Deformation in Three Dimensions 321
10.8 Specified Pore Pressure Change 324
10.9 Summary and Perspective 328
10.10 Problems 329
10.11 References 330
Chapter 11: Fault Friction 332
11.1 Slip-Weakening Friction 333
11.2 Velocity-Weakening Friction 335
11.3 Rate and State Friction 336
11.3.1 Linearized Stability Analysis 344
11.4 Implications for Earthquake Nucleation 347
11.5 Nonlinear Stability Analysis 357
11.6 Afterslip 360
11.7 Transient Slip Events 366
11.8 Summary and Perspective 367
11.9 Problems 368
11.10 References 369
Chapter 12: Interseismic Deformation and Plate Boundary Cycle Models 372
12.1 Elastic Dislocation Models 372
12.1.1 Dip-Slip Faults 373
12.2 Plate Motions 376
12.3 Elastic BlockModels 378
12.4 Viscoelastic CycleModels 380
12.4.1 Viscoelastic Strike-Slip Earthquake Cycle Models 380
12.4.2 Comparison to Data from San Andreas Fault 386
12.4.3 Viscoelastic Models with Stress-Driven Deep-Fault Creep 389
12.4.4 Viscoelastic CycleModels for Dipping Faults 394
12.5 Rate-State Friction Earthquake CycleModels 407
12.6 Summary and Perspective 409
12.7 Problems 412
12.8 References 413
APPENDIX A: Integral Transforms 415
A.1 Fourier Transforms 415
A.2 Laplace Transforms 416
A.3 References 419
APPENDIX B: A Solution of the Diffusion Equation 420
APPENDIX C: Displacements Due to Crack Model of Strike-Slip Fault by Contour Integration 423
Index 425