This accessible resource equips educators with practical assessment strategies for today's challenges in measuring student progress. It details the national policy changes that have fostered the ongoing changes in general education and special education testing and assessment practices. The ninth edition integrates updated references, readings and examples to ensure a current look at the field. A new chapter introduces IDEIA, the RTI model, and the issues, controversies and implementation challenges and successes. Sections have also been added to multiple chapters to ensure the integration of the RTI model with the traditional content. Educators will be able to apply this information to meet today's challenges in measuring student progress.
Chapter 1 An Introduction to Contemporary Educational Testing and Measurement.
Tests Are Only Tools: Their Usefulness Can Vary.
Why We Developed This Text: Enhancing Test Usefulness.
Tests Are Only Tools: A Video Beats a Photo.
Defining Some Test-Related Terms.
Types of Tests/Assessments.
Recent Developments: Impact on Classroom Testing and Measurement.
Effects on the Classroom Teacher.
About the Text.
What if You're “No Good in Math”?
Chapter 2 High-Stakes Testing.
Contrasting NCLB and Sate High Stakes Testing Programs.
High Stakes Testing: A Nationwide Phenomenon.
High-Stakes Tests Are Only Tools.
Why Does High-Stakes Testing Matter?
The History of High-Stakes Testing.
Types of High-States Tests.
The High-Stakes Testing Backlash.
Is There Really a High-States Testing Backlash?
What Do National, Organizations Say About High-Stakes Tests?
Helping Students (and Yourself) Prepare for High Stakes Tests.
Chapter 3 Response-to-Intervention (RTI) and the Regular Classroom Teacher.
What is RTI?
What if You Have Not Heard of RTI Before?
How New is RTI?
Do Regular Education Teachers Need to Know about RTI?
An RTI Scenario.
How Important is RTI to Regular Education Teachers?
Can a Special Education Law Reform Regular Eduction?
How is RTI Supposed to Help Students and Schools?
RTI Definitions, Components, and Implementation Approaches.
How Widely is RTI Bring Implemented?
Some of the Benefits of RTI.
RTI: The Promise and Some Controversies.
Chapter 4 The Purpose of Testing.
Testing, Accountability, and the Classroom Teacher.
What to Measure.
How to Measure.
Chapter 5 Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Tests and Content Validity Evidence.
Defining Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests.
Comparing Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests.
Differences in the Construction of Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests.
Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Tests and Linguistic and Cultural Diversity.
Norm- and Criterion-Referenced and Validity Evidence.
A Three-Stage Model of Classroom Measurement.
Why Objectives? Why Not Just Write Test Items?
How Can Instructional Objectives Make a Teacher's Job Easier?
Chapter 6 Measuring Learning Outcomes.
Writing Instructional Objectives.
Matching Test Items to Instructional Objectives.
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
The Test Blueprint.
Chapter 7 Writing Objective Test Items.
Gender and Racial Bias in Test Items.
Guidelines for Writing Test Items.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Objective Item Formats.
Chapter 8 Writing Essay Test Items.
What Is an Essay Item?
Pros and Cons of Essay Items?
Suggestions for Writing Essay Items.
Scoring Essay Questions.
Assessing Knowledge Organization.
Open Book Questions and Exams.
Chapter 9 Performance-Based Assessment.
Performance Tests: Direct Measures of Competence.
Performance Tests Can Assess Processes and Products.
Performance Tests Can Be Embedded in Lessons.
Performance Tests Can Assess Affective and Social Skills.
Developing Performance Tests for Your Learners.
A Final Word.
For Discussion and Practice.
Chapter 10 Portfolio Assessment.
Rationale for the Portfolio.
Developing Portfolio Assessments.
Chapter 11 Administering, Analyzing, and Improving the Test or Assessment.
Assembling the Test.
Administering the Test.
Scoring the Test.
Analyzing the Test.
Chapter 12 Marks and Marking Systems.
What Is the Purpose of a Mark?
Combining and Weighting the Components of a Mark.
Practical Approaches to Equating Before Weighting in the Busy Classroom.
Chapter 13 Summarizing Data and Measures of Central Tendency.
What Are Statistics?
Why Use Statistics?
Tabulating Frequency Data.
Measures of Central Tendency.
Chapter 14 Variability, the Normal Distribution, and Converted Scores.
The Semi-Interquartile Range (SIQR).
The Standard Deviation.
The Normal Distribution.
Chapter 15 Correlation.
The Correlation Coefficient.
Chapter 16 Validity Evidence.
Why Evaluate Tests?
Types of Validity Evidence.
What Have We Been Saying? A Review.
Interpreting Validity Coefficients.
Chapter 17 Reliability.
Methods of Estimating Reliability.
Interpreting Reliability Coefficients.
Chapter 18 Accuracy and Error.
Error—What Is It?
The Standard Error of Measurement.
Why All the Fuss About Error?
Sources of Error Influencing Various Reliability Coefficients.
A Final Word.
Chapter 19 Standardized Tests.
What Is a Standardized Test?
Uses of Standardized Achievement Tests.
Will Performance and Portfolio Assessment Make Standardized Tests Obsolete?
Administering Standardized Tests.
Types of Scores Offered for Standardized Achievement Tests.
Interpreting Standardized Tests: Test and Student Factors.
Interpreting Standardized Tests: Parent-Teacher Conferences and Educational Decision Making.
Interpreting Standardized Tests: Score Reports from Publishers.
Chapter 20 Types of Standardized Tests.
Standardized Achievement Tests.
Standardized Academic Aptitude Tests.
Standardized Personality Assessment Instruments.
Chapter 21 In the Classroom: A Summary Dialogue.
High-Stakes Testing and NCLB.
Criterion-Referenced Versus Norm-Referenced Tests.
New Responsibilities for Teachers under IDEA.
The Test Blueprint.
Essay Items and the Essay Scoring Guides.
Reliability, Validity Evidence, and Test Statistics.
Grades and Marks.
Some Final Thoughts.
Appendix A: Math Skills Review.
Appendix B: Preparing for the Praxis II: Principles of Learning and Teaching Assessment.
Appendix C: Determining the Median When There are Multiple Tied Scores.
Appendix D: Pearson Product-Moment Correlation.
Appendix E: Statistics and Measurement Texts.
Appendix F: Answers for Practice Questions.