Practical Applications of Electrical Engineering Principles vi
Preface xi
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Overview of Electrical Engineering 2
1.2 Circuits, Currents, and Voltages 6
1.3 Power and Energy 13
1.4 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 16
1.5 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 19
1.6 Introduction to Circuit Elements 22
1.7 Introduction to Circuits 30
Summary 34
Problems 35
2 Resistive Circuits 46
2.1 Resistances in Series and Parallel 47
2.2 Network Analysis by Using Series and Parallel Equivalents 51
2.3 Voltage-Divider and Current-Divider Circuits 55
2.4 Node-Voltage Analysis 60
2.5 Mesh-Current Analysis 79
2.6 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 88
2.7 Superposition Principle 101
2.8 Wheatstone Bridge 104
Summary 106
Problems 108
3 Inductance and Capacitance 124
3.1 Capacitance 125
3.2 Capacitances in Series and Parallel 132
3.3 Physical Characteristics of Capacitors 134
3.4 Inductance 138
3.5 Inductances in Series and Parallel 143
3.6 Practical Inductors 144
3.7 Mutual Inductance 147
3.8 Symbolic Integration and Differentiation Using MATLAB 148
Summary 156
Problems 157
4 Transients 166
4.1 First-Order RC Circuits 167
4.2 DC Steady State 171
4.3 RL Circuits 173
4.4 RC and RL Circuits with General Sources 177
4.5 Second-Order Circuits 183
4.6 Transient Analysis Using the MATLAB Symbolic Toolbox 196
Summary 203
Problems 204
5 Steady-State Sinusoidal Analysis 215
5.1 Sinusoidal Currents and Voltages 216
5.2 Phasors 222
5.3 Complex Impedances 228
5.4 Circuit Analysis with Phasors and Complex Impedances 232
5.5 Power inAC Circuits 238
Complex Power 244
5.6 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits 251
5.7 Balanced Three-Phase Circuits 256
5.8 AC Analysis Using MATLAB 268
Summary 272
Problems 273
6 Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance 286
6.1 Fourier Analysis, Filters, and Transfer Functions 287
6.2 First-Order Lowpass Filters 295
6.3 Decibels, the Cascade Connection, and Logarithmic Frequency Scales 300
6.4 Bode Plots 304
6.5 First-Order Highpass Filters 307
6.6 Series Resonance 311
6.7 Parallel Resonance 316
6.8 Ideal and Second-Order Filters 319
6.9 Transfer Functions and Bode Plots with MATLAB 325
6.10 Digital Signal Processing 330
Summary 339
Problems 341
7 Logic Circuits 355
7.1 Basic Logic Circuit Concepts 356
7.2 Representation of Numerical Data in Binary Form 359
7.3 Combinatorial Logic Circuits 367
7.4 Synthesis of Logic Circuits 374
7.5 Minimization of Logic Circuits 381
7.6 Sequential Logic Circuits 385
Summary 396
Problems 397
8 Microcomputers 408
8.1 Computer Organization 409
8.2 Memory Types 412
8.3 Digital Process Control 414
8.4 The 68HC11 Microcontroller 417
8.5 The Instruction Set and Addressing Modes for the 68HC11 422
8.6 Assembly-Language Programming 430
Summary 435
Problems 436
9 Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems 441
9.1 Measurement Concepts and Sensors 442
9.2 Signal Conditioning 447
9.3 Analog-to-Digital Conversion 454
9.4 LabVIEW 457
Summary 470
Problems 471
10 Diodes 475
10.1 Basic Diode Concepts 476
10.2 Load-Line Analysis of Diode Circuits 479
10.3 Zener-Diode Voltage-Regulator Circuits 482
10.4 Ideal-Diode Model 486
10.5 Piecewise-Linear Diode Models 488
10.6 Rectifier Circuits 491
10.7 Wave-Shaping Circuits 496
10.8 Linear Small-Signal Equivalent
Circuits 501
Summary 506
Problems 507
11 Amplifiers: Specifications and External Characteristics 519
11.1 Basic Amplifier Concepts 520
11.2 Cascaded Amplifiers 525
11.3 Power Supplies and Efficiency 528
11.4 Additional Amplifier Models 531
11.5 Importance of Amplifier Impedances in Various Applications 534
11.6 Ideal Amplifiers 537
11.7 Frequency Response 538
11.8 LinearWaveform Distortion 543
11.9 Pulse Response 547
11.10 Transfer Characteristic and Nonlinear Distortion 550
11.11 Differential Amplifiers 552
11.12 Offset Voltage, Bias Current, and Offset Current 556
Summary 561
Problems 562
12 Field-Effect Transistors 574
12.1 NMOS and PMOS Transistors 575
12.2 Load-Line Analysis of a Simple NMOS Amplifier 582
12.3 Bias Circuits 585
12.4 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits 588
12.5 Common-Source Amplifiers 593
12.6 Source Followers 596
12.7 CMOS Logic Gates 601
Summary 606
Problems 607
13 Bipolar Junction Transistors 615
13.1 Current and Voltage Relationships 616
13.2 Common-Emitter Characteristics 619
13.3 Load-Line Analysis of a Common-Emitter Amplifier 620
13.4 pnp Bipolar Junction Transistors 626
13.5 Large-Signal DC Circuit Models 628
13.6 Large-Signal DC Analysis of BJT Circuits 631
13.7 Small-Signal Equivalent Circuits 639
13.8 Common-Emitter Amplifiers 641
13.9 Emitter Followers 646
Summary 652
Problems 653
14 Operational Amplifiers 663
14.1 Ideal Operational Amplifiers 664
14.2 Inverting Amplifiers 665
14.3 Noninverting Amplifiers 672
14.4 Design of Simple Amplifiers 675
14.5 Op-Amp Imperfections in the Linear Range of Operation 680
14.6 Nonlinear Limitations 684
14.7 DC Imperfections 689
14.8 Differential and Instrumentation Amplifiers 693
14.9 Integrators and Differentiators 695
14.10 Active Filters 698
Summary 703
Problems 704
15 Magnetic Circuits and Transformers 716
15.1 Magnetic Fields 717
15.2 Magnetic Circuits 726
15.3 Inductance and Mutual Inductance 731
15.4 Magnetic Materials 735
15.5 Ideal Transformers 739
15.6 Real Transformers 746
Summary 751
Problems 751
16 DC Machines 762
16.1 Overview of Motors 763
16.2 Principles of DC Machines 772
16.3 Rotating DC Machines 777
16.4 Shunt-Connected and Separately Excited DC Motors 783
16.5 Series-Connected DC Motors 788
16.6 Speed Control of DC Motors 792
16.7 DC Generators 796
Summary 801
Problems 802
17 AC Machines 811
17.1 Three-Phase Induction Motors 812
17.2 Equivalent-Circuit and Performance Calculations for Induction Motors 820
17.3 Synchronous Machines 829
17.4 Single-Phase Motors 841
17.5 Stepper Motors and Brushless DC
Motors 844
Summary 846
Problems 847
APPENDICES
A Complex Numbers 853
Summary 860
Problems 860
B Nominal Values and the Color Code for Resistors 862
C The Fundamentals of Engineering Examination 864
D Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis with SPICE-Based Software 868
E Answers for the Practice Tests 870
F Software and On-Line Student Resources 878
G OrCAD 10.5 Tutorial
Posted at www.pearsonhighered.com/hambley
Index 881