Synopses & Reviews
The purpose of this new work is twofold: first, to enable the user to move from understanding basic electronics to understanding how electric theory relates to practical electronic measurements, and second, to give the user knowledge of what instruments are available, their advantages and disadvantages, and how to choose the right class of instrument for a particular job. It provides a breadth of coverage not readily found elsewhere, including functional descriptions of voltmeters, ammeters, ohmmeters, signal sources, oscilloscopes, frequency counters, circuits for electronic measurements, frequency domain instruments, and logic analyzers. This volume will be of practical use to electrical engineers and technicians who understand basic electronics and want to learn more about electronic measurements.
Synopsis
Introduces measurement theory, and discusses voltmeters, ammeters, ohmmeters, signal sources, oscilloscopes, frequency domain instruments, and logic probes.
Synopsis
The purpose of this new work is twofold: first, to enable the user to move from understanding basic electronics to understanding how electric theory relates to practical electronic measurements, and second, to give the user knowledge of what instruments are available, their advantages and disadvantages, and how to choose the right class of instrument for a particular job. It provides a breadth of coverage not readily found elsewhere, including functional descriptions of voltmeters, ammeters, ohmmeters, signal sources, oscilloscopes, frequency counters, circuits for electronic measurements, frequency domain instruments, and logic analyzers. This volume will be of practical use to electrical engineers and technicians who understand basic electronics and want to learn more about electronic measurements.
Synopsis
Electronic Test Instruments: Analog and Digital Measurements, Second Edition offers a thorough, unified, up-to-date survey of electronics instrumentation, digital and analog. Start with basic measurement theory, then master all mainstream forms of electronic test equipment through real-world application examples. This new edition is now fully updated for the latest technologies, with extensive new coverage of digital oscilloscopes, power supplies, and more.
About the Author
ROBERT A. WITTE is an Engineering Manager with Agilent Technologies (formerly Hewlett-Packard), where he is responsible for the design and development of electronic test and measurement equipment. He has taught electrical engineering courses as an adjunct professor at two universities and has written two books and numerous magazine articles about test and measurement instrumentation.
Table of Contents
Preface.
Acknowledgments
1. Measurement Theory.
Electrical Quantities. Resistance. Polarity. Direct Current. Power. Alternating Current. RMS Value. Average Value. Crest Factor. Phase. AC Power. Nonsinusoidal Waveforms. Harmonics. Square Wave. Pulse Train. Combined DC and AC. Modulated Signals. Decibels. Absolute Decibel Values. Measurement Error. The Loading Effect. The Voltage Divider. Maximum Voltage Transfer. Maximum Power Transfer. Impedance. Instrument Inputs. Bandwidth. Rise Time. Bandwidth Limitation on Square Wave Digital Signals. Logic Families. References.
2. Voltmeters, Ammeters, and Ohmmeters Meters.
DC Voltmeters. AC Voltmeters. RF Probes. Ammeters. Ammeter Used as a Voltmeter. Voltmeter Used as an Ammeter. Current-Sense Resistor. AC Ammeter. Ohmmeters. Voltmeter-Ammeter Method. Series Ohmmeter. Current-Source Method. 4-Wire Ohms Measurements. Multimeters. Meter Range. Other Multimeter Functions. Specifications. References.
3. Signal Sources.
Circuit Model. Floating and Grounded Outputs. Sine Wave Sources. Imperfections in Sine Wave Sources. Function Generators. Pulse Generators. RF Signal Generators. Summary of Signal Sources. References.
4. The Oscilloscope Concept.
Analog Scope Block Diagram. Digital Scope Block Diagram. Sample Rate. Real-Time Sampling. Repetitive Sampling. Triggering. Acquisition/Sweep Control. Vertical Amplifier. Vertical Resolution. AC and DC Coupling. Bandwidth Limit. X-Y Display Mode. High Impedance Inputs. 50-W Inputs. Digital Acquisition and Display Techniques. Oscilloscope Specifications. Scopesmanship. Mixed Signal Oscilloscope. Oscilloscope Probes. Probe Compensation. Active Probes. Differential Measurements. High-Voltage Probe. Current Probes. References.
5. Basic Waveform Measurements.
Voltage Gain Measurement. Phase Measurement. Frequency Measurement (Lissajous Method). Digital Signal Measurement. Frequency Response Measurement. Square Wave Test. Linearity Measurement. Curve Tracer Measurement Technique. Diode I-V Characteristic. Resistor I-V Characteristic. Amplitude Modulation Measurement. Power Measurement. FFT Measurements. Basic Time Domain Reflectometry. References.
6. Electronic Counters.
Basic Frequency Counter. Frequency Dividers. Period Measurement. Reciprocal Counter. Universal Counter. Gated Counter Measurements. Timebase Accuracy. Input Impedance. Frequency Counter Specifications. Time Interval Analyzer. References.
7. Power Supplies.
Power Supplies. Circuit Model. Constant-Voltage Operation. Constant-Current Operation. CV-CC Operation. Overvoltage/Overcurrent Protection. Remote Sensing. Measurement Capability. Power Supply Specifications. References.
8. Spectrum and Network Analyzers.
Spectrum Analyzers. Bank-of-Filters Spectrum Analyzer. FFT Spectrum Analyzers. Wavemeters. Resolution Bandwidth. Narrowband and Broadband Measurements. Swept Spectrum Analyzers. Spectrum Analyzer Measurements. Network Analyzers. Distortion Analyzers. RF Power Measurements. RF Power Meter. References.
9. Logic Analyzers.
Logic Probes. Oscilloscope Logic Measurements. Logic Analyzers. Timing Analyzer. Glitch Detect. Digital Logic Test Example. State Analyzer. Data Formats. State Display. Timing Display. Microprocessor Measurement. Storage Qualification. Trigger Events and Sequencing. Microprocessor Program Flow. Logic Analyzer Probing. Combined Scope and Logic Analyzer. PC-Hosted Logic Analyzer. References.
10. Circuits for Electronic Measurements.
Resistance Measurement-Indirect Method. Output Resistance. Input Resistance. Bridge Measurements. RL and RC Circuits. Resonant Circuits. Diode Measurement Circuit. Instrument Connections. Attenuators. Power Splitters and Combiners Measurement Filters. References.
Appendix A: Table of Electrical Parameters, Units, and Standard Abbreviations.
Appendix B: Mathematical Derivations of Equations.
Average (Mean) Value of a Waveform. RMS Value of Waveform. Full-Wave Rectified Average Value of a Waveform. Bandwidth and Rise Time for a Single-Pole System. Frequency Response Due to Coupling Capacitor. Polar and Rectangular Formats. Resonant Frequency.
Appendix C: Binary, Hexadecimal, Decimal, and ASCII Table.
Index.