Synopses & Reviews
Empires, Nations, and Natives
is a groundbreaking comparative analysis of the interplay between the practice of anthropology and the politics of empires and nation-states in the colonial and postcolonial worlds. It brings together essays that demonstrate how the production of social-science knowledge about the andldquo;otherandrdquo; has been inextricably linked to the crafting of government policies. Subverting established boundaries between national and imperial anthropologies, the contributors explore the role of anthropology in the shifting categorizations of race in southern Africa, the identification of Indians in Brazil, the implementation of development plans in Africa and Latin America, the construction of Mexican and Portuguese nationalism, the genesis of andldquo;national characterandrdquo; studies in the United States during World War II, the modernizing efforts of the French colonial administration in Africa, and postcolonial architecture.
The contributorsandmdash;social and cultural anthropologists from the Americas and Europeandmdash;report on both historical and contemporary processes. Moving beyond controversies that cast the relationship between scholarship and politics in binary terms of complicity or autonomy, they bring into focus a dynamic process in which states, anthropological knowledge, and population groups themselves are mutually constructed. Such a reflexive endeavor is an essential contribution to a critical anthropological understanding of a changing world.
Contributors: Alban Bensa, Marcio Goldman, Adam Kuper, Benoandicirc;t de Landrsquo;Estoile, Claudio Lomnitz, David Mills, Federico Neiburg, Joandatilde;o Pacheco de Oliveira, Jorge Pantaleandoacute;n, Omar Ribeiro Thomaz, Lygia Sigaud, Antonio Carlos de Souza Lima, Florence Weber
By drawing on the social history of the social sciences, the sociology of scientific knowledge, and the ethnography of the State, these essays show how anthropology and state-building should be considered as intertwined processes.
About the Author
Benoandicirc;t de L'Estoile teaches social anthropology at the andEacute;cole Normale Supandeacute;rieure and at the andEacute;cole des Hautes andEacute;tudes en Sciences Sociales, both in Paris.
Federico Neiburg teaches social anthropology at the Museu Nacional, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
Lygia Sigaud teaches social anthropology at the Museu Nacional, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Anthropology and the Government of andldquo;Natives,andrdquo; a Comparative Approach / Benoandicirc;t de Landrsquo;Estoile, Federico Neiburg, and Lygia Sigaud 1
Rationalizing Colonial Domination? Anthropology and Native Policy in French-Ruled Africa / Benoandicirc;t de Landrsquo;Estoile 30
andldquo;The Good-Hearted Portuguese Peopleandrdquo;: Anthropology of Nation, Anthropology of Empire / Omar Ribeiro Thomaz 58
Vichy France and the End of Scientific Folklore (1937andndash;1954) / Florence Weber 88
From Nation to Empire: War and National Character Studies in the United States / Federico Neiburg and Marcio Goldman 108
Anthropology at the End of Empire: The Rise and Fall of the Colonial Social Sciences Research Council, 1944andndash;1962 / David Mills 135
Bordering on Anthropology: Dialectics of a National Tradition in Mexico / Claudio Lomnitz 167
Indigenism in Brazil: The International Migration of State Policies / Antonio Carlos de Souza Lima 197
The Anthropologist as Expert: Brazilian Ethnology between Indianism and Indigenism / Joandatilde;o Pacheco de Oliveira 223
Anthropology, Development, and Nongovernmental Organizations in Latin America / Jorge F. Pantaleandoacute;n 248
The Ethnologist and the Architect: A Postcolonial Experiment in the French Pacific / Alban Bensa 263
andldquo;Today We Have Naming of Partsandrdquo;: The Work of Anthropologists in Southern Africa / Adam Kuper 277