Synopses & Reviews
This text is intended for introductory courses in forest measurements. Emphasis is on the measurement of timber, with detailed coverage on measuring products cut from tree boles, measuring attributes of standing trees, inventorying volumes of forest stands, and predicting growth of individual trees and stands of trees. Background information on statistial methods, sampling designs, land measurements, and use of aerial photographs is also provided. An introduction to assessing range, wildlife, water, and recreation resources associated with forested lands comprises the last chapter. The measurement principles and techniques discussed apply to any inventory that includes assessment of the tree overstory, regardless of whether the inventory is conducted for timber, range, wildlife, watershed, recreation, or other management objectives.
Table of Contents
Preface
1 Introduction
1-1 Purpose of Book
1-2 Need for Measurements
1-3 Measurement Cost Considerations
1-4 Abbreviations and Symbols
Numerical Considerations
1-5 Scales of Measurement
1-6 Significant Digits and Rounding Off
1-7 English Versus Metric Systems
Presenting Information
1-8 Preparation of Graphs
1-9 Preparation of Technical Reports
1-10 Reviews of Technical Literature
Problems
2 Statistical Methods
2-1 Introduction
2-2 Bias, Accuracy, and Precision
2-3 Calculating Probabilities
2-4 Factorial Notation, Permutations, and Combinations
Statistical Concepts
2-5 Analysis of Data
2-6 Populations, Parameters, and Variables
2-7 Frequency Distributions
Statistical Computations
2-8 Mode, Median, and Mean
2-9 The Range and Average Deviation
2-10 Variance and Standard Deviation
2-11 Coefficient of Variation
2-12 Standard Error of the Mean
2-13 Confidence Limits
2-14 Covariance
2-15 Simple Correlation Coefficient
2-16 Expansion of Means and Standard Errors
2-17 Mean and Variance of Linear Functions
Simple Linear Regression
2-18 Definitions
2-19 A Linear Equation
2-20 A Sample Problem
2-21 Indicators of Fit
2-22 Regression Through the Origin
2-23 Hazards of Interpretation
2-24 Multiple Regression
Problems
References
3 Sampling Designs
3-1 Introduction
3-2 Sampling Versus Complete Enumeration
3-3 The Sampling Frame
Simple Random and Systematic Sampling
3-4 Simple Random Sampling
3-5 Sampling Intensity
3-6 Effect of Plot Size on Variability
3-7 Systematic Sampling
Stratified Random Sampling
3-8 Stratifying the Population
3-9 Proportional Allocation of Field Plots
3-10 Optimum Allocation of Field Plots
3-11 Sample Size for Stratified Sampling
Regression and Ratio Estimation
3-12 Regression Estimation
3-13 Comparison of Regression Estimation to Simple Random Sampling
3-14 Ratio Estimation
Double Sampling
3-15 Double Sampling with Regression and Ratio Estimators
3-16 Double Sampling for Stratification
Cluster and Two-Stage Sampling
3-17 Cluster Sampling
3-18 Two-Stage Sampling
Sampling for Discrete Variables
3-19 Simple Random Sampling for Attributes
3-20 Cluster Sampling for Attributes
3-21 Relative Efficiencies of Sampling Plans
Problems
References
4 Land Measurements
4-1 Applications of Surveying
Measuring Distances
4-2 Pacing Horizontal Distances
4-3 Chaining Horizontal Distances
4-4 Methods of Tape Graduation
4-5 Electronic Distance Measurement
Using Magnetic Compasses
4-6 Nomenclature of the Compass
4-7 Magnetic Declination
4-8 Allowance for Declination
4-9 Use of the Compass
Area Determination
4-10 Simple Closed Traverse
4-11 Graphical Area Determination
4-12 DOT Grids
4-13 Planimeters
4-14 Transects
4-15 Topographic Maps
Colonial Land Subdivision
4-16 Metes and Bounds Surveys
The U.S. Public Land Survey
4-17 History
4-18 The Method of Subdivision
4-19 The 24-Mile Tracts
4-20 Townships
4-21 Establishment of Sections and Lots
4-22 Survey Field Notes
4-23 Marking Land Survey Lines
Global Positioning Systems
4-24 Purpose of GPS
4-25 How GPS Works
4-26 GPS Accuracy
4-27 Differential Correction
4-28 GPS Data
4-29 GPS Receivers
Problems
References
5 Cubic Volume, Cord Measure, and Weight Scaling
5-1 Logs, Bolts, and Scaling Units
5-2 Computing Cross-Sectional Areas
5-3 Log Volumes and Geometric Solids
5-4 Scaling by the Cubic Foot
5-5 Inscribed Square Timbers
Measuring Stacked Wood
5-6 The Cord
5-7 Solid Contents of Stacked Wood
5-8 An Ideal Measure
Weight Scaling of Pulpwood
5-9 The Appeal of Weight Scaling
5-10 Variations in Weight
5-11 Wood Density and Weight Ratios
5-12 Advantages of Weight Scaling
Problems
References
6 Log Rules, Scaling Practices, and Specialty Wood Products
6-1 Log Rules
6-2 General Features of Board-Foot Log Rules
Derivation of Log Rules
6-3 Mill-Tally Log Rules
6-4 Board Foot-Cubic Root Ratios
6-5 Scribner Log Rule
6-6 Doyle Log Rule
6-7 International Log Rule
6-8 Overrun and Underrun
6-9 Board-Foot Volume Conversions
Board-Foot Log Scaling
6-10 Scaling Straight, Sound Logs
6-11 Log Defects
6-12 Board-Foot Deduction Methods
6-13 Cull Percent Deduction Methods
6-14 Merchantable Versus Cull Logs
6-15 Scaling Records
6-16 Log Scanning
Log Grading
6-17 Need for Log Grading
6-18 Hardwood Log Grading
6-19 Softwood Log Grading
Weight Scaling of Sawlogs
6-20 Advantages and Limitations
6-21 Volume-Weight Relationships for Sawlogs
Specialty Wood Products
6-22 Specialty Products Defined
6-23 Veneer Logs
6-24 Poles and Piling
6-25 Fence Posts
6-26 Railroad Ties
6-27 Mine Timbers
6-28 Stumps for the Wood Naval-Stores Industry
6-29 Bolts and Billets
6-30 Fuel Wood
Problems
References
7 Measuring Standing Trees
7-1 Tree Diameters
7-2 Diameter at Breast Height for Irregular Trees
7-3 Measuring Bark Thickness
7-4 Tree Diameter Classes
7-5 Basal Area and Mean Diameter
7-6 Upper-Stem Diameters
Tree Heights
7-7 Height Poles
7-8 Height Measurement Principles
7-9 Merritt Hypsometer
7-10 Total Versus Merchantable Heights
7-11 Sawlog Merchantability for Irregular Stems
Tree Form Expressions
7-12 Form Factors and Quotients
7-13 Girard Form Class
7-14 Form Measurements
Tree Crowns
7-15 Importance of Crown Measures
7-16 Crown Width
7-17 Crown Length
7-18 Crown Surface Area and Volume
Tree Age
7-19 Definitions
7-20 Age From Annual Rings
7-21 Age Without Annual Rings
Problems
References
8 Volumes and Weights of Standing Trees
8-1 Purpose of Volume and Weight Equations
8-2 Types of Tree Volume and Weight Equations
Multiple-Entry Volume Tables
8-3 Form-Class Versus Non-Form-Class Equations
8-4 Compilation of MEsavage-Girard Form-Class Tables
8-5 Constructing Multiple-Entry Volume Equations
8-6 Selecting a Multiple-Entry Volume Equation
8-7 Making Allowances for Various Utilization Standards
8-8 Tree Volumes From Taper Equations
8-9 Integrating Taper Functions
Single-Entry Volume Equations
8-10 Advantages and Limitations
8-11 Constructing a Single-Entry Equation from Measurements of Felled Trees
8-12 Derivation from a Multiple-Entry Equation
8-13 Tarif Tables
Tree Weight Equations
8-14 Field Tallies by Weight
8-15 Weight Equations for Tree Boles
8-16 Biomass Equations
Problems
References
9 Forest Inventory
9-1 Introduction
9-2 Classes of Timber Surveys
9-3 Inventory Planning
9-4 Forest Inventory and Analysis
Special Inventory Considerations
9-5 Tree Tallies
9-6 Electronic Data Recorders
9-7 Tree-Defect Estimation
9-8 The Complete Tree Tally
9-9 Organizing the Complete Tree Tally
9-10 Timber Inventory as a Sampling Process
Summaries of Cruise Data
9-11 Stand and Stock Tables
9-12 Timber Volumes From Stump Diameters
Sales of Standing Timber
9-13 Stumpage Value
9-14 Methods of Selling Standing Timber
9-15 Timber-Sale Contracts
Problems
References
10 Inventories with Sample Strips or Plots
10-1 Fixed-Area Sampling Units
Strip System of Cruising
10-2 Strip-Cruise Layout
10-3 Computing Tract Acreage From Sample Strips
10-4 Field Procedure for Strip Cruising
10-5 Pros and Cons of Strip Cruising
Line-Plot System of Cruising
10-6 The Traditional Approach
10-7 Plot Cruise Example
10-8 Sampling Intensity and Design
10-9 Cruising Techniques
10-10 Boundary Overlap
10-11 Merits of the Plot System
Use of Permanent Sample Plots
10-12 Criteria for Inventory Plots
10-13 Sample Units: Size, Shape, and Number
10-14 Field-Plot Establishment
10-15 Field-Plot Measurements
10-16 Periodic Reinventories
Regeneration Surveys with Sample Plots
10-17 Need for Regeneration Surveys
10-18 Stocked-Quadrat Method
10-19 Plot-Count Method
10-20 Staked-Point Method
Problems
References
11 Inventories with Point Samples
11-1 The Concept of Point Sampling
11-2 Nomenclature and Variants
11-3 Selecting a Sighting Angle
11-4 Plot Radius Factor
How Point Sampling Works
11-5 Imaginary Tree Zones
11-6 Equality of Tree Basal Area on a Per-Acre Basis
Implementing Point Sampling
11-7 The Stick-Type Angle Gauge
11-8 The Spiegel Relascope
11-9 The Wedge Prism
11-10 Calibration of Prisms or Angle Gauges
11-11 Corrections for Slope
11-12 Doubtful Trees, Limiting Distances, and Bias
11-13 Boundary Overlap
11-14 Choice of Instruments
Volume Calculations
11-15 Example of Computational Procedures
11-16 Basal Area Per Acre
11-17 Trees Per Acre
11-18 Volume Per Acre by the Volume-Factor Approach
11-19 Volume Per Acre by the Volume/Basal-Area Ratios Approach
11-20 Estimating Precision
11-21 Field Tally by Height Class
11-22 Point Sampling in a Double-Sampling Context
11-23 Estimating Growth from Permanent Points
Point-Sample Cruising Intensity
11-24 Comparisons with Conventional Plots
11-25 Number of Sampling Points Needed
11-26 Point Samples Versus Plots
11-27 Attributes and Limitations
Problems
References
12 Inventories with 3P Sampling
12-1 Introduction
12-2 Components of 3P Inventory
How 3P is Applied
12-3 Timber-Sale Example
12-4 Preliminary Steps
12-5 Field Procedure
12-6 Sample-Tree Measurement
12-7 3P Computations
12-8 Numerical Example
Extensions, Attributes, and Limitations of Basic 3P Sampling
12-9 Extensions of Basic 3P Sampling
12-10 Attributes and Limitations of 3P Sampling
Problems
References
13 Using Aerial Photographs
13-1 Purpose of Chapter
13-2 Types of Aerial Photographs
13-3 Black-and-White Aerial Films
13-4 Color Aerial Films
13-5 Seasons for Aerial Photography
13-6 Determining Photographic Scales
13-7 Photogeometry
13-8 Aligning Prints for Stereoscopic Study
Cover-Type Identificaion and Mapping
13-9 Forest Type Recognition
13-10 Identifying Individual Species
13-11 Timber Type Maps
13-12 Using Photos for Field Travel
Basic Forest Measurements
13-13 Measuring Area and Distance
13-14 Measuring Heights by Parallax
13-15 Parallax-Measuring Devices
13-16 Tree-Crown Diameters
13-17 Tree Counts
13-18 Individual-Tree Volumes
13-19 Aerial Stand-Volume Tables
13-20 Crown Closure
13-21 Stand-Volume Estimates
13-22 Adjusting Photo Volumes by Field Checks
Obtaining Aerial Photographs
13-23 The Options
13-24 Photography from Commercial Firms
13-25 Photography from the U.S. Government
13-26 Photography from the Canadian Government
13-27 Taking Your Own Pictures
13-28 Contracting For New Photography
13-29 Other Remote-Sensing Tools
Problems
References
14 Geographic Information Systems
14-1 What is a GIS?
GIS Data Structures
14-2 Data Formats
14-3 Raster Data
14-4 Vector Data
14-5 Raster Versus Vector Systems
Geographic Coordinate Systems
14-6 Types of Coordinate Systems
14-7 The Latitude and Longitude System
14-8 The Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System
14-9 The State Plane Coordinate System
GIS Data Sources, Entry, and Quality
14-10 Deriving Digital Maps
14-11 Existing Map Data
14-12 Digitizing and Scanning
14-13 Field and Image Data
14-14 Errors and Accuracy
GIS Analysis Functions
14-15 Analysis-The Power of GIS
14-16 Spatial Analysis Functions
14-17 Cartographic Modeling
Problems
References
15 Site, Stocking, and Stand Density
15-1 The Concepts of Site
15-2 Direct Measurement of Forest Productivity
15-3 Tree Height as a Measure of Site Quality
15-4 Field Measurement of Site Index
15-5 Construction of Site-Index Curves
15-6 Interspecies Site-Index Relationships
15-7 Periodic Height Growth
15-8 Physical-Factors Approach
15-9 Indicator-Plant Approach
15-10 Limitations of Site Index
Stocking and Stand Density
15-11 Definitions
15-12 Measures of Stocking
15-13 Basal Area Per Acre
15-14 Trees Per Acre
15-15 Stand-Density Index
15-16 3/2 Law of Self-Thinning
15-17 Relative Spacing
15-18 Crown Competition Factor
15-19 Stocking Guides
15-20 Measures of Point Density
Problems
References
16 Tree-Growth and Stand-Table Projection
16-1 Increases in Tree Diameter
16-2 Increases in Tree Height
16-3 Periodic and Mean Annual Growth
16-4 Past Growth From Complete Stem Analysis
16-5 Tree Growth as a Percentage Value
16-6 Predictions of Tree Growth
16-7 Future Yields from Growth Percentage
16-8 Growth Prediction from Diameter and Height Increases
Stand-Table Projection
16-9 Components of Stand Growth
16-10 Characteristics of Stand-Table Projection
16-11 Diameter Growth
16-12 Stand Mortality and Ingrowth
16-13 A Sample Stand Projection
Problems
References
17 Growth and Yield Models
17-1 Introduction
17-2 Growth and Yield Relationships
17-3 Mathematical Relationships Between Growth and Yield
Growth and Yield Models for Even-Aged Stands
17-4 Normal Yield Tables
17-5 Empirical Yield Tables
17-6 Variable-Density Growth and Yield Equations
17-7 Size-Class Distribution Models
17-8 Example of Computatins for Size-Class Distribution Model
17-9 Individual-Tree Models for Even-Aged Stands
Growth and Yield Models for Uneven-Aged Stands
17-10 Special Considerations in Modeling Uneven-Aged Stands
17-11 Growth and Yield Equations Based on Elasped Time
17-12 Size-Class Distribution Models Using Stand-Table Projection
17-13 Individual-Tree Models that Include Uneven-Aged Stands
Applying Growth and Yield Models
17-14 Enhancing Output from Growth and Yield Models
17-15 Choosing an Appropriate Growth and Yield Model
17-16 A Word of Caution
Problems
References
18 Assessing Rangeland, Wildlife, Water,and Recreational Resources
18-1 Purpose of Chapter
Measuring Rangeland Resources
18-2 Forage Resources
18-3 Planning Range Measurements
18-4 Sampling Considerations
18-5 Determining Grazing Capacity
18-6 Clipped-Plot Technique
18-7 Range-Utilization Estimates
18-8 Range Condition and Trend
Measuring Wildlife Resources
18-9 Animal Populations and Habitat
18-10 Population Estimates
18-11 Habitat Measurement
Measuring Water Resources
18-12 Importance of Water
18-13 Factors Affecting Runoff
18-14 Physical Characteristics of a Watershed
18-15 Measurement of Water Quantity
18-16 Measurement of Water Quality
Measuring Recreational Resources
18-17 The Problem
18-18 Visitor Use of Recreational Facilities
18-19 Assessing Potential Recreational Sites
Problems
References
Answers to Selected Problems
Glossay