* Review questions at the end of each chapter isolate key material for effective self study.
UNIT 1. INTRODUCTION.
Chapter 1. Introduction to Digital Geography.
Learning Objectives.
Why Geographic Information Systems?
What Are Geographic Information Systems?
Where Do I Begin?
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
UNIT 2. DIGITAL GEOGRAPHIC DATA AND MAPS.
Chapter 2. Basic Geographic Concepts.
Learning Objectives.
Developing Spatial Awareness.
Spatial Measurement Levels.
Spatial Location and Reference.
Spatial Patterns.
Geographic Data Collection.
Populations and Sampling Schemes.
Making Inferences from Samples.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
Chapter 3. Map Basics.
Learning Objectives.
Abstract Nature of Maps.
A Paradigm Shift in Cartography.
Map Scale.
More Map Characteristics.
Map Projections.
Grid Systems for Mapping.
The Cartographic Process.
Map Symbolism.
Map Abstraction and Cartographic Databases.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
Chapter 4. GIS Data Models.
Learning Objectives.
A Quick Review of the Map as an Abstraction of Space.
Some Basic Computer File Structures.
Simple Lists.
Ordered Sequential Files.
Indexed Files.
Computer Database Structures for Managing Data.
Hierarchical Data Structures.
Network Systems.
Relational Database Management Systems.
Graphic Representation of Entities and Attributes.
GIS Data Models for Multiple Maps.
Raster Models.
Compact Storing of Raster Data.
Commercial Raster Compaction Products.
Vector Models.
Compacting Vector Data Models.
A Vector Model to Represent Surfaces.
Hybrid and Integrated Systems.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
UNIT 3. INPUT, STORAGE, AND EDITING.
Chapter 5. The Input Subsystem.
Learning Objectives.
Primary Data.
Input Devices.
Raster, Vector, or Both.
Reference Frameworks and Transformations.
Map Preparation and the Digitizing Process.
What to Input.
How Much to Input.
Methods of Vector Input.
Methods of Raster Input.
Remote Sensing as a Special Case of Raster Data Input.
GPS data input.
Secondary Data.
Metadata and Metadata Standards.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
Chapter 6 Data Storage and Editing.
Learning Objectives.
Storage of GIS Databases.
The Importance of Editing the GIS Database.
Detecting and Editing Errors of Different Types.
Entity Errors: Vector.
Attribute Errors: Raster and Vector.
Dealing with Projection Changes.
Joining Adjacent Maps: Edge Matching.
Conflations.
Templating.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
UNIT 4. ANALYSIS: THE HEART OF THE GIS.
Chapter 7. Elementary Spatial Analysis.
Introduction to GIS Spatial Analysis.
Learning Objectives.
Preliminary Notes About Flowcharting.
GIS Data Query.
Locating and Identifying Spatial Objects.
Defining Spatial Characteristics.
Point Attributes.
Line Attributes.
Area Attributes.
Working with Higher-Level Objects.
Higher-Level Point Objects.
Higher-Level Line Objects.
Higher-Level Area Objects.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
Chapter 8. Measurement.
Learning Objectives.
Measuring Length of Linear Objects.
Measuring Polygons.
Calculating Polygon Lengths.
Calculating Perimeter.
Calculating Areas of Polygonal Features.
Measuring Shape.
Measuring Sinuosity.
Measuring Polygon Shape.
Measuring Distance.
Simple Distance.
Functional Distance.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
Chapter 9. Classification.
Learning Objectives.
Classification Principles.
Elements of Reclassification.
Neighborhood Functions.
Roving Windows: Filters.
Immediate Neighborhoods.
Extended Neighborhoods.
Buffers.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
Chapter 10. Statistical Surfaces.
Learning Objectives.
What Are Surfaces?
Surface Mapping.
Sampling the Statistical Surface.
The DEM.
Raster Surfaces.
Interpolation.
Linear Interpolation.
Methods of Nonlinear Interpolation.
Problems of Interpolation.
Terrain Reclassification.
Steepness of Slope.
Azimuth or Orientation (Aspect).
Shape or Form.
Visibility and Intervisibility.
Slicing the Statistical Surface.
Cut And Fill.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
Chapter 11 Spatial Arrangement.
Learning Objectives.
Point, Area, and Line Arrangements.
Point Patterns.
Quadrat Analysis.
Nearest Neighbor Analysis.
Thiessen Polygons.
Area Patterns.
Distance and Adjacency.
Other Polygonal Arrangement Measures.
Linear Patterns.
Line Densities.
Nearest Neighbors and Line Intercepts.
Directionality of Linear and Areal Objects.
Connectivity of Linear Objects.
Gravity Model.
Routing and Allocation.
The Missing Variable: Using Other Map Layers.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
Chapter 12. Comparing Variables Among Maps.
Learning Objectives.
The Cartographic Overlay.
Point-In-Polygon and Line-In-Polygon Operations.
Polygon Overlay.
Automating the Overlay Process.
Automating Point-in-Polygon and Line-in-Polygon Procedures in Raster.
Automating Polygon Overlay in Raster.
Automating Vector Overlay.
Types of Vector Overlay.
CAD-Type Overlay.
Topological Vector Overlay.
Topological Vector Point-in-Polygon and Line-in-Polygon Overlay.
A Note about Error in Overlay.
Dasymetric Mapping.
Some Final Notes on Overlay.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
Chapter 13. Cartographic Modeling.
Learning Objectives.
Model Components.
The Cartographic Model.
Types Of Cartographic Models.
Inductive and Deductive Modeling.
Factor Selection.
Model Flowcharting.
Working Through the Model.
Conflict Resolution.
Some Example Cartographic Models.
Model Implementation.
Model Verification.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
UNIT 5. GIS OUTPUT.
Chapter 14. The Output from Analysis.
Learning Objectives.
Output: The Display of Analysis.
Cartographic Output.
The Design Process.
Map Design Controls.
Nontraditional Cartographic Output.
GIS on the Internet.
Noncartographic Output.
Interactive Output.
Tables and Charts.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
UNIT 6. GIS DESIGN, APPLICATIONS, AND RESEARCH.
Chapter 15. GIS Design.
Learning Objectives.
Analytical Model and Database Design.
Spatial Processes and the Scope and Structure of the Model.
Establishing the Effective Spatial Domain of the Model.
GIS Tools for Solving Problems.
Study Area.
Scale, Resolution, and Level of Detail.
Classification.
Coordinate System and Projection.
Selecting the Software.
Institutional / System Design.
System Design Principles.
System Development Waterfall Model.
Some General Systems Characteristics.
The Institutional Setting for GIS operations.
The System and the Outside World.
Internal Players.
External Players.
Cost-Benefit Issues.
GIS Information Products.
How Information Products Drive the GIS.
Organizing the Local Views.
Avoiding Design Creep.
View Integration.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
Chapter 16. GIS Applications.
Learning Objectives.
Archive Emphasizing Applications.
Pattern Detection and Characterization Emphasizing Applications.
Pattern Exploitation Emphasizing Applications.
Pattern Comparison Emphasizing Applications.
Space-Time Emphasizing Applications.
Predictive Modeling Applications.
Terms.
Review Questions.
References.
Chapter 17. GIS Research.
Learning Objectives.
Geographic Representation (Including Ontology).
Scale.