Synopses & Reviews
According to the theory of relativity, we are constantly bathed in gravitational radiation. When stars explode or collide, a portion of their mass becomes energy that disturbs the very fabric of the space-time continuum like ripples in a pond. But proving the existence of these waves has been difficult; the cosmic shudders are so weak that only the most sensitive instruments can be expected to observe them directly. Fifteen times during the last thirty years scientists have claimed to have detected gravitational waves, but so far none of those claims have survived the scrutiny of the scientific community. Gravity's Shadow
chronicles the forty-year effort to detect gravitational waves, while exploring the meaning of scientific knowledge and the nature of expertise.
Gravitational wave detection involves recording the collisions, explosions, and trembling of stars and black holes by evaluating the smallest changes ever measured. Because gravitational waves are so faint, their detection will come not in an exuberant moment of discovery but through a chain of inference; for forty years, scientists have debated whether there is anything to detect and whether it has yet been detected. Sociologist Harry Collins has been tracking the progress of this research since 1972, interviewing key scientists and delineating the social process of the science of gravitational waves.
Engagingly written and authoritatively comprehensive, Gravity's Shadow explores the people, institutions, and government organizations involved in the detection of gravitational waves. This sociological history will prove essential not only to sociologists and historians of science but to scientists themselves.
Gravityandrsquo;s Ghost and Big Dog
brings to life scienceandrsquo;s efforts to detect cosmic gravitational waves. These ripples in space-time are predicted by general relativity, and their discovery will not only demonstrate the truth of Einsteinandrsquo;s theories but also transform astronomy. Although no gravitational wave has ever been directly detected, the previous five years have been an especially exciting period in the field. Here sociologist Harry Collins offers readers an unprecedented view of gravitational wave research and explains what it means for an analyst to do work of this kind.and#160;and#160;and#160;and#160;and#160;and#160;and#160;and#160;and#160;and#160;and#160;Collins was embedded with the gravitational wave physicists as they confronted two possible discoveriesandmdash;andldquo;Bigand#160;Dog,andrdquo; fully analyzed in this volume for the first time, and the andldquo;Equinox Event,andrdquo; which was first chronicled by Collins in Gravityandrsquo;s Ghost
. Collins records the agonizing arguments that arose as the scientists worked out what they had seen and how to present it to the world, along the way demonstrating how even the most statistical of sciences rest on social and philosophical choices. Gravityandrsquo;s Ghost and Big Dog
draws on nearly fifty years of fieldwork observing scientists at the American Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and elsewhere around the world to offer an inspired commentary on the place of science in society today.
About the Author
is the Distinguished Research Professor of Sociology and director of the Centre for the Study of Knowledge, Expertise, and Science at Cardiff University, and a fellow of the British Academy. Among his numerous books are Gravityandrsquo;s Shadow
, Rethinking Expertise
, and Tacit and Explicit Knowledge
, all published by the University of Chicago Press. He lives in Cardiff, UK.
Table of Contents
Common Acronyms in Gravitational Wave Research
Introduction Two Kinds of Space-Time
PART I and#224; LA RECHERCHE DES ONDES PERDUES
Chapter 1 The Start of a New Science
Chapter 2 From Idea to Experiment
Chapter 3 What Are Gravitational Waves?
Chapter 4 The First Published
Chapter 5 The Reservoir of Doubt
Chapter 6 The First Experiments by Others
Chapter 7 Joe Weber's Findings Begin to Be Rejected in the Constitutive Forum
Chapter 8 Joe Weber Fights Back
Chapter 9 The Consensus Is Formed
Chapter 10 An Attempt to Break the Regress: The Calibration of Experiments
Chapter 11 Forgotten Waves
Chapter 12 How Waves Spread
PART II TWO NEW TECHNOLOGIES
Chapter 13 The Start of Cryogenics
Chapter 14 NAUTILUS
Chapter 15 NAUTILUS, November 1996 to June 1998
Chapter 16 The Spheres
Chapter 17 The Start of Interferometry
Chapter 18 Caltech Enters the Game
PART III BAR WARS
Chapter 19 The Science of the Life after Death of Room-Temperature Bars
Chapter 20 Scientific Institutions and Life after Death
Chapter 21 Room-Temperature Bars and the Policy Regress
Chapter 22 Scientific Cultures
Chapter 23 Resonant Technology and the National Science Foundation Review
Chapter 24 Ripples and Conferences
Chapter 25 Three More Conferences and a Funeral
Chapter 26 The Downtrodden Masses
Chapter 27 The Funding of LIGO and Its Consequences
PART IV THE INTERFEROMETERS AND THE INTERFEROMETEERSand#8212;FROM SMALL SCIENCE TO BIG SCIENCE
Chapter 28 Moving Technology: What Is in a Large Interferometer?
Chapter 29 Moving Earth: The Sites
Chapter 30 Moving People: From Small Science to Big Science
Chapter 31 The Beginning of Coordinated Science
Chapter 32 The Drever Affair
Chapter 33 The End of the Skunk Works
Chapter 34 Regime 3: The Coordinators
Chapter 35 Mechanism versus Magic
Chapter 36 The 40-Meter Team versus the New Management, Continued
Chapter 37 Regime 4 (and 5): The Collaboration
PART V BECOMING A NEW SCIENCE
Chapter 38 Pooling Data: Prospects and Problems
Chapter 39 International Collaboration among the Interferometer Groups
Chapter 40 When Is Science? The Meaning of Upper Limits
PART VI SCIENCE, SCIENTISTS, AND SOCIOLOGY
Chapter 41 Coming On Air: The Study and Science
Chapter 42 Methodology as the Meeting of Two Cultures: The Study, Scientists, and the Public
Chapter 43 Final Reflections: The Study and Sociology
Chapter 44 Joe Weber: A Personal and Methodological Note
Coda: January 2004
Appendix Intro.1 What Is Small?
Appendix Intro.2 Gravitational Waves, Gravitational Radiation, and Gravity Waves: A Note on Terminology
Appendix Intro.3 Roger Babson's Essay, "Gravityand#8212;Our Enemy Number One"
Appendix III.1 Colonial Cringe
Appendix V.1 The Method