Synopses & Reviews
challenges the claim that environmentalism came to Brazil from abroad. Two political scientists, Kathryn Hochstetler and Margaret E. Keck, retell the story of environmentalism in Brazil from the inside out, analyzing the extensive efforts within the country to save its natural environment, and the interplay of those efforts with transnational environmentalism. The authors trace Brazilandrsquo;s complex environmental politics as they have unfolded over time, from their mid-twentieth-century conservationist beginnings to the contemporary development of a distinctive socio-environmentalism meant to address ecological destruction and social injustice simultaneously. Hochstetler and Keck argue that explanations of Brazilian environmentalismandmdash;and environmentalism in the global South generallyandmdash;must take into account the way that domestic political processes shape environmental reform efforts.
The authors present a multilevel analysis encompassing institutions and individuals within the governmentandmdash;at national, state, and local levelsandmdash;as well as the activists, interest groups, and nongovernmental organizations that operate outside formal political channels. They emphasize the importance of networks linking committed actors in the government bureaucracy with activists in civil society. Portraying a gradual process marked by periods of rapid advance, Hochstetler and Keck show how political opportunities have arisen from major political transformations such as the transition to democracy and from critical events, including the well-publicized murders of environmental activists in 1988 and 2004. Rather than view foreign governments and organizations as the instigators of environmental policy change in Brazil, the authors point to their importance at key moments as sources of leverage and support.
andldquo;Greening Brazil is an extremely interesting, insightful, and important book. It is important precisely because it fills a huge gap in outsidersandrsquo; understanding of Brazilandrsquo;s internal politics on environmental issues, providing insights into an often misunderstood country whose environmental performance has truly global implications.andrdquo;andmdash;J. Timmons Roberts, coauthor of Trouble in Paradise: Globalization and Environmental Crises in Latin America
andldquo;Kathryn Hochstetler and Margaret E. Keck have vast and complementary direct experiences with environmental reform in Brazil, and their long-term commitment to following these issues has clearly paid off in their analysis of the countryandrsquo;s long, rich, and distinctive reform history.andrdquo;andmdash;Jonathan Fox, University of California, Santa Cruz
andldquo;Greening Brazil is a superb analysis of the growth of the Brazilian environmental movement since the 1950s. The authors bring to the task a sophisticated understanding of Brazilian politics and a deep knowledge of international trends in environmental politics. Greening Brazil is the most satisfying account yet written of any environmental movement outside of Europe and the United States.andrdquo;
andldquo;Greening Brazil is a vital contribution for readers interested in the development of social environmentalism in Brazil, as well as the recent rise in environmental politics in Brazil and Latin America. Kathryn Hochstetler and Margaret Keck . . . produce a persuasive view of the social, institutional, and governmental interactions that have shaped governance of the environmental movement and politics in Brazil. . . . It should be seen as a pioneering book in the field, hopefully encouraging more research on the subject.andrdquo;
andldquo;Greening Brazil, a breakthrough book, makes an outstanding contribution to this puzzle. It demonstrates how small agencies in low salience issue areas confronting powerful detractors survive, expand and make a difference. Kathryn Hochstetler and Margaret Keck persuasively argue that extensive interpersonal and professional networks carefully cultivated by key leaders, along with their finely honed discernment over which battles to fight and how to fight them, are the key explanatory factors. . . . Moreover, the book is a vivid example of how to advance knowledge, informed by theory, on the real workings of Latin American institutions beyond deductive analyses of pathologies in institutional design followed by prescriptions on how to fix them.andrdquo;
Authoritative work on the complex history of modern Brazilian environmental policy and its relation to both transnational politics and domestic democratization processes.
About the Author
Kathryn Hochstetler is Professor of Political Science at the University of New Mexico. She is a coauthor of Sovereignty, Democracy, and Global Civil Society: State-Society Relations at UN World Conferences and a coeditor of Palgrave Advances in International Environmental Politics.
Margaret E. Keck is Professor of Political Science at The Johns Hopkins University. She is the author of The Workersandrsquo; Party and Democratization in Brazil and a coauthor of Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics.
Table of Contents
List of Tables viii
List of Acronyms and Organizations xv
1. Building Environmental Institutions: National Environmental Politics and Policy 23
2. National Environmental Activism: The Changing Terms of Engagement 63
3. From Protest to Project: The Third Wave of Environmental Activism 97
4. Amazonia 140
5. From Pollution Control to Sustainable Cities 186
Appendix: List of Interviews 231