Synopses & Reviews
Raves for Dr. Johnson's previous classic, High-Speed Digital Design!
"....one of the finest efforts to come along in the field of applied high-speed digital design because of its focus on providing tools for the whole design team bringing a high-speed product to life. For all the PCB designers and circuit designers out there, buy it; read it; keep it." -- Dan Baumgartner, Printed Circuit Design
Faster and farther: State-of-the-art signal transmission techniques
In High-Speed Signal Propagation, Howard Johnson and Martin Graham bring together state-of-the-art techniques for building digital interconnections that can transmit faster, farther, and more efficiently than ever before. Packed with new examples and never-before-published high-speed design guidance, this book offers a complete and unified theory of signal propagation for all metallic media, from cables to pcb traces to chips. Coverage includes:
- Managing tradeoffs between speed and distance
- Physical theory of signal impairments: skin and proximity effects, dielectric loss, surface roughness, and non-TEM mode propagation
- Generalized frequency- and step-response models
- Calculation of time-domain waveforms from frequency-domain transfer functions
- Differential signaling: Edge-coupled and broadside-coupled differential pairs, bends, intra-pair skew, differential trace geometry impedance, crosstalk, and radiation
- Inter-cabinet connections: Coax, twisted-pair, fiber, equalizers, and LAN building wiring
- Clock distribution: Special requirements, repeaters, multi-drop clock distribution, jitter, and power filtering
- Simulation: Frequency domain simulation methods, Spice, and IBIS
-- The companion to High Speed Digital Design, Johnson's previous book and one of the most successful titles in Electrical Engineering ever.
-- One of the first books on high-speed transmission-line behavior for digital engineers.
This book is a companion to the original book by Johnson and Graham, High-Speed Digital Design: A Handbook of Black Magic, Prentice-Hall, 1993. The two books may be used separately, or together. They cover different material. High-Speed Signal Propagation delves into the issues relevant to signal transmission at the upper limits of speed and distance. This book shows you how to transmit faster and further than ever before, considering today's digital networks and wireless devices. You'll find it packed with practical advice, including material never before published on the subject of high-speed design. Johnson also presents a complete and unified theory of signal propagation for all metallic media from cables to pcb traces to chips. It includes numerous examples, pictures, tables, and wide-ranging discussion of the high-speed properties of transmission lines. This is not yet another book on the subject of ringing and crosstalk. It's about long, high-speed channels operating at the upper limits of speed and distance. EDN Magazine will feature and 1-1/2 page excerpt from Johnson's book each month, for seven months leading up to the book's publication.
High-Speed Signal Propagation: Advanced Black Magic brings together state-of-the-art techniques for building digital devices that can transmit faster and farther than ever before. Dr. Howard Johnson presents brand-new examples and design guidance, and a complete, unified theory of signal propagation for all metallic media. Coverage includes: understanding signal impairments; managing speed/distance tradeoffs; differential signaling; inter-cabinet connections; clock distribution; simulation, and much more.
About the Author
DR. HOWARD JOHNSON has accumulated 30years of experience in digital design, consulting withengineers all over the world. He is the featuredSignal Integrity columnist for EDN Magazine andChief Technical Editor of IEEE—02.3 standards for FastEthernet and Gigabit Ethernet. He frequently conductstechnical workshops for digital engineers at OxfordUniversity and other sites worldwide: www.sigcon.com.
DR. MARTIN GRAHAM is Professor Emeritus ofElectrical Engineering and Computer Sciences at theUniversity of California at Berkeley. He specializes inteaching the design of reliable and manufacturableelectronic systems.
Table of Contents
Glossary of Symbols.
Impedance of Linear, Time-Invariant, Lumped-Element Circuits. Power Ratios. Rules of Scaling. The Concept of Resonance. Extra for Experts: Maximal Linear System Response to a Digital Input.
2. Transmission Line Parameters.
Telegrapher's Equations. Derivation of Telegrapher's Equations. Ideal Transmission Line. DC Resistance. DC Conductance. Skin Effect. Skin-Effect Inductance. Modeling Internal Impedance. Concentric-Ring Skin-Effect Model. Proximity Effect. Surface Roughness. Dielectric Effects. Impedance in Series with the Return Path. Slow-Wave Mode On-Chip.
3. Performance Regions.
Signal Propagation Model. Hierarchy of Regions. Necessary Mathematics: Input Impedance and Transfer Function. Lumped-Element Region. RC Region. LC Region (Constant-Loss Region). Skin-Effect Region. Dielectric Loss Region. Waveguide Dispersion Region. Summary of Breakpoints Between Regions. Equivalence Principle for Transmission Media. Scaling Copper Transmission Media. Scaling Multimode Fiber-Optic Cables. Linear Equalization: Long Backplane Trace Example. Adaptive Equalization: Accelerant Networks Transceiver.
4. Frequency-Domain Modeling.
Going Nonlinear. Approximations to the Fourier Transform. Discrete Time Mapping. Other Limitations of the FFT. Normalizing the Output of an FFT Routine. Useful Fourier Transform-Pairs. Effect of Inadequate Sampling Rate. Implementation of Frequency-Domain Simulation. Embellishments. Checking the Output of Your FFT Routine.
5. Pcb (printed-circuit board) Traces.
Pcb Signal Propagation. Limits to Attainable Distance. Pcb Noise and Interference. Pcb Connectors. Modeling Vias. The Future of On-Chip Interconnections.
6. Differential Signaling.
Single-Ended Circuits. Two-Wire Circuits. Differential Signaling. Differential and Common-Mode Voltages and Currents. Differential and Common-Mode velocity. Common-Mode Balance. Common-Mode Range. Differential to Common-Mode Conversion. Differential Impedance. Pcb Configurations. Pcb Applications. Intercabinet Applications. LVDS Signaling.
7. Generic Building-Cabling Standards.
Generic Cabling Architecture. SNR Budgeting. Glossary of Cabling Terms. Preferred Cable Combinations. FAQ: Building-Cabling Practices. Crossover Wiring. Plenum-Rated Cables. Laying cables in an Uncooled Attic Space. FAQ: Older Cable Types.
8. 100-Ohm Balanced Twisted-Pair Cabling.
UTP Signal Propagation. UTP Transmission Example: 10BASE-T. UTP Noise and Interference. UTP Connectors. Issues with Screening. Category-3 UTP at Elevated Temperature.
9. 150-Ohm STP-A Cabling.
150-( STP-A Signal Propagation. 150-( STP-A Noise and Interference. 150-( STP-A: Skew. 150-( STP-A: Radiation and Safety. 150-( STP-A: Comparison with UTP. 150-( STP-A Connectors.
10. Coaxial Cabling.
Coaxial Signal Propagation. Coaxial Cable Noise and Interference. Coaxial Cable Connectors.
11. Fiber-Optic Cabling.
Making Glass Fiber. Finished Core Specifications. Cabling the Fiber. Wavelengths of Operation. Multimode Glass Fiber-Optic Cabling. Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Cabling.
12. Clock Distribution.
Extra Fries, Please. Arithmetic of Clock Skew. Clock Repeaters. Stripline vs. Microstrip Delay. Importance of Terminating Clock Lines. Effect of Clock Receiver Thresholds. Effect of Split Termination. Intentional Delay Adjustments. Driving Multiple Loads with Source Termination. Daisy-Chain Clock Distribution. The Jitters. Power Supply Filtering for Clock Sources, Repeaters, and PLL Circuits. Intentional Clock Modulation. Reduced-Voltage Signaling. Controlling Crosstalk on Clock Lines. Reducing Emissions.
13. Time-Domain Simulation Tools and Methods.
Ringing in a New Era. Signal Integrity Simulation Process. The Underlying Simulation Engine. IBIS (I/O Buffer Information Specification). IBIS: History and Future Direction. IBIS: Issues with Interpolation. IBIS: Issues with SSO Noise. Nature of EMC Work. Power and Ground Resonance.
Points to Remember.
Appendix A. Building a Signal Integrity Department.
Appendix B. Calculation of Loss Slope.
Appendix C. Two-Port Analysis.
Appendix D. Accuracy of Pi Model.
Appendix E. erf( ).