Synopses & Reviews
Between 1917 and 1941, Hollywood studios, gossip columnists and novelists featured an unprecedented number of homosexuals, cross-dressers, and adulterers in their depictions of the glamorous Hollywood lifestyle.
Actress Greta Garbo defined herself as the ultimate serial bachelorette. Screenwriter Mercedes De Acosta engaged in numerous lesbian relationships with the Hollywood elite. And countless homosexual designers brazenly picked up men in the hottest Hollywood nightclubs. Hollywood's image grew as a place of sexual abandon.
This book demonstrates how studios and the media used images of these sexually adventurous characters to promote the industry and appeal to the prurient interests of their audiences. Illustrations, notes, bibliography and index.
"In Hollywood Bohemians, Brett Abrams has provided all film historians with a brand new take on Hollywood. This social study should be must reading for all scholars. Rather than simplistic assertions, Abrams offers documents that will be new to all." Douglas Gomery, Professor of Journalism and Film Studies Emeritus, University of Maryland and author of Shared Pleases: A History of Movie Presentation In the United States and the Hollywood Studio System: A History
About the Author
Brett L. Abrams is an archivist with the National Archives and Records Administration, and author of Capital Sporting Grounds: A History of Stadium and Ballpark Construction in Washington, D.C., (McFarland, 2009).
Q: Who were the Hollywood Bohemians?
A: The bohemians were stars and other movie people who appeared as adulterers, gays and lesbians and cross-dressers in Hollywood movies and gossip. The movie industry used these figures to titillate audiences and make Hollywood appear unique and special during the 1920s and 1930s.
Q: Audiences recognized these images?
A: Absolutely. People wrote letters to gossip columnists Louella Parsons and Hedda Hopper telling them how beautiful Marlene Dietrich looked in pants. A letter from "Simon Pure" teased that William Randolph Hearst led such a pure life that he could contribute to the Legion of Decency's clean up the movies campaign by making a movie about his life that would star his mistress Marion Davies.
Q: Weren't most movie images and newspaper articles about adulterers and homosexuals back then highly negative?
A: Yeah, or movies made fun of homosexual males as sissies. But we are talking about Hollywood gays and lesbians were in the industry and a lot of them had high paying rewarding jobs and careers. So the novels and movies about Hollywood included them and usually showed them living positive lives.
Q: This made Hollywood different from every place else?
Q: Hollywood Bohemians put Hollywood on the far edge of what audiences could see in the pop culture of the day?
A: Exactly. You couldn't see happy and successful gays, lesbians and adulterers anywhere but Hollywood in novels, movies and the gossip columns. Mass media always wants to show what is cool and on the cutting edge. It attracts an audience and builds their reputation, both of which the movie business wanted. The film industry still wants these things.
Q: The bohemians pushed the envelope of what the culture would accept then?
A: Yes, they are the forerunners of today's highly sexualized celebrity images. The Hollywood Bohemians were at the beginning of the media linking a star and their sexual interests and behaviors. Their sexual behaviors were certainly on the edge, just like showing a married couple in bed was a breakthrough in the late 1960s.
Q: How did you find a publisher?
A: I pitched this book to 20 publishers over eight years before I received conditional acceptance from McFarland. My editor wanted me to find more bohemians.
Q: You must have succeeded?
A: I did. It improved the book a lot and I learned some surprising facts. For instance, I didn't know that the gossip columns mentioned Spencer Tracy and Loretta Young being an item. Tracy was married and this was before he started his long affair with Katharine Hepburn.
Q: Did anything you find really surprise you?
A: The material I found on Cary Grant and Randolph Scott floored me. A newspaper article after Grant divorced his first wife and Grant and Scott moved back into their Malibu Beach house was entitled "A Woman is only a Woman."
I'd seen the homoerotic photographs of the two sitting on a diving board in Kenneth Anger's book Hollywood Babylon when I went to the Academy of Motion Pictures Library in Beverly Hills and viewed their photograph collection. Paramount Studios owned the copyright to these homoerotic photographs. The last photograph of them is in the book. The two are on their patio with the Pacific Ocean rolling in the background. Grant has a cigarette dangling out of his mouth and Scott takes the tip of his cigarette and touches it against the edge of Grant's. A librarian was really skeptical about my project until I showed her that photograph and a Life magazine shot of Clark Gable and Carole Lombard where the caption said they were a delightful couple despite the fact that Gable was still married.