Synopses & Reviews
Many important right-wing political figures from the late nineteenth century and inter-war period have been over-shadowed in history by Nazi Germany and Adolf Hitler. Rebecca Haynes here assesses the careers of seventeen of the most important figures in right-wing politics in Central and Eastern Europe during this period and reveals the significance of leaders whose impact has been overlooked. Some of these were Nazi-sympathizers; others rejected German National Socialism in favor of rival nationalist and right-wing ideologies and programs. But all played a role in modern European political history that cannot be ignored. This book seeks to draw some of the leading right-wing politicians and thinkers in Central and Eastern Europe out from under Hitler's shadow.
"This book offers characterizations of sixteen 'personalities of the Right' from eight nations in Central and Eastern Europe, operating mainly between the wars. It provides an abundance of information, together with interpretive comments which are frequently illuminating. The large number and variety of case studies, including analyses of little known but intriguing figures like the Ustasha death squad leader Jure Francetic and the Hungarian exponent of anti-feminist, Cécile Tormay, allow general themes to develop. One is the autonomy and particularity of right-wing movements in the region which were not calques of the more famous fascist movements elsewhere in Europe, though these helped shape a climate receptive to anti-democratic ideas. Another concerns gradations on the Right between fascists, conservative authoritarians and those who subsequently expressed elements of repentance, a pattern not unfamiliar in the literature but where the careful mapping of psychology, ideology and conjuncture here supplied offers fresh perspectives. Two further themes are the sheer level of violence in the lives of several of the book's subjects, and the way in which traditional religion could provide organizational support for the Right and lend often pious radicals models for nationalist manifestations, martyrology and death cults. While the personalities in this book did feel their societies to be under threat, they were not modernist intellectuals. The challenges to which they reacted aggressively came from the massive disruption and violence of two world wars and from geopolitical upheavals posing specific problems, and provoking nationalism as a response. This is a well-conceived volume full of interesting material." - Robin Okey, Emeritus Professor of History, University of Warwick, UK
About the Author
Rebecca Haynes is Senior Lecturer in Romanian History at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, UK.
Martyn Rady is Professor of Central European History at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, UK.
Table of Contents
1. Political Modernization and the Cultural Production of 'Personalities of the Right' in Interwar Europe
2. Gabriele D'Annunzio: From Aestheticism to Anarchy: The Poet as Politician
3. 'From my point of view, I never ceased being a good Austrian!' The Ideology and Career of Edmund Glaise-Horstenau
4. A Scandinavian Erratic amidst the Ruins of Empires. The Finnish Case
5. Ion Antonescu: the Paradoxes of his Regime: Romania
6. The Christian Social Roots of Jozef Tiso's Radicalism
7. The Willing Bystanders: Dimitrije Ljoti?, 'Shield Collaboration' and the Destruction of Serbia's Jews
8. Founding Father of Modern Poland or Nationalist Anti-Semite? Roman Dmowski
9. The Czechoslovak Sphinx: 'Moderate and Reasonable Konrad Henlein'
10. Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
11. Cécile Tormay: A Gentlewoman in the Graveyard of the Hunchbacks
12. 'For Us, beloved Commander, You will never die!' Mourning Jure Franceti?, Ustasha Death Squad Leader
13. Theodor Fritsch: The 'Godfather' of German Anti-Semitism
14. Ferenc Szálasi, 'Hungarism' and the Arrow Cross
15. 'Leader' or 'Devil'? Milan Stojadinovi?, Prime Minister of Yugoslavia and his Ideology
16. Stepan Bandera: In Search of a Ukraine for the Ukrainians
17. Hitler's Hero: Georg von Schönerer and the Origins of Nazism
18. Gyula Gömbös: An Outsider's Attempt at Radical Reform